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Modeling AND tuberculosis

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29029055/prognostic-models-for-9-month-mortality-in-tuberculous-meningitis
#1
Le Thi Phuong Thao, A Dorothee Heemskerk, Ronald B Geskus, Nguyen Thi Hoang Mai, Dang Thi Minh Ha, Tran Thi Hong Chau, Nguyen Hoan Phu, Nguyen Van Vinh Chau, Maxine Caws, Nguyen Huu Lan, Do Dang Anh Thu, Nguyen Thuy Thuong Thuong, Jeremy Day, Jeremy J Farrar, M Estee Torok, Nguyen Duc Bang, Guy E Thwaites, Marcel Wolbers
Background: Tuberculous meningitis (TBM) is the most severe form of extra-pulmonary tuberculosis. We developed and validated prognostic models for 9-month mortality in HIV-uninfected and HIV-infected adults with TBM. Methods: We included 1699 subjects from four randomized clinical trials and one prospective observational study conducted at two major referral hospitals in Southern Vietnam from 2001-2015. Modelling was based on multivariable Cox proportional hazards regression...
September 26, 2017: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29026882/efficient-measurement-and-factorization-of-high-order-drug-interactions-in-mycobacterium-tuberculosis
#2
Murat Cokol, Nurdan Kuru, Ece Bicak, Jonah Larkins-Ford, Bree B Aldridge
Combinations of three or more drugs are used to treat many diseases, including tuberculosis. Thus, it is important to understand how synergistic or antagonistic drug interactions affect the efficacy of combination therapies. However, our understanding of high-order drug interactions is limited because of the lack of both efficient measurement methods and theoretical framework for analysis and interpretation. We developed an efficient experimental sampling and scoring method [diagonal measurement of n-way drug interactions (DiaMOND)] to measure drug interactions for combinations of any number of drugs...
October 2017: Science Advances
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29026323/diagnostic-accuracy-of-xpert-mtb-rif-assay-for-musculoskeletal-tuberculosis-a-meta-analysis
#3
REVIEW
Hai Wen, Pengzhi Li, Hong Ma, Guohua Lv
OBJECTIVES: Xpert MTB/RIF assay, a rapid and automated real-time nucleic acid amplification test, has been reported for the diagnosis of musculoskeletal tuberculosis (TB) in current years. This meta-analysis aims to determine the diagnostic accuracy of Xpert for the detection of musculoskeletal TB and rifampicin (RIF) resistance. METHODS: We searched PubMed, Embase, China National Knowledge Infrastructure, and Wanfang for original articles published up to 1st June 2017 to identify studies in which the Xpert assay was applied to diagnose musculoskeletal TB...
2017: Infection and Drug Resistance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29025634/catastrophic-costs-potentially-averted-by-tuberculosis-control-in-india-and-south-africa-a-modelling-study
#4
Stéphane Verguet, Carlos Riumallo-Herl, Gabriela B Gomez, Nicolas A Menzies, Rein M G J Houben, Tom Sumner, Marek Lalli, Richard G White, Joshua A Salomon, Ted Cohen, Nicola Foster, Susmita Chatterjee, Sedona Sweeney, Inés Garcia Baena, Knut Lönnroth, Diana E Weil, Anna Vassall
BACKGROUND: The economic burden on households affected by tuberculosis through costs to patients can be catastrophic. WHO's End TB Strategy recognises and aims to eliminate these potentially devastating economic effects. We assessed whether aggressive expansion of tuberculosis services might reduce catastrophic costs. METHODS: We estimated the reduction in tuberculosis-related catastrophic costs with an aggressive expansion of tuberculosis services in India and South Africa from 2016 to 2035, in line with the End TB Strategy...
November 2017: Lancet Global Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29025631/effect-of-isoniazid-preventive-therapy-on-risk-of-death-in-west-african-hiv-infected-adults-with-high-cd4-cell-counts-long-term-follow-up-of-the-temprano-anrs-12136-trial
#5
Anani Badje, Raoul Moh, Delphine Gabillard, Calixte Guéhi, Mathieu Kabran, Jean-Baptiste Ntakpé, Jérôme Le Carrou, Gérard M Kouame, Eric Ouattara, Eugène Messou, Amani Anzian, Albert Minga, Joachim Gnokoro, Patrice Gouesse, Arlette Emieme, Thomas-d'Aquin Toni, Cyprien Rabe, Baba Sidibé, Gustave Nzunetu, Lambert Dohoun, Abo Yao, Synali Kamagate, Solange Amon, Amadou-Barenson Kouame, Aboli Koua, Emmanuel Kouamé, Marcelle Daligou, Denise Hawerlander, Simplice Ackoundzé, Serge Koule, Jonas Séri, Alex Ani, Fassery Dembélé, Fatoumata Koné, Mykayila Oyebi, Nathalie Mbakop, Oyewole Makaila, Carolle Babatunde, Nathaniel Babatunde, Gisèle Bleoué, Mireille Tchoutedjem, Alain-Claude Kouadio, Ghislaine Sena, Sahinou-Yediga Yededji, Sophie Karcher, Christine Rouzioux, Abo Kouame, Rodrigue Assi, Alima Bakayoko, Serge K Domoua, Nina Deschamps, Kakou Aka, Thérèse N'Dri-Yoman, Roger Salamon, Valérie Journot, Hughes Ahibo, Timothée Ouassa, Hervé Menan, André Inwoley, Christine Danel, Serge P Eholié, Xavier Anglaret
BACKGROUND: Temprano ANRS 12136 was a factorial 2 × 2 trial that assessed the benefits of early antiretroviral therapy (ART; ie, in patients who had not reached the CD4 cell count threshold used to recommend starting ART, as per the WHO guidelines that were the standard during the study period) and 6-month isoniazid preventive therapy (IPT) in HIV-infected adults in Côte d'Ivoire. Early ART and IPT were shown to independently reduce the risk of severe morbidity at 30 months. Here, we present the efficacy of IPT in reducing mortality from the long-term follow-up of Temprano...
November 2017: Lancet Global Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29025488/stigma-as-a-barrier-to-the-use-of-occupational-health-units-for-tuberculosis-services-in-south-africa
#6
N Sommerland, E Wouters, C Masquillier, M Engelbrecht, G Kigozi, K Uebel, A Janse van Rensburg, A Rau
SETTING: Tuberculosis (TB) is the leading cause of death in South Africa, and health care workers (HCWs) are disproportionally affected. The resulting absenteeism strains the already overburdened health system. Although hospital occupational health care units (OHUs) are cost-effective and of crucial importance in tackling the TB epidemic, the fear of being stigmatised by other colleagues might lead HCWs to avoid using OHUs. OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether the perception of TB stigma among colleagues has a negative effect on the willingness to use OHUs for TB services...
November 1, 2017: International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29025486/using-15-dhs-surveys-to-study-epidemiological-correlates-of-tb-courtesy-stigma-and-health-seeking-behaviour
#7
E J J Rood, C Mergenthaler, M I Bakker, L Redwood, E M H Mitchell
SETTING: Tuberculosis (TB) stigma is thought to delay or prevent the decision to seek health care, but the strength of this association and the prevalence of anticipated TB stigma in the general population in most countries is unknown. OBJECTIVE: To examine epidemiological, cultural and sociodemographic factors associated with TB courtesy stigma in 15 surveys across 13 countries, and its link to health seeking for cough in children under five. DESIGN: A multilevel survey weighted logistic regression model was used to analyse how individual characteristics and social contexts affect the occurrence of TB courtesy stigma...
November 1, 2017: International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29025483/depressive-symptoms-and-hazardous-harmful-alcohol-use-are-prevalent-and-correlate-with-stigma-among-tb-hiv-patients-in-lesotho
#8
E Hayes-Larson, Y Hirsch-Moverman, S Saito, K Frederix, B Pitt, L Maama-Maime, A A Howard
SETTING: Limited data exist on the prevalence and correlates, including stigma, of mental health conditions, including depressive symptoms and alcohol use, among patients co-infected with tuberculosis (TB) and the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) in sub-Saharan Africa, despite their negative impact on health outcomes. OBJECTIVE: To assess the prevalence and correlates of depressive symptoms and hazardous/harmful alcohol use among TB-HIV patients in the Start TB patients on ART and Retain on Treatment (START) study...
November 1, 2017: International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29025481/measuring-hiv-and-tb-related-stigma-among-health-care-workers-in-south-africa-a-validation-and-reliability-study
#9
E Wouters, C Masquillier, N Sommerland, M Engelbrecht, A J Van Rensburg, G Kigozi, A Rau
SETTING: Recent evidence indicates that human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and tuberculosis (TB) related stigma act as a key barrier to the utilisation of associated occupational health services by South African health care workers (HCWs). It also highlights a dearth of appropriate tools to measure HIV and TB stigma among HCWs. OBJECTIVE: To test four scales measuring different aspects of stigma: respondent's external stigma (RES) and others' external stigma (OES) towards TB as well as HIV across different professional categories of HCWs...
November 1, 2017: International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29025111/protective-effects-of-household-based-tb-interventions-are-robust-to-neighbourhood-level-variation-in-exposure-risk-in-lima-peru-a-model-based-analysis
#10
Jon Zelner, Megan Murray, Mercedes Becerra, Jerome Galea, Leonid Lecca, Roger Calderon, Rosa Yataco, Zibiao Zhang, Ted Cohen
Background: Untargeted active screening and treatment programmes for tuberculosis (TB) have not been shown to be more effective than passive screening and isoniazid preventive therapy (IPT) for reducing TB incidence. In this manuscript, we compare the efficacy of targeting screening and IPT on high-risk household contacts of diagnosed TB cases, with less-targeted active screening approaches in Lima, Peru. Methods: We conducted a population-based prospective cohort study within households of TB cases in Lima...
September 13, 2017: International Journal of Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29023251/programmatic-evaluation-of-an-algorithm-for-intensified-tb-case-finding-and-isoniazid-preventive-therapy-for-people-living-with-hiv-in-thailand-and-vietnam
#11
T Cowger, L H Thai, B D Duong, J Danyuttapolchai, S Kittimunkong, N V Nhung, D T Nhan, P Monkongdee, C K Thoa, V T Khanh, S Nateniyom, Yen Ntb, D V Ngoc, T Thinh, S Whitehead, E S Pevzner
BACKGROUND: Tuberculosis (TB) screening affords clinicians opportunities to diagnose or exclude TB disease and initiate Isoniazid Preventive Therapy (IPT) for people living with HIV (PLHIV). METHODS: We implemented an algorithm to diagnose or rule out TB among PLHIV in eleven HIV clinics in Thailand and Vietnam. We assessed algorithm yield and uptake of IPT and factors associated with TB disease among PLHIV. RESULTS: A total of 1,448 PLHIV not yet on antiretroviral therapy (ART) were enrolled and screened for TB...
October 4, 2017: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29022646/low-skeletal-mass-is-an-important-predictor-of-osteoporosis-in-hiv-infected-men-in-india
#12
Deep Dutta, Meha Sharma, Rahul Bansal, Neera Sharma, Umesh Chandra Garga, Atul Anand, Kumar Gaurav
INTRODUCTION: This study evaluated prevalence and predictors of osteoporosis and sarcopenia in men with HIV. MATERIAL AND METHODS: 220 men with HIV were screened, of which 115 men, 30-50 years-age, having at least 1-year follow-up, underwent hormonal and DEXA analysis. 40 controls were also evaluated. RESULTS: Males with HIV had significantly lower BMD and Z-scores at all sites. Osteoporosis was diagnosed in 64.35%; commonest site being radius total (49...
October 12, 2017: Endokrynologia Polska
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29021983/an-integrated-framework-for-process-driven-model-construction-in-disease-ecology-and-animal-health
#13
REVIEW
Rebecca Mancy, Patrick M Brock, Rowland R Kao
Process models that focus on explicitly representing biological mechanisms are increasingly important in disease ecology and animal health research. However, the large number of process modelling approaches makes it difficult to decide which is most appropriate for a given disease system and research question. Here, we discuss different motivations for using process models and present an integrated conceptual analysis that can be used to guide the construction of infectious disease process models and comparisons between them...
2017: Frontiers in Veterinary Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29021438/factors-for-predicting-outcomes-among-non-hiv-patients-with-pulmonary-tuberculosis
#14
Toshinori Tsukahara, Nobuyuki Horita, Ken Tashiro, Kenjiro Nagai, Masaharu Shinkai, Masaki Yamamoto, Takashi Sato, Yu Hara, Hideyuki Nagakura, Yuji Shibata, Hiroki Watanabe, Kentaro Nakashima, Ryota Ushio, Akimichi Nagashima, Misako Ikeda, Atsuya Narita, Katsuhito Sasaki, Nobuaki Kobayashi, Makoto Kudo, Takeshi Kaneko
Background Onodera's Prognostic Nutritional Index (PNI), determined as "10× albumin (g/dL) + 0.005× lymphocyte count (/μL)," was originally designed to determine the risk of complications following gastrointestinal surgery. This single-center, retrospective observational study was designed to investigate whether or not the PNI can predict the treatment outcome. Methods We consecutively reviewed HIV-negative pulmonary tuberculosis adults in an isolation ward. Most patients were being treated with standard three- or four-drug regimens...
October 11, 2017: Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29020981/areas-with-evidence-of-equity-and-their-progress-on-mortality-from-tuberculosis-in-an-endemic-municipality-of-southeast-brazil
#15
Mellina Yamamura, Marcelino Santos Neto, Francisco Chiaravalloti Neto, Luiz Henrique Arroyo, Antônio Carlos Vieira Ramos, Ana Angélica Rêgo de Queiroz, Aylana de Souza Belchior, Danielle Talita Dos Santos, Juliane de Almeida Crispim, Ione Carvalho Pinto, Severina Alice da Costa Uchôa, Regina Célia Fiorati, Ricardo Alexandre Arcêncio
BACKGROUND: In Brazil, people still fall ill and die from tuberculosis (TB), and this can be explained by the significant impasse in the equity of distribution of therapeutic resources to the population as a whole. The aim was to identify geographical areas which have shown progress in terms of equity (of income, schooling and urban occupancy) and test its effect on mortality from TB in a municipality of southeast Brazil. METHODS: It is an ecological study considering TB as the basic cause for deaths registered between 2006 and 2013 on the Mortality Information System and other variables obtained through the Demographic Census of the Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics (2010)...
October 12, 2017: Infectious Diseases of Poverty
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29020173/time-to-sputum-culture-conversion-and-treatment-outcomes-among-patients-with-isoniazid-resistant-tuberculosis-in-atlanta-georgia
#16
Marcos C Schechter, Destani Bizune, Michelle Kagei, Mamuka Machaidze, David P Holland, Alawode Oladele, Yun F Wang, Paulina A Rebolledo, Susan M Ray, Russell R Kempker
Background: Although isoniazid-resistant tuberculosis is more common than multidrug-resistant tuberculosis, it has been much less studied. We examined the impact of isoniazid resistance and treatment regimen, including use of a fluoroquinolone, on clinical outcomes. Methods: A retrospective cohort study among patients with sputum culture-positive tuberculosis was performed. Early fluoroquinolone (FQ) use was defined as receiving ≥5 doses during the first month of treatment...
August 3, 2017: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29019524/-budget-impact-of-the-incorporation-of-genexpert-mtb-rif-for-diagnosis-of-pulmonary-tuberculosis-from-the-perspective-of-the-brazilian-unified-national-health-system-brazil-2013-2017
#17
Márcia Ferreira Teixeira Pinto, Ricardo Steffen, Aline Entringer, Ana Carolina Carioca da Costa, Anete Trajman
The study aimed to estimate the budget impact of GeneXpert MTB/RIF for diagnosis of tuberculosis from the perspective of the Brazilian National Program for Tuberculosis Control, drawing on a static model using the epidemiological method, from 2013 to 2017. GeneXpert MTB/RIF was compared with two diagnostic sputum smear tests. The study used epidemiological, population, and cost data, exchange rates, and databases from the Brazilian Unified National Health System. Sensitivity analysis of scenarios was performed...
October 9, 2017: Cadernos de Saúde Pública
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29018769/homeless-shelter-context-and-tuberculosis-illness-experiences-during-a-large-outbreak-in-atlanta-georgia
#18
W J Connors, S A Hussen, D P Holland, O Mohamed, K L Andes, N D Goswami
Setting: Persons experiencing homelessness (PEH) represent a population at high risk for tuberculosis (TB). While quantitative studies have characterized some important features of this key group, less has been captured directly from PEH about how they experience TB illness itself and the prevention and control measures implemented in response to an outbreak. This qualitative study aimed to explore PEH's TB disease experiences in the context of a large TB outbreak involving homeless shelters in Atlanta, Georgia, USA...
September 21, 2017: Public Health Action
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29017282/plasma-cytokine-predictors-of-tuberculosis-recurrence-in-antiretroviral-treated-human-immunodeficiency-virus-infected-individuals-from-durban-south-africa
#19
Aida Sivro, Lyle R McKinnon, Nonhlanhla Yende-Zuma, Santhana Gengiah, Natasha Samsunder, Salim S Abdool Karim, Kogieleum Naidoo
Background: Immune correlates of tuberculosis (TB) risk in populations infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) remain understudied, despite HIV being associated with a high burden of TB disease. Here we describe plasma cytokine correlates of TB recurrence in a well-characterized cohort of HIV-infected individuals on antiretroviral therapy (ART) with a history of prior TB cure. Methods: Study participants were drawn from a prospective cohort study initiated at the conclusion of a randomized clinical trial in which individuals presented with untreated HIV infection and active pulmonary TB...
September 1, 2017: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29017248/fluoroquinolone-resistance-mutation-detection-is-equivalent-to-culture-based-drug-sensitivity-testing-for-predicting-multidrug-resistant-tuberculosis-treatment-outcome-a-retrospective-cohort-study
#20
Maha R Farhat, Karen R Jacobson, Molly F Franke, Devinder Kaur, Megan Murray, Carole D Mitnick
Background: Molecular diagnostics that rapidly and accurately predict fluoroquinolone (FQ) resistance promise to improve treatment outcomes for individuals with multidrug-resistant (MDR) tuberculosis (TB). Mutations in the gyr genes, though, can cause variable levels of in vitro FQ resistance, and some in vitro resistance remains unexplained by gyr mutations alone, but the implications of these discrepancies for treatment outcome are unknown. Methods: We performed a retrospective cohort study of 172 subjects with MDR/extensively drug-resistant TB subjects and sequenced the full gyrA and gyrB open reading frames in their respective sputum TB isolates...
October 15, 2017: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
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