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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28339384/evaluation-of-the-most-frequently-prescribed-extemporaneously-compounded-veterinary-medications-at-a-large-independent-community-pharmacy
#1
Adel H Karara, Ryan Hines, Zehra Demir, Bethran Nnorom, Robert Horsey, Geoffrey Twigg
Extemporaneous drug formulation is essential to provide optimal pharmaceutical care to veterinary patients. The need for this is exacerbated by the fact that commercially produced veterinary-specific products, without a human indication, require specialty veterinary manufacturing facilities and a new animal drug application process to gain marketing approval. This study examined the prescription patterns of extemporaneously compounded veterinary preparations in the compounding department at a large independent community pharmacy...
November 2016: International Journal of Pharmaceutical Compounding
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28338596/operation-versus-antibiotics-the-appendicitis-conundrum-continues-a-meta-analysis
#2
Joseph V Sakran, Konstantinos S Mylonas, Alexandros Gryparis, Stanislaw P Stawicki, Christopher J Burns, Maher M Matar, Konstantinos P Economopoulos
BACKGROUND: Acute appendicitis continues to constitute a diagnostic and therapeutic challenge. The aim of this study was to synthesize evidence from randomized controlled trials (RCTs) comparing nonoperative versus surgical management of uncomplicated acute appendicitis in adult patients. METHODS: A systematic literature search of the PubMed, Cochrane and Scopus databases was performed with respect to the PRISMA statement (end-of-search date: January 29, 2017). Data on the study design, interventions, participants, and outcomes were extracted by two independent reviewers...
March 23, 2017: Journal of Trauma and Acute Care Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28338306/implantation-of-a-biodegradable-rectum-balloon-implant-tips-tricks-and-pitfalls
#3
Ben G L Vanneste, Kees van De Beek, Ludy Lutgens, Philippe Lambin
INTRODUCTION: A rectum balloon implant (RBI) is a new device to spare rectal structures during prostate cancer radiotherapy. The theoretical advantages of a RBI are to reduce the high radiation dose to the anterior rectum wall, the possibility of a post-implant correction, and their predetermined shape with consequent predictable position. OBJECTIVE: To describe, step-by-step, our mini-invasive technique for hands-free transperineal implantation of a RBI before start of radiotherapy treatment...
March 24, 2017: International Braz J Urol: Official Journal of the Brazilian Society of Urology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28337207/gastrointestinal-microbiome-dysbiosis-in-infant-mice-alters-peripheral-cd8-t-cell-receptor-signaling
#4
Gabriela Gonzalez-Perez, Esi S N Lamousé-Smith
We recently reported that maternal antibiotic treatment (MAT) of mice in the last days of pregnancy and during lactation dramatically alters the density and composition of the gastrointestinal microbiota of their infants. MAT infants also exhibited enhanced susceptibility to a systemic viral infection and altered adaptive immune cell activation phenotype and function. CD8(+) effector T cells from MAT infants consistently demonstrate an inability to sustain interferon gamma (IFN-γ) production in vivo following vaccinia virus infection and in vitro upon T cell receptor (TCR) stimulation...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28337086/pediatric-antimicrobial-stewardship-programs
#5
Kristen Nichols, Sylvia Stoffella, Rachel Meyers, Jennifer Girotto
The frequent use of antimicrobials in pediatric patients has led to a significant increase in multidrug-resistant bacterial infections among children. Antimicrobial stewardship programs have been created in many hospitals in an effort to curtail and optimize the use of antibiotics. Pediatric-focused programs are necessary because of the differences in antimicrobial need and use among this patient population, unique considerations and dosing, vulnerability for resistance due to a lifetime of antibiotic exposure, and the increased risk of adverse events...
January 2017: Journal of Pediatric Pharmacology and Therapeutics: JPPT: the Official Journal of PPAG
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28336047/posttraumatic-reconstruction-of-the-foot-and-ankle-in-the-face-of-active-infection
#6
REVIEW
Brandon Jonard, Erin Dean
Posttraumatic infection of the foot and ankle is a challenging issue for orthopedic surgeons. Making the diagnosis often requires combining laboratory and radiologic testing, patient examination, and history. Patient comorbidities should be identified and optimized whenever possible. Treatment must combine effective antibiotic therapy with thorough debridement of the infected zone. Reconstruction often requires a 2-staged approach using antibiotic spacers and temporary external fixation, with the goal of obtaining a functional, pain-free limb that is free of infection...
April 2017: Orthopedic Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28336038/role-of-systemic-and-local-antibiotics-in-the-treatment-of-open-fractures
#7
REVIEW
David C Carver, Sean B Kuehn, John C Weinlein
The orthopedic community has learned much about the treatment of open fractures from the tremendous work of Ramon Gustilo, Michael Patzakis, and others; however, open fractures continue to be very difficult challenges. Type III open fractures continue to be associated with high infection rates. Some combination of systemic and local antibiotics may be most appropriate in these high-grade open fractures. Further research is still necessary in determining optimal systemic antibiotic regimens as well as the role of local antibiotics...
April 2017: Orthopedic Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28331537/combined-totally-mini-invasive-approach-in-necrotizing-pancreatitis-a-case-report-and-systematic-literature-review
#8
REVIEW
Luca Sorrentino, Osvaldo Chiara, Massimiliano Mutignani, Fabrizio Sammartano, Paolo Brioschi, Stefania Cimbanassi
BACKGROUND: Currently, both the step-up approach, combining percutaneous drainage (PD) and video-assisted retroperitoneal debridement (VARD), and endoscopic transgastric necrosectomy (ETN) are mini-invasive techniques for infected necrosis in severe acute pancreatitis. A combination of these approaches could maximize the management of necrotizing pancreatitis, conjugating the benefits from both the experiences. However, reporting of this combined strategy is anecdotal. This is the first reported case of severe necrotizing pancreatitis complicated by biliary fistula treated by a combination of ETN, PD, VARD, and endoscopic biliary stenting...
2017: World Journal of Emergency Surgery: WJES
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28330311/scaling-up-a-virginiamycin-production-by-a-high-yield-streptomyces-virginiae-vkm-ac-2738d-strain-using-adsorbing-resin-addition-and-fed-batch-fermentation-under-controlled-conditions
#9
Vakhtang Dzhavakhiya, Vyacheslav Savushkin, Alexander Ovchinnikov, Vladislav Glagolev, Veronika Savelyeva, Evgeniya Popova, Nikita Novak, Elena Glagoleva
Virginiamycin produced by Streptomyces virginiae as a natural mix of macrocyclic peptidolactones M and S is widely used in the industrial production of ethanol fuel and as an antibiotic feed additive for cattle and poultry. Its main antimicrobial components, M1 and S1 factors, act synergistically if the M1:S1 ratio in the final product is 70-75:25-30. This fact significantly complicates the development of stable high-yield strains suitable for industrial application. In the previous work, authors obtained a mutant S...
December 2016: 3 Biotech
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28329191/management-of-ventriculoperitoneal-shunt-infections-in-adults-analysis-of-risk-factors-associated-with-treatment-failure
#10
Iván Pelegrín, Jaime Lora-Tamayo, Joan Gómez-Junyent, Nuria Sabé, Dolors García-Somoza, Andreu Gabarrós, Javier Ariza, Pedro Fernández Viladrich, Carmen Cabellos
Background.: Little is known regarding the optimal treatment of ventriculoperitoneal (VP) shunt infections in adults. Our aim was to assess the efficacy of treatment strategies and to identify factors that predict failure. Methods.: Retrospective, observational study of patients aged ≥12 years with VP shunt infections (1980 -2014). Therapeutic approaches were classified under 4 headings: only antibiotics (OA), one-stage shunt replacement (OSSR), two-stage shunt replacement (TSSR), and shunt removal without replacement (SR)...
March 10, 2017: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28327498/activity-of-sulfa-drugs-and-their-combinations-against-stationary-phase-b-burgdorferi-in-vitro
#11
Jie Feng, Shuo Zhang, Wanliang Shi, Ying Zhang
Lyme disease is a most common vector-borne disease in the US. Although the majority of Lyme patients can be cured with the standard two- to four-week antibiotic treatment, at least 10%-20% of patients continue to suffer from prolonged post-treatment Lyme disease syndrome (PTLDS). While the cause for this is unclear, one possibility is that persisting organisms are not killed by current Lyme antibiotics. In our previous studies, we screened an FDA drug library and an NCI compound library on B. burgdorferi and found some drug hits including sulfa drugs as having good activity against B...
March 22, 2017: Antibiotics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28325297/engineering-of-pedf-expressing-primary-pigment-epithelial-cells-by-the-sb-transposon-system-delivered-by-pfar4-plasmids
#12
Gabriele Thumann, Nina Harmening, Cécile Prat-Souteyrand, Corinne Marie, Marie Pastor, Attila Sebe, Csaba Miskey, Laurence D Hurst, Sabine Diarra, Martina Kropp, Peter Walter, Daniel Scherman, Zoltán Ivics, Zsuzsanna Izsvák, Sandra Johnen
Neovascular age-related macular degeneration (nvAMD) is characterized by choroidal blood vessels growing into the subretinal space, leading to retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cell degeneration and vision loss. Vessel growth results from an imbalance of pro-angiogenic (e.g., vascular endothelial growth factor [VEGF]) and anti-angiogenic factors (e.g., pigment epithelium-derived factor [PEDF]). Current treatment using intravitreal injections of anti-VEGF antibodies improves vision in about 30% of patients but may be accompanied by side effects and non-compliance...
March 17, 2017: Molecular Therapy. Nucleic Acids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28322271/mechanistic-and-structural-basis-of-bioengineered-bovine-cathelicidin-5-with-optimized-therapeutic-activity
#13
Bikash R Sahoo, Kenta Maruyama, Jyotheeswara R Edula, Takahiro Tougan, Yuxi Lin, Young-Ho Lee, Toshihiro Horii, Toshimichi Fujiwara
Peptide-drug discovery using host-defense peptides becomes promising against antibiotic-resistant pathogens and cancer cells. Here, we customized the therapeutic activity of bovine cathelicidin-5 targeting to bacteria, protozoa, and tumor cells. The membrane dependent conformational adaptability and plasticity of cathelicidin-5 is revealed by biophysical analysis and atomistic simulations over 200 μs in thymocytes, leukemia, and E. coli cell-membranes. Our understanding of energy-dependent cathelicidin-5 intrusion in heterogeneous membranes aided in designing novel loss/gain-of-function analogues...
March 21, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28321988/a-quality-improvement-initiative-to-optimize-dosing-of-surgical-antimicrobial-prophylaxis
#14
Thomas J Caruso, Ellen Wang, Hayden T Schwenk, David Scheinker, Calida Yeverino, Mary Tweedy, Manjit Maheru, Paul J Sharek
BACKGROUND: The risk of surgical site infections is reduced with appropriate timing and dosing of preoperative antimicrobials. Based on evolving national guidelines, we increased the preoperative dose of cefazolin from 25 to 30 mg·kg(-1) . This quality improvement project describes an improvement initiative to develop standard work processes to ensure appropriate dosing. AIMS: The primary aim was to deliver cefazolin 30 mg·kg(-1) to at least 90% of indicated patients...
March 21, 2017: Paediatric Anaesthesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28321543/understanding-the-lung-abscess-microbiome-outcomes-of-percutaneous-lung-parenchymal-abscess-drainage-with-microbiologic-correlation
#15
Christopher Duncan, Gregory J Nadolski, Terence Gade, Stephen Hunt
INTRODUCTION: Lung parenchymal abscesses represent an uncommon pathology with high mortality if untreated. Although most respond well to antibiotics, the optimal therapy for persistent abscesses is unknown. The purpose of this study was to review the outcomes of percutaneous lung parenchymal abscess catheter drainage after broad-spectrum antibiotic therapy failure and correlate with patient microbiologic samples. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Retrospective review of patients who underwent percutaneous lung abscess drainage at a tertiary hospital system from 2005 to 2015 was performed...
March 20, 2017: Cardiovascular and Interventional Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28319476/anesthesia-in-patients-with-infectious-disease-caused-by-multi-drug-resistant-bacteria
#16
Sharon Einav, Yonit Wiener-Well
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Up to 50% of specific bacterial strains in healthcare admission facilities are multidrug-resistant organisms (MDROs). Involvement of anesthesiologists in management of patients carrying/at risk of carrying MDROs may decrease transmission in the Operating Room (OR). RECENT FINDINGS: Anesthesiologists, their work area and tools have all been implicated in MDRO outbreaks. Causes include contamination of external ventilation circuits and noncontribution of filters to prevention, inappropriate decontamination procedures for nondisposable equipment (e...
March 17, 2017: Current Opinion in Anaesthesiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28315128/rapid-influenza-diagnostic-tests-improve-suitability-of-antiviral-treatment-in-hospitalized-children
#17
Aneta Nitsch-Osuch, Ernest Kuchar, Izabela Gołębiak, Krzysztof Kanecki, Patryk Tarka, Lidia Brydak
Influenza may have a complicated course in young children. The aim of the study was to analyze the suitability of influenza treatment among children younger than 5 years hospitalized due to an influenza-like illness. We conducted a comparison of the treatment among children hospitalized in two consecutive years: 2015, when no rapid influenza diagnostic tests (RIDT) were in use, and 2016, when RIDT were implemented into a routine practice in the pediatric ward. In both seasons, nasopharyngeal swabs were collected and examined with real time qRT-PCR...
March 18, 2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28306563/antimicrobial-resistant-gram-negative-infections-in-neonates-burden-of-disease-and-challenges-in-treatment
#18
Laura Folgori, Julia Bielicki, Paul T Heath, Mike Sharland
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This review summarizes the main challenges of antimicrobial resistance (AMR) in the neonatal population with a special focus on multidrug-resistant (MDR) Gram-negative pathogens. RECENT FINDINGS: MDR-Gram-negative bacteria are a great concern in the neonatal population, with a worldwide rise in the reported incidence and with very limited therapeutic options. Extended-spectrum β-lactamase and carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE) have been reported as responsible for neonatal ICU outbreaks...
March 16, 2017: Current Opinion in Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28303388/the-impact-of-antibiotic-stewardship-programs-in-combating-quinolone-resistance-a-systematic-review-and-recommendations-for-more-efficient-interventions
#19
REVIEW
Vasiliki Pitiriga, Georgia Vrioni, George Saroglou, Athanasios Tsakris
Quinolones are among the most commonly prescribed antibiotics worldwide. A clear relationship has been demonstrated between excessive quinolone use and the steady increase in the incidence of quinolone-resistant bacterial pathogens, both in hospital and community sites. In addition, exposure to quinolones has been associated with colonization and infection with healthcare-associated pathogens such as methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and Clostridium difficile in hospitalized patients. Therefore, the management of quinolone prescribing in hospitals through antibiotic stewardship programs is considered crucial...
March 16, 2017: Advances in Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28303104/mathematical-modeling-of-streptococcus-pneumoniae-colonization-invasive-infection-and-treatment
#20
Elisa Domínguez-Hüttinger, Neville J Boon, Thomas B Clarke, Reiko J Tanaka
Streptococcus pneumoniae (Sp) is a commensal bacterium that normally resides on the upper airway epithelium without causing infection. However, factors such as co-infection with influenza virus can impair the complex Sp-host interactions and the subsequent development of many life-threatening infectious and inflammatory diseases, including pneumonia, meningitis or even sepsis. With the increased threat of Sp infection due to the emergence of new antibiotic resistant Sp strains, there is an urgent need for better treatment strategies that effectively prevent progression of disease triggered by Sp infection, minimizing the use of antibiotics...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
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