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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27933586/preparation-and-optimization-of-meropenem-loaded-solid-lipid-nanoparticles-in-vitro-evaluation-and-molecular-modeling
#1
Ellen K G Mhango, Rahul S Kalhapure, Mahantesh Jadhav, Sandeep J Sonawane, Chunderika Mocktar, Suresh Vepuri, Mahmoud Soliman, Thirumala Govender
Encapsulation of antibiotics into nanocarriers has the potential to overcome resistance and disadvantages associated with conventional dosage forms as well as increase half-life of an antibiotic. Encapsulation of meropenem (MRPN) into solid lipid nanoparticles (SLNs) remains unexplored among the limited work reported on nanoformulation incorporating MRPN. The study aimed to use an experimental design, to optimize MRPN-loaded SLNs, and to undertake in vitro and in silico evaluations. A Box-Behnken design (BBD) was used to optimize manufacturing conditions of glycerol monostearate (GMS) SLNs loaded with MRPN...
December 8, 2016: AAPS PharmSciTech
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27933228/who-inrud-prescribing-indicators-and-prescribing-trends-of-antibiotics-in-the-accident-and-emergency-department-of-bahawal-victoria-hospital-pakistan
#2
Muhammad Atif, Muhammad Azeem, Muhammad Rehan Sarwar, Samia Shahid, Sidra Javaid, Huria Ikram, Uzma Baig, Shane Scahill
A descriptive, retrospective and cross sectional study was conducted to assess the prescribing practices and antibiotic use patterns in the Accident and Emergency department of the Bahawal Victoria Hospital, Bahawalpur, Pakistan. A sample of 4320 prescriptions (systematic random sampling) was drawn out of a total of 1,080,000 prescriptions written during the period 1st January-31st December 2014. The standard World Health Organization/International Network for Rational Use of Drugs prescribing indicators were used to determine the prescribing practices of physicians...
2016: SpringerPlus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27931213/assessment-of-core-drug-use-indicators-using-who-inrud-methodology-at-primary-healthcare-centers-in-bahawalpur-pakistan
#3
Muhammad Atif, Muhammad Rehan Sarwar, Muhammad Azeem, Mubeen Naz, Salma Amir, Kashaf Nazir
BACKGROUND: Proper utilization of medicines is a critical component of pharmaceutical care plan. The aim of this study was to assess drug use pattern at ten primary healthcare centers (PHCCs) of the Bahawalpur district of the Punjab province of Pakistan by employing the WHO/INRUD core drug use indicators. METHODS: This was a descriptive, non-experimental and cross-sectional study. For the prescribing indicators, 1000 prescriptions (100 prescriptions per PHCC) were systematically sampled out of the total 290,000 prescriptions written during January to December 2014...
December 8, 2016: BMC Health Services Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27930584/risk-of-infection-is-associated-more-with-drain-duration-than-daily-drainage-volume-in-prosthesis-based-breast-reconstruction-a-cohort-study
#4
Cheng-Feng Chen, Shou-Fong Lin, Chen-Fang Hung, Pesus Chou
In prosthesis-based breast reconstruction, drains are used to prevent seroma formation and to reduce the risk of infection. However, prolonged drainage increases the risk of ascending infection. Although the volume often accepted for drain removal is ≤30 mL per day, the optimal timing to remove the drain for best clinical outcome remains controversial.We did a retrospective cohort study of 569 patients of prosthesis-based breast reconstruction with infection rate as the outcome variable; drain duration and last daily drainage volume as the main independent variables...
December 2016: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27928186/implementation-of-a-pharmacist-directed-antimicrobial-stewardship-protocol-utilizing-rapid-diagnostic-testing
#5
Angel Heyerly, Ron Jones, Gordon Bokhart, Mary Shoaff, Douglas Fisher
Background: Rapid identification of gram-positive bacteria and resistance determinants from blood cultures can reduce the time to optimal antibiotic therapy. Objective: This study evaluates the use of technology to rapidly identify gram-positive bacteria in combination with a pharmacist-directed antimicrobial stewardship protocol in a tertiary-care facility. Methods: Rapid diagnostic testing was performed on gram-positive blood cultures. Pharmacists were instructed to notify prescribers of results and recommend appropriate antimicrobial therapy based on targeted treatment chart...
November 2016: Hospital Pharmacy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27927925/the-emergence-of-mmpt5-variants-during-bedaquiline-treatment-of-mycobacterium-intracellulare-lung-disease
#6
David C Alexander, Ravikiran Vasireddy, Sruthi Vasireddy, Julie V Philley, Barbara A Brown-Elliott, Benjamin Perry, David E Griffith, Jeana L Benwill, Andrew D S Cameron, Richard J Wallace
Bedaquiline (BDQ), a diarylquinoline antibiotic that targets ATP synthase, is effective for treatment of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) infections that no longer respond to conventional drugs. While investigating the off-label use of BDQ as salvage therapy, seven of thirteen patients with Mycobacterium intracellulare lung disease had an initial microbiological response, then relapsed. Whole genome comparison of pre-treatment and relapse isolates of M. intracellulare uncovered mutations in a previously uncharacterized locus, mmpT5 Preliminary analysis suggested similarities between mmpT5 and the mmpR5 locus, which is associated with low-level BDQ resistance in MTB...
December 7, 2016: Journal of Clinical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27927861/what-is-the-more-effective-antibiotic-stewardship-intervention-pre-prescription-authorization-or-post-prescription-review-with-feedback
#7
Pranita D Tamma, Edina Avdic, John F Keenan, Yuan Zhao, Gobind Anand, James Cooper, Rebecca Dezube, Steven Hsu, Sara E Cosgrove
BACKGROUND: The optimal approach to conducting antibiotic stewardship interventions has not been defined. We compared days of antibiotic therapy (DOT) using pre-prescription authorization (PPA) versus post-prescription review with feedback (PPRF) strategies. METHODS: A quasi-experimental, crossover trial comparing PPA and PPRF for adult inpatients prescribed any antibiotic was conducted. For the first four months, two medicine teams were assigned to the PPA arm and the other two teams to the PPRF arm...
December 7, 2016: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27926430/insights-in-waste-management-bioprocesses-using-genomic-tools
#8
H J Purohit, A Kapley, A Khardenavis, A Qureshi, N A Dafale
Microbial capacities drive waste stabilization and resource recovery in environmental friendly processes. Depending on the composition of waste, a stress-mediated selection process ensures a scenario that generates a specific enrichment of microbial community. These communities dynamically change over a period of time while keeping the performance through the required utilization capacities. Depending on the environmental conditions, these communities select the appropriate partners so as to maintain the desired functional capacities...
2016: Advances in Applied Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27925657/population-pharmacokinetics-of-cefazolin-in-serum-and-adipose-tissue-from-overweight-and-obese-women-undergoing-cesarean-delivery
#9
Mordechai Grupper, Joseph L Kuti, Morgan L Swank, Lindsay Maggio, Brenna L Hughes, David P Nicolau
The optimal antibiotic prophylaxis dosing regimen of cefazolin for cesarean delivery (CD) in overweight and obese women is unknown. This study was done to compare the duration that cefazolin concentrations remain above the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) in adipose tissue (AT). Serum and AT concentrations from 3 previous studies in CD patients were comodeled using the nonparametric adaptive grid algorithm in Pmetrics. AT concentrations for 5000 overweight and obese patients receiving 1-, 2-, and 3-g cefazolin regimens were simulated to calculate the probability that free drug concentrations remained above an MIC of 2 μg/mL at 1, 1...
December 7, 2016: Journal of Clinical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27923215/timing-of-antibiotic-prophylaxis-for-preventing-surgical-site-infections-in-foot-and-ankle-surgery
#10
Direk Tantigate, Eugene Jang, Mani Seetharaman, Peter C Noback, A M Heijne, Justin K Greisberg, J Turner Vosseller
BACKGROUND: Surgical site infections (SSIs) are one of the most troublesome complications after foot and ankle surgery. Previous literature has emphasized the significance of appropriate timing of antibiotic prophylaxis. However, the optimal timing of antibiotic prophylaxis for SSI prevention is still inconclusive. Our study aimed to investigate the optimal timing of antibiotic administration and to elucidate the risk factors for SSIs in foot and ankle surgery. METHODS: A retrospective review of 1933 foot and ankle procedures in 1632 patients from January 1, 2011, through August 31, 2015, was performed...
October 23, 2016: Foot & Ankle International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27921442/nebulized-antibiotics-in-mechanically-ventilated-patients-roadmap-and-challenges
#11
G Poulakou, G Siakallis, S Tsiodras, A Arfaras Melainis, G Dimopoulos
Nebulized antibiotics use has become common practice in the therapeutics of pneumonia in cystic fibrosis patients. There is an increasing interest in their use for respiratory infections in mechanically ventilated (MV) patients in order to a) overcome pharmacokinetic issues in the lung compartment with traditional systemic antibiotic use and b) prevent the emergence of multi-drug-resistant (MDR) pathogens. Areas covered: The beneficial effects of antibiotic nebulization in MV patients e.g. increasing efficacy, reduced toxicity and prevention of resistance are described...
December 6, 2016: Expert Review of Anti-infective Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27920421/a-missing-guide-wire-after-placement-of-peripherally-inserted-central-venous-catheter
#12
Muhammad Kashif, Hafiz Hashmi, Preeti Jadhav, Misbahuddin Khaja
BACKGROUND Central venous catheterization is a common tool used in critically ill patients to monitor central venous pressure and administer fluids and medications such as vasopressors. Here we present a case of a missing guide wire after placement of peripherally inserted central catheter (PICC), which was incidentally picked up by bedside ultrasound in the intensive care unit.  CASE REPORT A 50-year-old Hispanic male was admitted to the intensive care unit for alcohol intoxication. He was managed for septic shock and required placement of a peripherally inserted central line in his left upper extremity for antibiotics and vasopressor administration...
December 6, 2016: American Journal of Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27917707/management-of-pneumonia-in-the-pediatric-critical-care-unit-an-area-for-antimicrobial-stewardship
#13
Aimee M Dassner, David P Nicolau, Jennifer E Girotto
Pediatric pneumonia is one of the most common causes of childhood infection requiring hospitalization and is a substantial driver of antimicrobial use among hospitalized children. About 12-20% of pediatric patients hospitalized with community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) require critical care. Additionally, nosocomial pneumonias (i.e. hospital-acquired and ventilator-associated pneumonias) are responsible for 15-53% of hospital-associated infections and are the most common indication for empiric antibiotics in the pediatric intensive care unit...
December 4, 2016: Current Pediatric Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27917692/once-daily-high-dose-tigecycline-pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic-based-dosing-for-optimal-clinical-effectiveness-dosing-matters-revisited
#14
Burke A Cunha, Jeffrey Baron, Cheston B Cunha
Tigecycline has emerged as first line therapy for serious systemic infections due to important pathogens (except P. aeruginosa and Proteus sp.), including multi-drug resistant (MDR) and Gram negative bacilli (GNB), including carbapenem resistant Enterobacteriae. Tigecycline has a "low resistance potential," is protective against C. difficile, and is often the only antibiotic effective against MDR GNB, e.g., Klebsiella sp. Areas covered: Standard dose tigecycline therapy has been used for intra-abdominal infections, complicated skin/skin structure infections (cSSSIs), and CAP...
December 3, 2016: Expert Review of Anti-infective Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27917366/penicillin-acylase-catalyzed-synthesis-of-n-bromoacetyl-7-aminocephalosporanic-acid-the-key-intermediate-for-the-production-of-cefathiamidine
#15
Xiao-Li Zhang, Min-Hua Zong, Ning Li
BACKGROUND: Enzymatic approaches have become promising alternatives to chemical methods for the production of semi-synthetic β-lactam antibiotics. In this work, enzymatic synthesis of N-bromoacetyl-7-aminocephalosporanic acid (N-bromoacetyl-7-ACA), the key intermediate for the production of cefathiamidine, was reported for the first time. RESULTS: Of the immobilized penicillin acylases (PAs) tested, PGA-750 was the best biocatalyst. Optimization of the biocatalytic process was conducted...
2016: Bioresources and Bioprocessing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914333/nano-zinc-oxide-incorporated-graphene-oxide-nanocellulose-composite-for-the-adsorption-and-photo-catalytic-degradation-of-ciprofloxacin-hydrochloride-from-aqueous-solutions
#16
T S Anirudhan, J R Deepa
Purpose of this study is to report the synthetic procedure of a novel photo catalyst, nano zinc oxide incorporated graphene oxide/nanocellulose (ZnO-GO/NC) for the effective adsorption and subsequent photo degradation of ciprofloxacin (CF), an antibiotic widely used in the poultry. Self cleaning property in cellulose was achieved by introducing a nano zinc oxide incorporated graphene oxide into nanocellulose (NC) matrix. By incorporating nano zinc oxide (ZnO) in graphene oxide (GO), band gap could be tuned to 2...
November 17, 2016: Journal of Colloid and Interface Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911257/individualized-antibiotic-therapy-in-patients-with-ventilator-associated-pneumonia
#17
Gurdal Yilmaz, Sedat Saylan, Firdevs Aksoy, Iftihar Koksal
The optimal duration of treatment of ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) is still the subject of debate. While 1-week treatment has been reported as possibly sufficient, patients generally receive antibiotic therapy for 10-14 days. The purpose of our study was to investigate whether length of treatment in patients with VAP can be reduced with an individualized therapeutic strategy. The study was performed prospectively with patients diagnosed with VAP in our hospital's intensive care units between 1 January and 31 December, 2015...
December 1, 2016: Journal of Medical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27910000/a-review-of-experimental-and-off-label-therapies-for-clostridium-difficile-infection
#18
REVIEW
Csaba Fehér, Alex Soriano, Josep Mensa
In spite of increased awareness and the efforts taken to optimize Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) management, with the limited number of currently available antibiotics for C. difficile the halt of this increasing epidemic remains out of reach. There are, however, close to 80 alternative treatment methods with controversial anti-clostridial efficacy or in experimental phase today. Indeed, some of these therapies are expected to become acknowledged members of the recommended anti-CDI arsenal within the next few years...
December 1, 2016: Infectious Diseases and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27908336/appropriate-antibiotic-therapy
#19
REVIEW
Michael G Allison, Emily L Heil, Bryan D Hayes
Prescribing antibiotics is an essential component of initial therapy in sepsis. Early antibiotics are an important component of therapy, but speed of administration should not overshadow the patient-specific characteristics that determine the optimal breadth of antimicrobial therapy. Cultures should be drawn before antibiotic therapy if it does not significantly delay administration. Combination antibiotic therapy against gram-negative infections is not routinely required, and combination therapy involving vancomycin and piperacillin/tazobactam is associated with an increase in acute kidney injury...
February 2017: Emergency Medicine Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27907030/sensitive-and-simplified-detection-of-antibiotic-influence-on-the-dynamic-and-versatile-changes-of-fecal-short-chain-fatty-acids
#20
Xiaoya Zhao, Zhenzuo Jiang, Fan Yang, Yan Wang, Xiumei Gao, Yuefei Wang, Xin Chai, Guixiang Pan, Yan Zhu
Short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs), produced by anaerobic fermentation of mainly indigestible dietary carbohydrates by gut microbiota, have a profound influence on intestinal function and host energy metabolism. Antibiotics may seriously disturb the balance of fecal SCFAs. To evaluate the impacts of antibiotics on fecal SCFAs produced by gut microbiota, a simple, reproducible and accurate gas chromatography (GC) method, which can simultaneously analyze seven SCFAs in fecal samples, was developed and validated...
2016: PloS One
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