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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28816611/biosynthesis-regulation-of-natamycin-production-from-streptomyces-natalensis-hdmnte-01-enhanced-by-response-surface-methodology
#1
Jingping Ge, Changli Wang, Shoufeng Huang, Renpeng Du, Kun Liu, Gang Song, Wenxiang Ping
Natamycin has been widely applied in medical treatments and food protection widely due to its effective inhibition to the growth of yeast and mold. As polyene macrolide antibiotic, the biosynthesis pathway of natamycin is relatively clear. To regulate the biosynthesis of natamycin, additions of precursors affecting cell growth and natamycin production were investigated. The results showed that 0.003% (w/v) potassium ferrocyanide and sodium propionate: n-butanol at a ratio of 4:1 was added into the broth at 0 h and 24 h respectively and they contributed to yield natamycin, reaching 1...
August 17, 2017: Preparative Biochemistry & Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28816432/an-integrated-microsystem-for-real-time-detection-and-threshold-activated-treatment-of-bacterial-biofilms
#2
Sowmya Subramanian, Ekaterina I Tolstaya, Thomas Winkler, William E Bentley, Reza Ghodssi
Bacterial biofilms are the primary cause of infections in medical implants and catheters. Delayed detection of biofilm infections contributes to the widespread use of high doses of antibiotics, leading to the emergence of antibiotic-resistant bacterial strains. Accordingly, there is an urgent need for systems that can rapidly detect and treat biofilm infections in situ. As a step towards this goal, in this work we have developed for the first time a threshold-activated feedback-based impedance sensor-treatment system for combined real-time detection and treatment of biofilms...
August 17, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28814258/management-of-complicated-pneumonia-in-childhood-a-review-of-recent-literature
#3
John B Darby, Amrita Singh, Ricardo Quinonez
BACKGROUND: Despite declining rates of community acquired pneumonia (CAP) in children, complicated pneumonia has been on the rise in the last two decades. The management of complicated pneumonia is challenging and continues to be an area of investigation. Despite recently published guidelines, many gaps exist and recent studies attempt to answer challenging questions. OBJECTIVE: To review recently published literature to inform the clinician on the most up to date management of complicated pneumonia in children...
August 16, 2017: Reviews on Recent Clinical Trials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28814255/current-evidence-on-the-evaluation-and-management-of-fever-without-a-source-in-infants-aged-0-90-days-a-review
#4
Joyee G Vachani, Kenya McNeal-Trice, Sowdhamini S Wallace
BACKGROUND: Despite development of risk stratification tools decades ago, the best strategy for evaluation and management of young infants with fever without a clear source remains uncertain. OBJECTIVE: To describe the variability in current practice and review recently published evidence in three key areas: inflammatory markers as a tool for risk stratification, impact of viral testing, and optimal observation time on antibiotics. METHODS: Articles were identified using PubMed, Scopus, and Cochrane databases and via experts...
August 16, 2017: Reviews on Recent Clinical Trials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812924/susceptibility-testing-and-reporting-of-new-antibiotics-with-a-focus-on-tedizolid-an-international-working-group-report
#5
Mark H Wilcox, Natalia Dmitrieva, Ana Cristina Gales, Irina Petukhova, Suleiman Al-Obeid, Flavia Rossi, Joseph M Blondeau
Inappropriate use and overuse of antibiotics are among the most important factors in resistance development, and effective antibiotic stewardship measures are needed to optimize outcomes. Selection of appropriate antimicrobials relies on accurate and timely antimicrobial susceptibility testing. However, the availability of clinical breakpoints and in vitro susceptibility testing often lags behind regulatory approval by several years for new antimicrobials. A Working Group of clinical/medical microbiologists from Brazil, Canada, Mexico, Saudi Arabia, Russia and the UK recently examined issues surrounding antimicrobial susceptibility testing for novel antibiotics...
August 16, 2017: Future Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812723/the-unconstrained-evolution-of-fast-and-efficient-antibiotic-resistant-bacterial-genomes
#6
Carlos Reding-Roman, Mark Hewlett, Sarah Duxbury, Fabio Gori, Ivana Gudelj, Robert Beardmore
Evolutionary trajectories are constrained by trade-offs when mutations that benefit one life history trait incur fitness costs in other traits. As resistance to tetracycline antibiotics by increased efflux can be associated with an increase in length of the Escherichia coli chromosome of 10% or more, we sought costs of resistance associated with doxycycline. However, it was difficult to identify any because the growth rate (r), carrying capacity (K) and drug efflux rate of E. coli increased during evolutionary experiments where the species was exposed to doxycycline...
January 30, 2017: Nature ecology & evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811659/identification-synthesis-and-biological-activity-of-alkyl-guanidine-oligomers-as-potent-antibacterial-agents
#7
C Zamperini, G Maccari, D Deodato, C Pasero, I D'Agostino, F Orofino, F De Luca, E Dreassi, J D Docquier, M Botta
In the last two decades, the repertoire of clinically effective antibacterials is shrinking due to the rapidly increasing of multi-drug-resistant pathogenic bacteria. New chemical classes with innovative mode of action are required to prevent a return to the pre-antibiotic era. We have recently reported the identification of a series of linear guanidine derivatives and their antibacterial properties. A batch of a promising candidate for optimization studies (compound 1) turned out to be a mixture containing two unknown species with a better biological activity than the pure compound...
August 15, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811243/preserving-the-commons-addressing-the-sustainable-use-of-antibiotics-through-an-economic-lens
#8
REVIEW
C M Morel, S E Edwards, S Harbarth
BACKGROUND: As the growth of antibiotic resistance is in large part due to the widespread use of antibiotics, every effort must be made to ensure their sustainable use. AIMS: This narrative review aims to assess the potential contribution of health economic analyses to sustainable use efforts. SOURCES: The work draws on existing literature and experience with health economic tools. CONTENT: The study examines some of the weaknesses in the health, regulatory, and industry arenas that could be contributing to inappropriate or sub-optimal prescribing of antibiotics and describes how economic analysis could be utilized to improve current practice by comparing both costs and health outcomes in order to maximize societal wellbeing over the longer-term...
August 12, 2017: Clinical Microbiology and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28809501/microencapsulated-solid-lipid-nanoparticles-as-a-hybrid-platform-for-pulmonary-antibiotic-delivery
#9
Diana P Gaspar, Maria Manuela Gaspar, Carla V Eleutério, Ana Grenha, Mateo Blanco, Lídia M D Gonçalves, Pablo Taboada, António J Almeida, Carmen Remuñán-López
Solid lipid nanoparticles (SLN) containing rifabutin (RFB), with pulmonary administration purposes, were developed through a technique that avoids the use of organic solvents or sonication. To facilitate their pulmonary delivery, the RFB-loaded SLN were included in microspheres of appropriate size using suitable excipients (mannitol and trehalose) through a spray-drying technique. Confocal analysis microscopy showed that microspheres are spherical and that SLN are efficiently microencapsulated and homogeneously distributed throughout the microsphere matrices...
August 15, 2017: Molecular Pharmaceutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28808771/multicentre-controlled-randomized-clinical-trial-to-compare-the-efficacy-and-safety-of-ambulatory-treatment-of-mild-acute-diverticulitis-without-antibiotics-with-the-standard-treatment-with-antibiotics
#10
Laura Mora Lopez, Neus Ruiz-Edo, Sheila Serra Pla, Anna Pallisera Llovera, Salvador Navarro Soto, Xavier Serra-Aracil
PURPOSE: Acute diverticulitis (AD) is a highly prevalent disease in Spain. Its chronic-recurrent appearance and high rate of relapse mean that it has a major epidemiological and economic impact on our health system. In spite of this, it has not been studied in any great depth. Reassessing its etiopathology, recent studies have observed that it is an inflammatory disease-not, as classic theories had postulated, an infectious one. In the light of these findings, the suitability of antibiotics for its treatment has been reconsidered...
August 14, 2017: International Journal of Colorectal Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28807918/relationships-of-vancomycin-pharmacokinetics-to-body-size-and-composition-by-computed-tomography-analysis-a-novel-pharmacomorphomic-approach
#11
Manjunath P Pai, Brian A Derstine, Matt Lichty, Brian E Ross, June Sullivan, Grace L Su, Stewart C Wang
Antibiotics such as vancomycin are empirically dosed on body weight, which may not be optimal across the expanding adult body size distribution. Our aim was to compare the relationships between morphomic parameters generated from computed tomography images to conventional body size metrics as predictors of vancomycin pharmacokinetics (PK). This single center retrospective study included 300 patients with 1622 vancomycin concentration (52% trough) measurements. Bayesian estimation was used to compute individual vancomycin volume of distribution of the central compartment (Vc) and clearance (CL)...
August 14, 2017: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28807840/the-heterologous-expression-strategies-of-antimicrobial-peptides-in-microbial-systems
#12
REVIEW
Ting Deng, Haoran Ge, Huahua He, Yao Liu, Chao Zhai, Liang Feng, Li Yi
Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) consist of molecules acting on the defense systems of numerous organisms toward tumor and multiple pathogens, such as bacteria, fungi, viruses, and parasites. Compared to traditional antibiotics, AMPs are more stable and have lower propensity for developing resistance through functioning in the innate immune system, thus having important applications in the fields of medicine, food and so on. However, despite of their high economic values, the low yield and the cumbersome extraction process in AMPs production are problems that limit their industrial application and scientific research...
August 11, 2017: Protein Expression and Purification
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28807478/role-of-lipid-mediators-in-the-regulation-of-oxidative-stress-and-inflammatory-responses-in-dairy-cattle
#13
REVIEW
Vengai Mavangira, Lorraine M Sordillo
Periparturient dairy cows experience an increased incidence and severity of several inflammatory-based diseases such as mastitis and metritis. Factors associated with the physiological adaptation to the onset of lactation can impact the efficiency of the inflammatory response at a time when it is most needed to eliminate infectious pathogens that cause these economically important diseases. Oxidative stress, for example, occurs when there is an imbalance between the production of oxygen radicals during periods of high metabolic demand and the reduced capabilities of the host's antioxidant defenses...
August 2, 2017: Research in Veterinary Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28806686/simultaneous-determination-of-16-macrolide-antibiotics-and-4-metabolites-in-milk-by-using-quick-easy-cheap-effective-rugged-and-safe-extraction-quechers-and-high-performance-liquid-chromatography-tandem-mass-spectrometry
#14
Weie Zhou, Yun Ling, Tong Liu, Yuan Zhang, Jianzhi Li, Hongna Li, Wenjie Wu, Shoujun Jiang, Feng Feng, Fei Yuan, Feng Zhang
A novel analytical method was developed and validated for simultaneous analysis of 16 macrolide antibiotics and 4 metabolites in milk. A modified quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged, and safe extraction method (QuEChERS) optimized by response surface methodology (RSM) was used for sample preparation. All the drugs were subsequently separated and detected by high performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS), using roxithromycin as internal standards for maximum accuracy and precision...
August 5, 2017: Journal of Chromatography. B, Analytical Technologies in the Biomedical and Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28802758/impact-of-rapid-identification-of-staphylococcus-aureus-bloodstream-infection-without-antimicrobial-stewardship-intervention-on-antibiotic-optimization-and-clinical-outcomes
#15
R Brigg Turner, Karineh Lalikian, Madeline Fry, Jacqueline Schwartz, Dominic Chan, Regina Won
Few studies have evaluated the clinical impact of polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for Staphylococcus aureus bloodstream infections in resource-limited settings that lack direct antimicrobial stewardship intervention. This retrospective cohort study compared patients with standard microbiological identification (n=343) to those with additional identification by (PCR) (n=130). Time to initiation of optimal therapy was similar between groups but substantially shorter in the PCR group for those infected with methicillin susceptible S...
July 8, 2017: Diagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28797875/success-rates-characteristics-and-costs-of-articulating-antibiotic-spacers-for-total-knee-periprosthetic-joint-infection
#16
Scott R Nodzo, Keely K Boyle, Sara Spiro, Allina A Nocon, Andy O Miller, Geoffrey H Westrich
BACKGROUND: The optimal type, characteristics, and success rates of articulating antibiotic spacers used during total knee arthroplasty (TKA) periprosthetic joint infection (PJI) have not been well defined in a single series. We sought to (1) determine the success rate for three unique spacer constructs and (2) evaluate any microbiological, surgical, or patient characteristics that would influence the success rate. METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed patients who underwent a two-stage exchange for a TKA PJI with a prefabricated spacer (PREFAB), home-made mold (MOLD), or autoclaved femoral component (AUTOCL)...
August 8, 2017: Knee
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28797245/fungal-biomarker-discovery-by-integration-of-classifiers
#17
João Pedro Saraiva, Marcus Oswald, Antje Biering, Daniela Röll, Cora Assmann, Tilman Klassert, Markus Blaess, Kristin Czakai, Ralf Claus, Jürgen Löffler, Hortense Slevogt, Rainer König
BACKGROUND: The human immune system is responsible for protecting the host from infection. However, in immunocompromised individuals the risk of infection increases substantially with possible drastic consequences. In extreme, systemic infection can lead to sepsis which is responsible for innumerous deaths worldwide. Amongst its causes are infections by bacteria and fungi. To increase survival, it is mandatory to identify the type of infection rapidly. Discriminating between fungal and bacterial pathogens is key to determine if antifungals or antibiotics should be administered, respectively...
August 10, 2017: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28796736/surgical-site-infection-in-colorectal-surgery-a-study-in-antibiotic-duration
#18
Mark Dornfeld, Jenna K Lovely, Marianne Huebner, David W Larson
BACKGROUND: Despite distant historical studies that demonstrated the adequacy of preoperative antibiotic prophylaxis, current surgical practice continues to use antibiotics for postoperative coverage up to 24 hours. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to evaluate a change in antibiotic prophylaxis duration and its effect on surgical site infection in a high-volume modern colorectal practice. DESIGN: A case-controlled series retrospectively reviewed outcomes through a prospective validated data base...
September 2017: Diseases of the Colon and Rectum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28790832/combination-of-sofosbuvir-and-daclatasvir-in-the-treatment-of-genotype-3-chronic-hepatitis-c-virus-infection-in-patients-on-maintenance-hemodialysis
#19
Jan Sperl, Sona Frankova, Miluse Kreidlova, Dusan Merta, Monika Tothova, Julius Spicak
Chronic hepatitis C virus infection (HCV) has a negative impact on the long-term survival of recipients of kidney transplants. HCV should be treated in hemodialyzed patients before their enlistment for kidney transplantation in order to avoid the reactivation of virus after transplantation. Direct-acting antivirals represent the current standard of care in hemodialyzed patients with HCV genotypes 1 and 4; in patients with genotypes 2 or 3, the optimal regimen is yet to be established. Sofosbuvir (SOF) and daclatasvir (DCV) represent an antiviral pangenotypic regimen with favorable pharmacokinetics in hemodialyzed patients...
2017: Therapeutics and Clinical Risk Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28790283/-postoperative-atelectasis-and-pneumonia-after-general-thoracic-surgery
#20
Yasushi Hoshikawa, Daisuke Tochii
Atelectasis and pneumonia are common postoperative complications occurred in patients undergoing general thoracic surgery. Strategies to reduce the risk of postoperative pulmonary complications including these 2 disorders consist of smoking cessation, optimization of underlying chronic obstructive pulmonary disease( COPD), adequate pain control, intensive oral care, and so on. Preoperative treatments for patients with COPD are the same as those for COPD patients being not about to have surgery, which mainly consist of long-acting bronchodilators and pulmonary rehabilitation...
July 2017: Kyobu Geka. the Japanese Journal of Thoracic Surgery
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