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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29774049/bioreactor-microbial-ecosystems-with-differentiated-methanogenic-phenol-biodegradation-and-competitive-metabolic-pathways-unraveled-with-genome-resolved-metagenomics
#1
Feng Ju, Yubo Wang, Tong Zhang
Background: Methanogenic biodegradation of aromatic compounds depends on syntrophic metabolism. However, metabolic enzymes and pathways of uncultured microorganisms and their ecological interactions with methanogenic consortia are unknown because of their resistance to isolation and limited genomic information. Results: Genome-resolved metagenomics approaches were used to reconstruct and dissect 23 prokaryotic genomes from 37 and 20 °C methanogenic phenol-degrading reactors...
2018: Biotechnology for Biofuels
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29771856/vitamin-e-phosphate-coating-stimulates-bone-deposition-in-implant-related-infections-in-a-rat-model
#2
Arianna B Lovati, Marta Bottagisio, Susanna Maraldi, Martina B Violatto, Monica Bortolin, Elena De Vecchi, Paolo Bigini, Lorenzo Drago, Carlo L Romanò
BACKGROUND: Implant-related infections are associated with impaired bone healing and osseointegration. In vitro antiadhesive and antibacterial properties and in vivo antiinflammatory effects protecting against bone loss of various formulations of vitamin E have been demonstrated in animal models. However, to the best of our knowledge, no in vivo studies have demonstrated the synergistic activity of vitamin E in preventing bacterial adhesion to orthopaedic implants, thus supporting the bone-implant integration...
June 2018: Clinical Orthopaedics and related Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29769277/rapid-screening-of-urinary-tract-infection-and-discrimination-of-gram-positive-and-gram-negative-bacteria-by-automated-flow-cytometric-analysis-using-sysmex-uf-5000
#3
Seon Young Kim, Yumi Park, Hyunjin Kim, Jimyung Kim, Sun Hoe Koo, Gye Cheol Kwon
Rapid screening of urinary tract infection is important to determine antibiotic treatment and reduce unnecessary urine culture. We evaluated the performance of the new flow cytometry-based UF-5000 automated urine analyzer (Sysmex, Kobe, Japan). A total of 1,430 urine samples from 1,226 patients were analyzed and compared with urine cultures to which a Previ Isola (bioMérieux, Marcy l'Etoile, France) system was applied. In total, 878 of 1,430 urine cultures (61.4%) produced ≥ 103 CFU/mL bacterial growth [lsqb]309 with Gram-negative (GN) bacteria, 517 with Gram-positive (GP) bacteria, and 52 mixed cultures[rsqb], with 336 samples (23...
May 16, 2018: Journal of Clinical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29767298/-complications-and-side-effects-of-conservative-treatment-of-rhinological-diseases
#4
REVIEW
I Küster, C Rudack, A Beule
BACKGROUND: The spectrum of rhinological diseases is wide, as is that of their drug-based treatment. Only 1272 compounds coded R01 (nasal preparations) are listed in the ATC group (Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical Classification). Conservative therapy of rhinological diseases additionally includes systemic (often oral) application of corticosteroids, antibiotics and immunomodulators. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this paper is to outline possible complications of medication (subdivided into classes of ingredients) commonly used to treat rhinological diseases in hospitals...
May 16, 2018: HNO
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29767154/husbandry-practices-and-gut-health-outcomes-in-weaned-piglets-a-review
#5
REVIEW
Balachandar Jayaraman, Charles M Nyachoti
The immediate post-weaning period is one of the most stressful phases in a pig's life, and during this period, piglets are usually exposed to environmental, social and psychological stressors which have direct or indirect effects on gut health and overall growth performance. In this review, the impact of husbandry practices on gut health outcomes and performance of piglets is discussed. Husbandry practices in the swine barn generally include nutrition and management practices, maintenance of hygienic standards and disease prevention protocols, and animal welfare considerations...
September 2017: Animal nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29766932/prognostic-value-of-cerebrospinal-fluid-lactate-in-meningitis-in-postoperative-neurosurgical-patients
#6
A S Sumanth Kumar, Barada Prasad Sahu, Ashish Kumar
Objective: To evaluate the prognostic usefulness of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) lactate in postoperative bacterial meningitis (POBM) and to establish the optimal CSF lactate cut-off values in our population to identify POBM in neurosurgical patients. Patients and Methods: A prospective study of postoperative neurosurgical patients with presumed and established bacterial meningitis in the Department of Neurosurgery, NIMS, Hyderabad, India, from September 2012 to December 2014...
May 2018: Neurology India
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29766208/-adequate-anti-infective-treatment-importance-of-individual-dosing-and-application
#7
A Brinkmann, A C Röhr, A Köberer, T Fuchs, W A Krüger, C König, D Richter, M A Weigand, O R Frey
Sepsis-induced changes in pharmacokinetic parameters are a well-known problem in intensive care medicine. Dosing of antibiotics in this setting is therefore challenging. Alterations to the substance-specific kinetics of anti-infective substances have an effect on the distribution and excretion processes in the body. Increased clearance and an increased distribution volume (Vd ) and particularly compromized organ function with reduced antibiotic elimination are often encountered in patients with sepsis. Renal replacement treatment, which is frequently used in intensive care medicine, represents a substantial intervention in this system...
May 15, 2018: Der Anaesthesist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29765241/prevalence-of-antibiotic-prescription-in-southern-italian-outpatients-real-world-data-analysis-of-socioeconomic-and-sociodemographic-variables-at-a-municipality-level
#8
Veronica Russo, Valeria Marina Monetti, Francesca Guerriero, Ugo Trama, Antonella Guida, Enrica Menditto, Valentina Orlando
Purpose: The aim of this study was to analyze the geographic variation in systemic antibiotic prescription at a regional level and to explore the influence of socioeconomic and sociodemographic variables. Methods: This study was a retrospective analysis of reimbursement pharmacy records in the outpatient settings of Italy's Campania Region in 2016. Standardized antibiotic prescription rates were calculated at municipality and Local Health Unit (LHU) level. Antibiotic consumption was analyzed as defined daily doses (DDD)/1000 inhabitants per day (DID)...
2018: ClinicoEconomics and Outcomes Research: CEOR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29765079/determination-of-flumequine-enantiomers-and-7-hydroxyflumequine-in-water-and-sediment-by-chiral-hplc-coupled-with-hybrid-quadrupole-time-of-flight-mass-spectrometer
#9
Moyong Xue, Yuchang Qin, Xu Gu, Junguo Li, Yunfeng Gao, Xiaowei Yang, Ting Yao, Zhen Zhao
A liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometric (LC-MS/MS) method for simultaneous enantiomeric analysis of flumequine and its metabolite 7-hydroxyflumequine in water and sediment had been developed based on the separation method. Sediment samples were extracted with ACN and EDTA-Mcllvaine buffer solution (40:60, v/v) then were enriched and cleaned-up by Cleanert PEP solid-phase extraction cartridges. The extract solvent, solid cartridges, mobile phase ratios, and chiral separation column were all optimized to reach high sensitivity and selectivity, good peak shape, and satisfactory resolution...
May 15, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29761668/a-mechanism-based-disease-progression-model-describing-host-pathogen-interactions-during-the-pathogenesis-of-acinetobacter-baumannii-pneumonia
#10
John K Diep, Thomas A Russo, Gauri G Rao
The emergence of highly resistant bacteria is a serious threat to global public health. The host immune response is vital for clearing bacteria from the infected host; however, the current drug development paradigm does not take host-pathogen interactions into consideration. Here, we used a systems-based approach to develop a quantitative, mechanism-based disease progression model to describe bacterial dynamics, host immune response, and lung injury in an immunocompetent rat pneumonia model. Previously, Long-Evans rats were infected with A...
May 15, 2018: CPT: Pharmacometrics & Systems Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29759235/rapid-microbiological-methods-rmms-for-evaluating-the-activity-of-cephalosporin-antibiotics-employing-triphenyltetrazolium-chloride
#11
Alessandro Morais Saviano, Felipe Rebello Lourenço
Agar diffusion method has been used to evaluate antimicrobial activity since the discovery of penicillin. Nevertheless, little progress has occurred in reducing the time required to determine growth inhibition zones. The aim of this work was to develop, optimize and validate rapid microbiological methods (RMMs) for cephalosporin antibiotics using triphenyltetrazolium chloride (TTC) to reduce the incubation time of the assays. Through a factorial design in which the inoculum suspension, incubation time, and percentage of the TTC solution were varied, it was possible to validate the RMMs for cefazolin, cefuroxime, ceftriaxone, and cefepime...
August 1, 2018: Talanta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29758310/chemical-synthesis-and-characterization-of-chitosan-silver-nanocomposites-films-and-their-potential-antibacterial-activity
#12
Aamna Shah, Izhar Hussain, Ghulam Murtaza
This study provides the optimum preparation parameters for functional chitosan silver nanocomposite (CSN) films with promising antibacterial efficacy though prepared with very low silver nitrate (AgNO3 ) concentration. Chitosan nano‑silver composites were fabricated by In-situ chemical method utilizing the reducing ability of sodium borohydride (NaBH4 ) and afterward casted into films. Utilization of response surface methodology, NCSS, and SigmaPlot for the optimization of CSN and their predicted antibacterial efficacy assessment of the selected bacterial strains (standard and clinical) was the essential part of the study...
May 11, 2018: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29757387/e-learning-on-antibiotic-prescribing-the-role-of-autonomous-motivation-in-participation-a-prospective-cohort-study
#13
Martine G Caris, Jonne J Sikkens, Rashmi A Kusurkar, Michiel A van Agtmael
Objectives: E-learning is increasingly used in education on antimicrobial stewardship, but participation rates are often low. Insight into factors that affect participation is therefore needed. Autonomous motivation is associated with higher achievements in medical education and could also play a role in e-learning participation. We therefore aimed to investigate the role of residents' autonomous motivation in their participation in e-learning on antibiotic prescribing. Methods: We performed a multicentre cohort study in two academic and two teaching hospitals...
May 10, 2018: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29756762/molecular-properties-that-define-the-activities-of-antibiotics-in-escherichia-coli-and-pseudomonas-aeruginosa
#14
Sarah J Cooper, Ganesh Krishnamoorthy, David Wolloscheck, John K Walker, Valentin V Rybenkov, Jerry M Parks, Helen I Zgurskaya
The permeability barrier of Gram-negative cell envelopes is the major obstacle in the discovery and development of new antibiotics. In Gram-negative bacteria, these difficulties are exacerbated by the synergistic interaction between two biochemically distinct phenomena, the low permeability of the outer membrane (OM) and active multidrug efflux. In this study, we used Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Escherichia coli strains with controllable permeability barriers-achieved through hyperporination of the OMs and varied efflux capacities-to evaluate the contributions of each of the barriers to protection from antibacterials...
May 14, 2018: ACS Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29753454/response-of-a-local-hospital-to-a-burn-disaster-contributory-factors-leading-to-zero-mortality-outcomes
#15
Eng-Kean Yeong, Ciaran P O'Boyle, Hui-Fu Huang, Hao-Chih Tai, Yen-Chun Hsu, Shu-Yang Chuang, Yu-Feng Wu, Che-Wei Chang, Tom J Liu, Hong-Shiee Lai
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the outcomes of a local healthcare system in managing a burn mass casualty incident (BMCI). METHODS: Thirty-three victims admitted to the National Taiwan University Hospital within 96h of the explosion were included in the study. Data were recorded on: patient demographics, Baux score, laboratory data, management response, treatment strategies, and outcomes. Case notes from June 27, 2015 to November 2015 were reviewed with a focus on fluid resuscitation, ventilation support, nutrition, infection control, sepsis treatment, and wound closure plan...
May 9, 2018: Burns: Journal of the International Society for Burn Injuries
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29753132/prevention-of-eskape-pathogen-biofilm-formation-by-antimicrobial-peptides-wlbu2-and-ll37
#16
Qiao Lin, Berthony Deslouches, Ronald C Montelaro, Y Peter Di
OBJECTIVES: Bacterial biofilm-dependent infections (e.g., cystic fibrosis, surgical sites, and medical implants) are associated with enhanced drug-resistance and thus difficult to eradicate. The goal of this study was to systematically compare three distinct classes of antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) that include the clinically used antibiotic colistin, the natural AMP LL37, the engineered cationic-AMP WLBU2, and four commonly used antibiotics with different bactericidal mechanisms (tobramycin, ciprofloxacin, ceftazidime and vancomycin) for biofilm prevention properties...
May 9, 2018: International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29751965/de-labeling-of-%C3%AE-lactam-allergy-reduces-intraoperative-time-and-optimizes-choice-in-antibiotic-prophylaxis
#17
Yara Moussa, Joseph Shuster, Gilbert Matte, Andrew Sullivan, Robert H Goldstein, Dayle Cunningham, Moshe Ben-Shoshan, Gabriele Baldini, Francesco Carli, Christos Tsoukas
BACKGROUND: Suspected penicillin allergic individuals receive suboptimal non-β-lactams for intraoperative prophylaxis which may prolong operations and have negative clinical outcomes. We therefore studied if β-lactam de-labeling optimized choice of prophylactic antibiotics and improved intraoperative time efficiency. METHODS: A multistep approach was used. It included a risk assessment tool by an allergist, β-lactam skin testing and oral provocation. To determine the value of de-labeling, we appraised intraoperative antibiotic choices and correlated them with time to first incision...
May 8, 2018: Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29751512/screening-of-natural-product-derivatives-identifies-two-structurally-related-flavonoids-as-potent-quorum-sensing-inhibitors-against-gram-negative-bacteria
#18
Suvi Manner, Adyary Fallarero
Owing to the failure of conventional antibiotics in biofilm control, alternative approaches are urgently needed. Inhibition of quorum sensing (QS) represents an attractive target since it is involved in several processes essential for biofilm formation. In this study, a compound library of natural product derivatives ( n = 3040) was screened for anti-quorum sensing activity using Chromobacterium violaceum as reporter bacteria. Screening assays, based on QS-mediated violacein production and viability, were performed in parallel to identify non-bactericidal QS inhibitors (QSIs)...
May 3, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29751152/the-use-of-telemedicine-for-penicillin-allergy-skin-testing
#19
Mary L Staicu, Anne Marie Holly, Kelly M Conn, Allison Ramsey
BACKGROUND: Penicillin skin testing (PST) is increasingly utilized as a tool to evaluate penicillin allergy in patients with a reported history. The limited availability of allergists, however, may be an impeding factor. OBJECTIVE: We sought to assess the clinical utility of telemedicine to facilitate PST. METHODS: Penicillin allergic inpatients receiving systemic antibiotics were prospectively identified between April and August 2017. Qualifying patients underwent PST performed by a trained Allergy/Immunology physician assistant (PA)...
May 8, 2018: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology in Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29751127/temporal-trends-and-patterns-in-antimicrobial-resistant-gram-negative-bacteria-implicated-in-intensive-care-unit-acquired-infections-a-cohort-based-surveillance-study-in-istanbul-turkey
#20
Bulent Durdu, Evangelos I Kritsotakis, Andrew C K Lee, Perihan Torun, Ismail N Hakyemez, Bilge Gultepe, Turan Aslan
OBJECTIVES: This study assessed trends and patterns in antimicrobial resistant intensive care unit (ICU)-acquired infections caused by Gram-negative bacteria (GNB) in Istanbul, Turkey. METHODS: Bacterial culture and antibiotic susceptibility data were collected for all GNB causing nosocomial infections in five adult ICUs of a large university hospital during 2012-2015. Multi-resistance patterns were categorised as multidrug (MDR), extensively-drug (XDR) and pandrug (PDR)-resistance...
May 8, 2018: Journal of Global Antimicrobial Resistance
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