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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28237998/optimization-of-herbicidin-a-production-in-submerged-culture-of-streptomyces-scopuliridis-m40
#1
Sanghyun Ha, Keon Jin Lee, Sang Il Lee, Hyun Jung Gwak, Jong-Hee Lee, Tae-Woon Kim, Hak-Jong Choi, Ja-Young Jang, Jung-Sub Choi, Chang-Jin Kim, Jin-Cheol Kim, Hyeong Hwan Kim, Hae Woong Park
Herbicidin A is a potent herbicide against dicotyledonous plants as well as an antibiotic against phytopathogens. In this study, fermentation parameters for herbicidin A production in submerged culture of Streptomyces scopuliridis M40 were investigated. The herbicidin A concentration varied with the C/N ratio. High C/N ratios (>4) resulted in a herbicidin A production of more than 900 mg/L, whereas maximally 600 mg/L was obtained at ratios between 1-3.5. In 5-L batch fermentation, there was a positive correlation between the oxygen uptake rate (OUR) and herbicidin A production...
February 24, 2017: Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28236547/screening-for-beta-lactam-allergy-in-joint-arthroplasty-patients-to-improve-surgical-prophylaxis-practice
#2
Deanna L McDanel, Antoine E Azar, Amy M Dowden, Samantha Murray-Bainer, Nicolas O Noiseux, Melissa Willenborg, Charles R Clark, John J Callaghan, Ambar Haleem
BACKGROUND: The reliability of patient-reported penicillin allergies has been disputed. A Drug Allergy Clinic (DAC) was established at our institution in combination with an electronic best practice alert (BPA) in the Orthopedic Clinic. Joint arthroplasty patients with a reported history of beta-lactam allergy (HOBA) were preoperatively referred via the BPA to the DAC. The purpose of this study was to determine the effectiveness of beta-lactam allergy screening in enabling the surgical team to optimize antimicrobial prophylaxis...
January 17, 2017: Journal of Arthroplasty
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28235986/-fecal-microbiota-transplantation
#3
C Lübbert, B Salzberger, J Mössner
The human intestinal microbiome has important metabolic and immunological functions for the host and is part of the defense against pathogens in the gastrointestinal tract. Antibiotics, probiotics, dietary measures, such as prebiotics, and the relatively newly established method of fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT, also known as fecal microbiome transfer) all influence the intestinal microbiome. The FMT procedure comprises the transmission of fecal microorganisms from a healthy donor into the gastrointestinal tract of a patient...
February 24, 2017: Der Internist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28231527/rapid-discrimination-and-determination-of-antibiotics-drugs-in-plastic-syringes-using-near-infrared-spectroscopy-with-chemometric-analysis-application-to-amoxicillin-and-penicillin
#4
Laetitia Minh Mai Lê, Luc Eveleigh, Ikram Hasnaoui, Patrice Prognon, Arlette Baillet-Guffroy, Eric Caudron
The aim of this study was to investigate near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) combined to chemometric analysis to discriminate and quantify three antibiotics by direct measurement in plastic syringes.Solutions of benzylpenicillin (PENI), amoxicillin (AMOX) and amoxicillin/clavulanic acid (AMOX/CLAV) were analyzed at therapeutic concentrations in glass vials and plastic syringes with NIR spectrometer by direct measurement. Chemometric analysis using partial least squares regression and discriminative analysis was conducted to develop qualitative and quantitative calibration models...
February 14, 2017: Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28225587/compms2miner-an-automatable-metabolite-identification-visualization-and-data-sharing-r-package-for-high-resolution-lc-ms-datasets
#5
William Matthew Bell Edmands, Lauren M Petrick, Dinesh Kumar Barupal, Augustin Scalbert, Mark Wilson, Jeffrey Wickliffe, Stephen M Rappaport
A long-standing challenge of untargeted metabolomic profiling by ultrahigh performance liquid chromatography-high resolution mass spectrometry (UHPLC-HRMS) is efficient transition from unknown mass spectral features to confident metabolite annotations. The compMS2Miner (Comprehensive MS2 Miner) package was developed in the R language to facilitate rapid, comprehensive feature annotation using a peak-picker-output and MS2 data files as inputs. The number of MS2 spectra that can be collected during a metabolomic profiling experiment far outweigh the amount of time required for pain-staking manual interpretation, therefore a degree of software workflow autonomy is required for broad-scale metabolite annotation...
February 22, 2017: Analytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28224049/the-role-of-topical-antiseptic-agents-within-antimicrobial-stewardship-strategies-for-prevention-and-treatment-of-surgical-site-and-chronic-open-wound-infection
#6
Christopher D Roberts, David J Leaper, Ojan Assadian
Scope and Significance: The topical use of antiseptics for wound care has a role in an antimicrobial stewardship strategy. However, the details of this role need clarification. Further clinical research into the use of topical antiseptics in wound care would lower the risk of furthering antibiotic resistance and contribute to more effective antibiotic use. As part of this research, experimental and surveillance data are needed on the resistance and tolerance patterns associated with topical antiseptic use in wound infections...
February 1, 2017: Advances in Wound Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28215073/identification-of-highly-specific-diversity-oriented-synthesis-derived-inhibitors-of-clostridium-difficile
#7
Jeremy R Duvall, Leanne Bedard, Adel M Naylor-Olsen, Abigail L Manson, Joshua A Bittker, Wenye Sun, Mark E Fitzgerald, Zhenmin He, Maurice Dupont Lee, Jean-Charles Marie, Giovanni Muncipinto, Diane Rush, Deming Xu, Huisheng Xu, Mingliang Zhang, Ashlee M Earl, Michelle A Palmer, Michael A Foley, Joseph P Vacca, Christina A Scherer
In 2013, the Centers for Disease Control highlighted Clostridium difficile as an urgent threat for antibiotic resistant infections, in part due to the emergence of highly virulent fluoroquinolone resistant strains. Limited therapeutic options currently exist, many of which result in disease relapse. We sought to identify molecules specifically targeting C. difficile in high throughput screens of our diversity-oriented synthesis compound collection. We identified two scaffolds with apparently novel mechanisms of action that selectively target C...
February 19, 2017: ACS Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214763/emergency-valve-surgery-for-infective-endocarditis-complicated-by-acute-intracranial-hemorrhage-a-case-report
#8
Takasumi Goto, Toshihiro Ohata, Takayuki Shijo, Daisuke Yoshioka, Mitsunori Kaneko
INTRODUCTION: Optimal timing of surgical treatment for infective endocarditis (IE) complicated by intracranial hemorrhage remains controversial. PRESENTATION OF CASE: A 43-year-old man with IE received appropriate antibiotic therapy but had recurrence of cerebral infarction and intracranial hemorrhage (ICH). Emergency valve surgery was performed 2days after ICH onset because of heart failure and recurrence of cerebral complications. Postoperatively, he showed no neurologic symptoms; neuroimaging showed no enlargement of ICH...
February 11, 2017: International Journal of Surgery Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212413/scarless-deletion-of-up-to-seven-methyl-accepting-chemotaxis-genes-with-an-optimized-method-highlights-key-function-of-chem-in-salmonella-typhimurium
#9
Stefanie Hoffmann, Christiane Schmidt, Steffi Walter, Jennifer K Bender, Roman G Gerlach
Site-directed scarless mutagenesis is an essential tool of modern pathogenesis research. We describe an optimized two-step protocol for genome editing in Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium to enable multiple sequential mutagenesis steps in a single strain. The system is based on the λ Red recombinase-catalyzed integration of a selectable antibiotics resistance marker followed by replacement of this cassette. Markerless mutants are selected by expressing the meganuclease I-SceI which induces double-strand breaks in bacteria still harboring the resistance locus...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212153/new-therapies-for-the-prevention-and-treatment-of-exacerbations-of-bronchiectasis
#10
Hani Abo-Leyah, James D Chalmers
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Exacerbations of bronchiectasis have a major impact on quality of life, healthcare costs, and long-term risk of complications. Preventing exacerbations is one of the major goals of treatment. Bronchiectasis is increasingly recognized and the impact of bronchiectasis exacerbations on daily clinical practice is also increasing. RECENT FINDINGS: Preventing bronchiectasis exacerbations are dependent on appropriate risk assessment, identifying the patients at highest risk to rationally target preventive therapies...
February 16, 2017: Current Opinion in Pulmonary Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28208722/zunyimycins-b-and-c-new-chloroanthrabenzoxocinones-antibiotics-against-methicillin-resistant-staphylococcus-aureus-and-enterococci-from-streptomyces-sp-fjs31-2
#11
Yuhong Lü, Meiyun Shao, Yinyin Wang, Shengyan Qian, Miao Wang, Yingquan Wang, Xiaoqian Li, Yuxin Bao, Chengmin Deng, Changwu Yue, Daishun Liu, Ning Liu, Minghao Liu, Ying Huang, Zehui Chen, Yonglin Hu
This study performed an optimization of the fermentation conditions to activate the expression of the zunyimycin family biosynthesis genes of the zunyimycin-producing streptomycetes strain Streptomyces sp. FJS31-2. Bioassay-guided isolation and purification by varied chromatographic methods yielded two new compounds of the zunyimycin derivatives, namely, 31-2-7 and 31-2-8, accompanied with three known anthrabenzoxocinones family members of zunyimycin A, BE24566B, and chloroanthrabenzoxocinone. Their structures were elucidated by NMR, HRESIMS, IR, UV, and CD...
February 8, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28207621/mri-based-decision-making-of-implant-removal-in-deep-wound-infection-after-instrumented-lumbar-fusion
#12
Masahiro Kanayama, Tomoyuki Hashimoto, Keiichi Shigenobu, Fumihiro Oha, Akira Iwata, Masaru Tanaka
STUDY DESIGN: A retrospective study. OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study was to review the treatment of deep wound infection after posterior instrumented lumbar fusion, and thereby to optimize the decision-making process of implant removal or retention on the basis of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) assessment. SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA: Biofilm formed on the surface of the spinal implant prevents infiltration of antibiotics and makes the infection treatment more complicated...
March 2017: Clinical Spine Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28203365/polypharmacy-and-inappropriate-medication-use-in-patients-with-dementia-an-underresearched-problem
#13
REVIEW
Carole Parsons
Multimorbidity and polypharmacy are increasingly prevalent across healthcare systems and settings as global demographic trends shift towards increased proportions of older people in populations. Numerous studies have demonstrated an association between polypharmacy and potentially inappropriate prescribing (PIP), and have reported high prevalence of PIP across settings of care in Europe and North America and, as a consequence, increased risk of adverse drug reactions, healthcare utilization, morbidity and mortality...
January 2017: Therapeutic Advances in Drug Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28198726/community-acquired-pneumonia-requiring-hospitalization-rational-decision-making-and-interpretation-of-guidelines
#14
Douwe F Postma, Cornelis H van Werkhoven, Jan Jelrik Oosterheert
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This review focuses on the evidence base for guideline recommendations on the diagnosis, the optimal choice, timing and duration of empirical antibiotic therapy, and the use of microbiological tests for patients hospitalized with community-acquired pneumonia (CAP): issues for which guidelines are frequently used as a quick reference. Furthermore, we will discuss possibilities for future research in these topics. RECENT FINDINGS: Many national and international guideline recommendations, even on critical elements of CAP management, are based on low-to-moderate quality evidence...
February 13, 2017: Current Opinion in Pulmonary Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28195180/successful-resolution-of-recurrent-clostridium-difficile-infection-using-freeze-dried-encapsulated-fecal-microbiota-pragmatic-cohort-study
#15
Christopher Staley, Matthew J Hamilton, Byron P Vaughn, Carolyn T Graiziger, Krista M Newman, Amanda J Kabage, Michael J Sadowsky, Alexander Khoruts
OBJECTIVES: Fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) is increasingly being used for treatment of recurrent Clostridium difficile infection (R-CDI) that cannot be cured with antibiotics alone. In addition, FMT is being investigated for a variety of indications where restoration or restructuring of the gut microbial community is hypothesized to be beneficial. We sought to develop a stable, freeze-dried encapsulated preparation of standardized fecal microbiota that can be used for FMT with ease and convenience in clinical practice and research...
February 14, 2017: American Journal of Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28193216/a-high-throughput-expression-screening-platform-to-optimize-the-production-of-antimicrobial-peptides
#16
Christine Schreiber, Hagen Müller, Oliver Birrenbach, Moritz Klein, Doreen Heerd, Tobias Weidner, Denise Salzig, Peter Czermak
BACKGROUND: Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) are promising candidates for the development of novel antibiotics, but it is difficult to produce sufficient quantities for preclinical and clinical studies due to their toxicity towards microbial expression hosts. To avoid laborious trial-and-error testing for the identification of suitable expression constructs, we have developed a small-scale expression screening platform based on a combinatorial plasmid library. RESULTS: The combinatorial library is based on the Golden Gate cloning system...
February 13, 2017: Microbial Cell Factories
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28193174/using-theory-to-explore-facilitators-and-barriers-to-delayed-prescribing-in-australia-a-qualitative-study-using-the-theoretical-domains-framework-and-the-behaviour-change-wheel
#17
Lucy Sargent, Amanda McCullough, Chris Del Mar, John Lowe
BACKGROUND: Delayed antibiotic prescribing reduces antibiotic use for acute respiratory infections in trials in general practice, but the uptake in clinical practice is low. The aim of the study was to identify facilitators and barriers to general practitioners' (GPs') use of delayed prescribing and to gain pharmacists' and the public's views about delayed prescribing in Australia. METHODS: This study used the Theoretical Domains Framework and the Behaviour Change Wheel to explore facilitators and barriers to delayed prescribing in Australia...
February 13, 2017: BMC Family Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28192916/combating-enhanced-intracellular-survival-eis-mediated-kanamycin-resistance-of-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-by-novel-pyrrolo-1-5-a-pyrazine-based-eis-inhibitors
#18
Atefeh Garzan, Melisa J Willby, Huy X Ngo, Chathurada S Gajadeera, Keith D Green, Selina Y L Holbrook, Caixia Hou, James E Posey, Oleg V Tsodikov, Sylvie Garneau-Tsodikova
Tuberculosis (TB) remains one of the leading causes of mortality worldwide. Hence, the identification of highly effective antitubercular drugs with novel modes of action is crucial. In this paper, we report the discovery and development of pyrrolo[1,5-a]pyrazine-based analogues as highly potent inhibitors of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) acetyltransferase enhanced intracellular survival (Eis), whose up-regulation causes clinically observed resistance to the aminoglycoside (AG) antibiotic kanamycin A (KAN)...
February 17, 2017: ACS Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28192154/electrospun-polyurethane-nanofiber-scaffolds-with-ciprofloxacin-oligomer-versus-free-ciprofloxacin-effect-on-drug-release-and-cell-attachment
#19
Meghan Ee Wright, Ian C Parrag, Meilin Yang, J Paul Santerre
An electrospun degradable polycarbonate urethane (PCNU) nanofiber scaffold loaded with antibiotic was investigated in terms of antibacterial efficacy and cell compatibility for potential use in gingival tissue engineering. Antimicrobial oligomer (AO), a compound which consists of two molecules of ciprofloxacin (CF) covalently bound via hydrolysable linkages to triethylene glycol (TEG), was incorporated via a one-step blend electrospinning process using a single solvent system at 7 and 15% w/w equivalent CF with respect to the PCNU...
February 10, 2017: Journal of Controlled Release: Official Journal of the Controlled Release Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28192108/timely-use-of-probiotics-in-hospitalized-adults-prevents-clostridium-difficile-infection-a-systematic-review-with-meta-regression-analysis
#20
Nicole T Shen, Anna Maw, Lyubov L Tmanova, Alejandro Pino, Kayley Ancy, Carl V Crawford, Matthew S Simon, Arthur T Evans
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Systematic reviews have provided evidence for the efficacy of probiotics in preventing Clostridium difficile infection (CDI), but guidelines do not recommend probiotic use for prevention of CDI. We performed an updated systematic review to help guide clinical practice. METHODS: We searched MEDLINE, EMBASE, International Journal of Probiotics and Prebiotics, and The Cochrane Library databases for randomized controlled trials evaluating use of probiotics and CDI in hospitalized adults taking antibiotics...
February 9, 2017: Gastroenterology
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