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Modeling AND tuberculosis

Brenda Gamboa-Acuña, Rayza Guillén-Zambrano, Grecia Lizzetti-Mendoza, Alonso Soto, Aldo Lucchetti-Rodríguez
Background The main cause of death in HIV patients is tuberculosis (TB). However, few Latin American studies have evaluated the prognosis of patients with coinfection. Aim To determine the factors associated with survival in patients with HIV-TB coinfection treated at a Peruvian referral hospital. Methods A retrospective cohort study was performed based on clinical records of patients treated at the Department of Infectious Diseases in the Arzobispo Loayza National Hospital from 2004 to 2012. Survival was assessed using the Kaplan-Meier estimator and Cox Proportional Hazard Model...
2018: Revista Chilena de Infectología: órgano Oficial de la Sociedad Chilena de Infectología
Naveed Sabir, Tariq Hussain, Syed Zahid Ali Shah, Antonio Peramo, Deming Zhao, Xiangmei Zhou
Tuberculosis (TB) is one of the most fatal infectious diseases and a leading cause of mortality, with 95% of these deaths occurring in developing countries. The causative agent, Mycobacterium tuberculosis ( Mtb ), has a well-established ability to circumvent the host's immune system for its intracellular survival. microRNAs (miRNAs) are small, non-coding RNAs having an important function at the post-transcriptional level and are involved in shaping immunity by regulating the repertoire of genes expressed in immune cells...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
Mary Lilian Carabali-Isajar, Marisol Ocampo, Deisy Carolina Rodriguez, Magnolia Vanegas, Hernando Curtidor, Manuel Alfonso Patarroyo, Manuel Elkin Patarroyo
Mycobacterium tuberculosis is considered one of the most successful pathogens in the history of mankind, having caused 1.7 million deaths in 2016. The amount of resistant and extensively resistant strains has increased; BCG has been the only vaccine to be produced in more than 100 years though it is still unable to prevent the disease's most disseminated form in adults; pulmonary tuberculosis. The search is thus still on-going for candidate antigens for an antituberculosis vaccine. This paper reports the use of a logical and rational methodology for finding such antigens, this time as peptides derived from the Rv3587c membrane protein...
April 4, 2018: Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry
Duc T M Nguyen, Edward A Graviss
OBJECTIVE: To develop and validate a simple prognostic scoring system to predict the mortality risk during treatment in tuberculosis patients. METHODS: Using data from the CDC's Tuberculosis Genotyping Information Management System of TB patients in Texas reported from 01/2010 to 12/2016, age ≥ 15 years and having an outcome as "completed" or "died", we developed and validated a prognostic mortality scoring system-based logistic regression beta-coefficients...
April 9, 2018: Journal of Infection
Jesús Gonzalo-Asensio, Irene Pérez, Nacho Aguiló, Santiago Uranga, Ana Picó, Carlos Lampreave, Alberto Cebollada, Isabel Otal, Sofía Samper, Carlos Martín
The insertion Sequence IS6110, only present in the pathogens of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis Complex (MTBC), has been the gold-standard epidemiological marker for TB for more than 25 years, but biological implications of IS6110 transposition during MTBC adaptation to humans remain elusive. By studying 2,236 clinical isolates typed by IS6110-RFLP and covering the MTBC, we remarked a lineage-specific content of IS6110 being higher in modern globally distributed strains. Once observed the IS6110 distribution in the MTBC, we selected representative isolates and found a correlation between the normalized expression of IS6110 and its abundance in MTBC chromosomes...
April 2018: PLoS Genetics
Stewart T Chang, Violet N Chihota, Katherine L Fielding, Alison D Grant, Rein M Houben, Richard G White, Gavin J Churchyard, Philip A Eckhoff, Bradley G Wagner
BACKGROUND: Gold mines represent a potential hotspot for Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) transmission and may be exacerbating the tuberculosis (TB) epidemic in South Africa. However, the presence of multiple factors complicates estimation of the mining contribution to the TB burden in South Africa. METHODS: We developed two models of TB in South Africa, a static risk model and an individual-based model that accounts for longer-term trends. Both models account for four populations - mine workers, peri-mining residents, labor-sending residents, and other residents of South Africa - including the size and prevalence of latent TB infection, active TB, and HIV of each population and mixing between populations...
April 12, 2018: BMC Medicine
Süheyla Sürücüoğlu
Tuberculosis has spread by human movements throughout history. There have been reports indicating tuberculosis transmission on all travel vehicles, including aircrafts, ground vehicles and vessels until today. However, due to the ever increasing of air transportation and air travelling among countries with low and high tuberculosis incidence, transmission risk especially in aircrafts has become an important issue worldwide. But in many of the studies conducted in this regard, transmission of tuberculosis in aircrafts was found very low...
January 2018: Mikrobiyoloji Bülteni
Michelle Kvalsund, Takondwa Chidumayo, Johanna Hamel, David Herrmann, Douglas Heimburger, Amanda Peltier, Gretchen Birbeck
BACKGROUND: Non-antiretroviral (ART) drug exposures and poor nutrition may be important modifiable risk factors for distal symmetric polyneuropathies (DSP) in sub-Saharan Africa. METHODS: We conducted a cross-sectional study of DSP prevalence and factors associated with DSP among clinic attendees in urban and rural Zambia. All participants underwent neurologist-performed examination. Laboratory investigations seeking comorbid risk factors for DSP were performed for DSP cases...
May 15, 2018: Journal of the Neurological Sciences
Landon W Locke, Shankaran Kothandaraman, Michael Tweedle, Sarah Chaney, Daniel J Wozniak, Larry S Schlesinger
Granulomas are the histopathologic hallmark of tuberculosis (TB), both in latency and active disease. Diagnostic and therapeutic strategies that specifically target granulomas have not been developed. Our objective is to develop a probe for imaging relevant immune cell populations infiltrating the granuloma. We report the binding specificity of Cyanine 3 (Cy3)-labeled cFLFLFK-PEG12 to human leukocytes and cellular constituents within a human in vitro granuloma model. We also report use of the probe in in vivo studies using a mouse model of lung granulomatous inflammation...
January 2018: Tuberculosis
Pimwara Tanvejsilp, Mark Loeb, Jonathan Dushoff, Feng Xie
BACKGROUND: Thailand's hospitals may adopt different supervision approaches to improve tuberculosis (TB) treatment adherence. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to compare out-of-pocket (OOP) expenditures, indirect costs, and health-related quality of life (HRQoL) among TB patients who received pharmaceutical care (pharmacist-led patient education and telephone consultation), home visit, and self-administered therapy (SAT) in Thailand. METHODS: We conducted a prospective study to collect OOP expenditures, indirect costs, and HRQoL from a subsample of 104 adult pulmonary TB patients who started treatment between January and May 2014 in three hospitals...
September 13, 2017: PharmacoEconomics Open
Pimwara Tanvejsilp, Mark Loeb, Jonathan Dushoff, Feng Xie
BACKGROUND: In Thailand, pharmaceutical care has been recently introduced to a tertiary hospital as an approach to improve adherence to tuberculosis (TB) treatment in addition to home visit and modified directly observed therapy (DOT). However, the economic impact of pharmaceutical care is not known. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to estimate healthcare resource uses and costs associated with pharmaceutical care compared with home visit and modified DOT in pulmonary TB patients in Thailand from a healthcare sector perspective inclusive of out-of-pocket expenditures...
August 22, 2017: PharmacoEconomics Open
Victoria Cavero, Francisco Diez-Canseco, Mauricio Toyama, Gustavo Flórez Salcedo, Alessandra Ipince, Ricardo Araya, J Jaime Miranda
Background: This study aimed to understand the offer of mental health care at the primary care level, collecting the views of psychologists, primary health care providers (PHCPs), and patients, with a focus on health services in which patients attend regularly and who present a higher prevalence of mental disorders. Methods: A qualitative study was conducted in antenatal care, tuberculosis, HIV/AIDS, and chronic diseases services from six primary health care centers. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with psychologists, PHCPs, and patients working in or attending the selected facilities...
2018: Wellcome Open Research
Madapathage Gayan Buddhika Senanayake, Sumudu Indika Wickramasinghe, Sudath Samaraweera, Pubudu De Silva, Sisira Edirippulige
Background: Tuberculosis (TB) is a major global health problem, commonly seen in underdeveloped countries. The probability of contracting the disease is significantly higher among the economically vulnerable and the socially disadvantaged. Risk factors associated with TB can also change over time. In the Sri Lankan context, no study has explored how these factors impact patients. Therefore, we aimed to explore social status, associated risk factors and lifestyle changes during the treatment period of TB patients attending a tertiary respiratory center in Colombo, Sri Lanka...
2018: Multidisciplinary Respiratory Medicine
Emily J Strong, Nicholas P West
The current vaccine for tuberculosis (TB) is a live attenuated strain of Mycobacterium bovis (BCG) and while effective at reducing the potential for disseminated TB in young children its disease protection rates in adults is highly variable while it confers little protection against latent TB. With these limitations a new vaccine is desperately needed. We investigated the efficacy of three members of the mycobacterial membrane protein Large (MmpL) family as potential subunit vaccines for TB. MmpLs are large, multifunctional integral membrane proteins, and as such are recalcitrant to purification...
April 4, 2018: Scientific Reports
Dalin Rifat, Brendan Prideaux, Radojka M Savic, Michael E Urbanowski, Teresa L Parsons, Brian Luna, Mark A Marzinke, Alvaro A Ordonez, Vincent P DeMarco, Sanjay K Jain, Veronique Dartois, William R Bishai, Kelly E Dooley
In clinical trials of two rifamycin antibiotics (rifampin and rifapentine) for treating tuberculosis (TB), patients with cavitary lung lesions did not appear to derive benefit from rifapentine. Rifapentine was found not to outperform rifampin, despite a lower minimum inhibitory concentration against Mycobacterium tuberculosis in mouse models of TB. To understand these findings, we have developed a rabbit model of TB that reliably develops lung cavities with features similar to those of patients with pulmonary cavitary TB...
April 4, 2018: Science Translational Medicine
Karl T Johnson, Gavin J Churchyard, Hojoon Sohn, David W Dowdy
Background: A short-course regimen of three months of weekly rifapentine and isoniazid (3HP) has recently been recommended by the World Health Organization (WHO) as an alternative to at least six months of daily isoniazid (isoniazid preventive therapy, IPT) for prevention of tuberculosis (TB). The contexts in which 3HP may be cost-effective compared to IPT among people living with HIV (PLWH) are unknown. Methods: We used a Markov state-transition model to estimate the incremental cost-effectiveness of 3HP relative to IPT in high-burden settings, using a cohort of 1000 patients in a Ugandan HIV clinic as an emblematic scenario...
March 30, 2018: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
Brian D Guth, Anne Grobler
Southern Africa (South Africa as well as neighboring countries) has not had an infrastructure for testing the safety of new drugs or other therapeutic entities, including plant-based or herbal treatments coming from the indigenous cultures, according to the current practice and regulatory requirements. Simultaneously, Southern Africa is challenged by very high rates of immune deficiency diseases which have further led to the resurgence of diseases such as tuberculosis, which is commonly thought to be eradicated, at least in Western cultures...
March 31, 2018: Journal of Pharmacological and Toxicological Methods
Nafees Ahmad, Arshad Javaid, Afsar Khan Afridi, Anila Basit, Amer Hayat Khan, Izaz Ahmad, Muhammad Atif
To evaluate the predictive value of time to sputum culture conversion (SCC) in predicting cure and factors associated with time to SCC and cure in multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) patients, a retrospective study was conducted at programmatic management unit of drug resistant tuberculosis (TB), Peshawar. A total of 428 pulmonary MDR-TB patients enrolled at the study site from January 1, 2012 to August 31, 2014 were followed until treatment outcome was recorded. Survival analysis using Cox proportional hazards model and multivariate binary logistic regression were, respectively, used to identify factors associated with time to SCC and cure...
April 2, 2018: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
Suyu Mei
Bacterial protein-protein interaction (PPI) networks are significant to reveal the machinery of signal transduction and drug resistance within bacterial cells. The database STRING has collected a large number of bacterial pathogen PPI networks, but most of the data are of low quality without being experimentally or computationally validated, thus restricting its further biomedical applications. In this work, we exploit the experimental data via four solutions to enhance the quality of M. tuberculosis H37Rv (MTB) PPI networks in STRING...
April 3, 2018: Journal of Proteome Research
Q Wang, X M Wang, W M Chen, L Zhou, Q Meng, S H Chen, Z W Liu, W B Wang
Objective: Drug-resistant tuberculosis (TB) may be resistant to one or multiple anti-TB drugs. We used generalized estimation equations to analysis the risk factors of drug-resistant TB and provide information for the establishment of a warning model for these non-independent data. Methods: The drug susceptibility test and questionnaire survey were performed in sputum positive TB patients from 30 anti TB drug-resistance surveillance sites in Zhejiang province. The generalized estimation model was established by the GENMOD module of SAS, with resistance to 13 kinds of anti-TB drugs as dependent variables and possible influencing factors, such as age, having insurance, HBV infection status, and history of anti-TB drug intake, as independent variables...
March 10, 2018: Zhonghua Liu Xing Bing Xue za Zhi, Zhonghua Liuxingbingxue Zazhi
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