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Modeling tuberculosis

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29472018/tuberculosis-control-interventions-targeted-to-previously-treated-people-in-a-high-incidence-setting-a-modelling-study
#1
Florian M Marx, Reza Yaesoubi, Nicolas A Menzies, Joshua A Salomon, Alyssa Bilinski, Nulda Beyers, Ted Cohen
BACKGROUND: In high-incidence settings, recurrent disease among previously treated individuals contributes substantially to the burden of incident and prevalent tuberculosis. The extent to which interventions targeted to this high-risk group can improve tuberculosis control has not been established. We aimed to project the population-level effect of control interventions targeted to individuals with a history of previous tuberculosis treatment in a high-incidence setting. METHODS: We developed a transmission-dynamic model of tuberculosis and HIV in a high-incidence setting with a population of roughly 40 000 people in suburban Cape Town, South Africa...
February 19, 2018: Lancet Global Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29471696/the-recombinant-fusion-protein-cfp10-esat6-difn-has-protective-effect-against-tuberculosis-in-guinea-pigs
#2
Natalya V Permyakova, Pavel A Belavin, Dariya S Pirozhkova, Elena G Ufimtseva, Sergey M Rozov, Sergey R Mursalimov, Yuriy V Sidorchuk, Elena A Uvarova, Alla A Zagorskaya, Tatiana V Marenkova, Svetlana V Bannikova, Evgeniy A Demidov, Konstantin V Starostin, Marionella A Kravchenko, Diana V Vakhrusheva, Roman B Berdnikov, Natalya I Eremeeva, Sergey N Skornyakov, Sergey E Peltek, Elena V Deineko
Development of effective vaccine candidates against tuberculosis is currently the most important challenge in the prevention of this disease since the BCG vaccine fails to guarantee a lifelong protection, while any other approved vaccine with better efficiency is still absent. The protective effect of the recombinant fusion protein ESAT6-CFP10-dIFN produced in a prokaryotic expression system (Escherichia coli) has been assessed in a guinea pig model of acute tuberculosis. The tested antigen comprises the Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) proteins ESAT6 and CFP10 as well as modified human γ-interferon (dIFN) for boosting the immune response...
February 23, 2018: Acta Microbiologica et Immunologica Hungarica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29471332/mycobacterium-tuberculosis-infected-hematopoietic-stem-and-progenitor-cells-unable-to-express-inducible-nitric-oxide-synthase-propagate-tuberculosis-in-mice
#3
Stephen T Reece, Alexis Vogelzang, Julia Tornack, Wolfgang Bauer, Ulrike Zedler, Sandra Schommer-Leitner, Georg Stingl, Fritz Melchers, Stefan H E Kaufmann
Persistence of Mycobacterium tuberculosis within human bone marrow stem cells has been identified as a potential bacterial niche during latent tuberculosis. Using a murine model of tuberculosis, we show here that bone marrow stem and progenitor cells containing M. tuberculosis propagated tuberculosis when transferred to naive mice, given that both transferred cells and recipient mice were unable to express inducible nitric oxide synthase, which mediates killing of intracellular bacteria via nitric oxide. Our findings suggest that bone marrow stem and progenitor cells containing M...
February 17, 2018: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29468971/il-10-promoter-592-polymorphism-may-influence-resistance-to-hiv-infection-in-south-indian-population
#4
Murugesan Harishankar, Harini Ravikrishnan, Akshaya Ravishankar, Luke Hanna Elizabeth, Soumya Swaminathan, Paramasivam Selvaraj, Ramalingam Bethunaickan
BACKGROUND: Genetic factors play an important role in the development of disease susceptibility or protection. Cytokine gene polymorphisms are reported to be associated with altered levels of cytokine production that can impact disease progression in HIV and TB. OBJECTIVE: In this study, we studied IL-10 -592(C/A) and TGF-β -509 (C/T) promoter polymorphisms to understand their role in susceptibility or resistance to HIV and TB in a South Indian population. METHOD: Genomic DNA was isolated from healthy controls, pulmonary tuberculosis patients (n=122) and HIV positive individuals (n=100) and used for genotyping by polymerase chain reaction followed by restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) method...
February 19, 2018: Current HIV Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29466983/multidrug-resistant-tuberculosis-treatment-adherence-in-migrants-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#5
Laura B Nellums, Kieran Rustage, Sally Hargreaves, Jon S Friedland
BACKGROUND: Multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) is a growing concern in meeting global targets for TB control. In high-income low-TB-incidence countries, a disproportionate number of MDR-TB cases occur in migrant (foreign-born) populations, with concerns about low adherence rates in these patients compared to the host non-migrant population. Tackling MDR-TB in this context may, therefore, require unique approaches. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to identify and synthesise data on MDR-TB treatment adherence in migrant patients to inform evidence-based strategies to improve care pathways and health outcomes in this group...
February 22, 2018: BMC Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29463526/elevated-plasma-moxifloxacin-concentrations-and-slco1b1-g-11187g-a-polymorphism-in-adults-with-pulmonary-tuberculosis
#6
Marc Weiner, Jon Gelfond, Teresa L Johnson-Pais, Melissa Engle, Charles A Peloquin, John L Johnson, Erin E Sizemore, William R Mac Kenzie
Moxifloxacin exhibits concentration-dependent prolongation of human QTc intervals and bactericidal activity against Mycobacterium tuberculosis However, moxifloxacin plasma concentrations are variable between patients. We evaluated whether human gene polymorphisms affect moxifloxacin plasma concentrations in tuberculosis patients from two geographic regions. We enrolled a convenience sample of 49 adults with drug-sensitive pulmonary tuberculosis from Africa and the United State s enrolled in two treatment trials of moxifloxacin as part of multidrug therapy...
February 20, 2018: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29461901/predicting-treatment-outcome-of-drug-susceptible-tuberculosis-patients-using-machine-learning-models
#7
Owais A Hussain, Khurum N Junejo
Tuberculosis (TB) is a deadly contagious disease and a serious global health problem. It is curable but due to its lengthy treatment process, a patient is likely to leave the treatment incomplete, leading to a more lethal, drug resistant form of disease. The World Health Organization (WHO) propagates Directly Observed Therapy Short-course (DOTS) as an effective way to stop the spread of TB in communities with a high burden. But DOTS also adds a significant burden on the financial feasibility of the program...
February 20, 2018: Informatics for Health & Social Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29460733/influenza-vaccination-and-incident-tuberculosis-among-elderly-persons-taiwan-1
#8
Yung-Feng Yen, Sheng-Wei Pan, Vincent Yi-Fong Su, Pei-Hung Chuang, Jia-Yih Feng, Wei-Juin Su
Experimental studies have demonstrated that influenza vaccination may protect against tuberculosis (TB) through a Th17 response. This nationwide cohort study aimed to evaluate the association of influenza vaccination with incident TB among elderly persons in Taiwan. This 2005-2012 study included 99,982 elderly persons (64,290 vaccinated and 35,692 unvaccinated) from the Taiwan National Health Insurance Research Database. During the 738,367 person-years of follow-up, 1,141 (1.14%) persons had incident TB. The cumulative incidences of TB were 145...
March 2018: Emerging Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29460720/humane-endpoints-for-guinea-pigs-used-for-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-vaccine-research
#9
Chereen Collymore, Laura Kent, Sang Kyun Ahn, Wenxi Xu, Ming Li, Jun Liu, Patricia V Turner, E Kate Banks
Guinea pigs are a commonly used model for tuberculosis vaccine research. Loss of body weight is the most frequently described humane endpoint for animals used in these studies. During a chronic study, we noted labored breathing in some tuberculosis-infected guinea pigs. To develop consistent humane endpoints for these guinea pigs, we performed an observational study using multiple clinical signs. A combination of body weight loss, labored breathing, and activity level during handling estimated the time to euthanasia within approximately 7 d...
February 1, 2018: Comparative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29459859/next-generation-vaccines-based-on-bacille-calmette-gu%C3%A3-rin
#10
REVIEW
Natalie E Nieuwenhuizen, Stefan H E Kaufmann
Tuberculosis (TB), caused by the intracellular bacterium Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb), remains a major health threat. A live, attenuated mycobacterium known as Bacille Calmette-Guérin (BCG), derived from the causative agent of cattle TB, Mycobacterium bovis , has been in clinical use as a vaccine for 90 years. The current incidence of TB demonstrates that BCG fails to protect sufficiently against pulmonary TB, the major disease manifestation and source of dissemination. The protective efficacy of BCG is on average 50% but varies substantially with geographical location and is poorer in those with previous exposure to mycobacteria...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29458557/evaluation-of-greater-wax-moth-larvae-galleria-mellonella-as-a-novel-in-vivo-model-for-non-tuberculosis-mycobacteria-infections-and-antibiotic-treatments
#11
Frances M Entwistle, Peter J Coote
PURPOSE: To evaluate the suitability of Galleria mellonella larvae as an in vivo model and drug-screening tool for mycobacteria infections. METHODOLOGY: Larvae were infected using a range of inoculum sizes from a variety of rapid-growing mycobacteria, including strains of M. fortuitum, M. marinum and M. aurum. Larval survival, internal bacterial burden and the effects of amikacin, ciprofloxacin, ethambutol, isoniazid and rifampicin treatment on larval survival were measured over 144 h...
February 13, 2018: Journal of Medical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29458544/antimicrobial-activity-against-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-under-in-vitro-lipid-rich-dormancy-conditions
#12
Diana Angelica Aguilar-Ayala, Margo Cnockaert, Peter Vandamme, Juan Carlos Palomino, Anandi Martin, Jorge Gonzalez-Y-Merchand
Although tuberculosis treatment is dependent on drug-susceptibility testing (DST) and molecular drug-resistance detection, treatment failure and relapse remain a challenge. This could be partially due to the emergence of antibiotic-tolerant dormant mycobacteria, where host lipids have been shown to play an important role. This study evaluated the susceptibility of Mycobacterium tuberculosis to two antibiotic combinations - rifampicin, moxifloxacin, amikacin and metronidazole (RIF-MXF-AMK-MTZ), and rifampicin, moxifloxacin, amikacin and pretomanid (RIF-MXF-AMK-PA) - in a lipid-rich dormancy model...
January 15, 2018: Journal of Medical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29456807/potential-of-polymeric-particles-as-future-vaccine-delivery-systems-adjuvants-for-parenteral-and-non-parenteral-immunization-against-tuberculosis-a-systematic-review
#13
REVIEW
Farzad Khademi, Mohammad Derakhshan, Arshid Yousefi-Avarvand, Mohsen Tafaghodi
Objectives: Production of effective tuberculosis (TB) vaccine is necessity. However, the development of new subunit vaccines is faced with concerns about their weak immunogenicity. To overcome such problems, polymers-based vaccine delivery systems have been proposed to be used via various routes. The purpose of this study was to determine the potential of polymeric particles as future vaccine delivery systems/adjuvants for parenteral and non-parenteral immunization against TB. Materials and Methods: PubMed, Scopus, Science-Direct, and the ISI web of knowledge databases were searched for related keywords...
February 2018: Iranian Journal of Basic Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29454879/application-of-genetically-encoded-redox-biosensors-to-measure-dynamic-changes-in-the-glutathione-bacillithiol-and-mycothiol-redox-potentials-in-pathogenic-bacteria
#14
REVIEW
Quach Ngoc Tung, Nico Linzner, Vu Van Loi, Haike Antelmann
Gram-negative bacteria utilize glutathione (GSH) as their major LMW thiol. However, most Gram-positive bacteria do not encode enzymes for GSH biosynthesis and produce instead alternative LMW thiols, such as bacillithiol (BSH) and mycothiol (MSH). BSH is utilized by Firmicutes and MSH is the major LMW thiol of Actinomycetes. LMW thiols are required to maintain the reduced state of the cytoplasm, but are also involved in virulence mechanisms in human pathogens, such as Staphylococcus aureus, Mycobacterium tuberculosis, Streptococcus pneumoniae, Salmonella enterica subsp...
February 15, 2018: Free Radical Biology & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29454325/latent-tuberculosis-infection-and-associated-risk-indicators-in-pastoral-communities-in-southern-ethiopia-a-community-based-cross-sectional-study
#15
Takele Teklu, Mengistu Legesse, Girmay Medhin, Aboma Zewude, Mahlet Chanyalew, Martha Zewdie, Biniam Wondale, Milkessa Haile-Mariam, Rembert Pieper, Gobena Ameni
BACKGROUND: Research pertaining to the community-based prevalence of latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI) is important to understand the magnitude of this infection. This study was conducted to estimate LTBI prevalence and to identify associated risk factors in the Omo Zone of Southern Ethiopia. METHODS: A community-based cross-sectional study was conducted in six South Omo districts from May 2015 to February 2016. The sample size was allocated to the study districts proportional to their population sizes...
February 17, 2018: BMC Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29449840/c-abl-twist1-epigenetically-dysregulate-inflammatory-responses-during-mycobacterial-infection-by-co-regulating-bone-morphogenesis-protein-and-mir27a
#16
Kasturi Mahadik, Praveen Prakhar, R S Rajmani, Amit Singh, Kithiganahalli Narayanaswamy Balaji
Mycobacteria propelled modulation of host responses is of considerable interest in the face of emerging drug resistance. Although it is known that Abl tyrosine kinases affect entry and persistence of mycobacteria, mechanisms that couple c-Abl to proximal signaling pathways during immunity are poorly understood. Loss-of-function of c-Abl through Imatinib, in a mouse model of tuberculosis or RNA interference, identified bone morphogenesis protein (BMP) signaling as its cellular target. We demonstrate that c-Abl promotes mycobacterial survival through epigenetic modification brought about by KAT5-TWIST1 at Bmp loci...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29447423/nk-cells-inhibit-anti-m-bovis-bcg-t-cell-responses-and-aggravate-pulmonary-inflammation-in-a-direct-lung-infection-mouse-model
#17
Dongfang Wang, Xiuling Gu, Xiaoman Liu, Songtao Wei, Bin Wang, Min Fang
Tuberculosis remains a threat to public health. The major problem for curing this disease is latent infection, of which the underlying mechanisms are still not fully understood. Previous studies indicate that NK cells do not play a role in inhibiting the growth of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in the lung, and recent studies have revealed that NK cells regulate the adaptive immunity during mycobacterial infection. By using a mouse model of direct lung infection with M.bovis BCG, we found that the presence of NK cells postponed the priming and activation of T cells after BCG infection...
February 15, 2018: Cellular Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29446860/development-of-a-clinical-prediction-rule-for-tuberculous-meningitis-in-adults-in-lima-peru
#18
Lely Solari, Alonso Soto, Patrick van der Stuyft
OBJECTIVES: Diagnosis of Tuberculous Meningitis (TM) is a challenge in countries with a high burden of the disease and constrained resources and Clinical Prediction Rules (CPRs) could be of assistance. We aimed at developing a CPR for diagnosis of TM in a Latin American setting with high tuberculosis incidence and a concentrated HIV epidemic. METHODS: We enrolled adult patients with clinical suspicion of TM attending two hospitals in Lima, Peru. We obtained information on potential anamnestic, clinical and laboratory predictive findings that are easy to collect and promptly available...
February 15, 2018: Tropical Medicine & International Health: TM & IH
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29444122/latent-tuberculosis-infection-in-foreign-born-communities-import-vs-transmission-in-the-netherlands-derived-through-mathematical-modelling
#19
Hester Korthals Altes, Serieke Kloet, Frank Cobelens, Martin Bootsma
While tuberculosis (TB) represents a significant disease burden worldwide, low-incidence countries strive to reach the WHO target of pre-elimination by 2035. Screening for TB in immigrants is an important component of the strategy to reduce the TB burden in low-incidence settings. An important option is the screening and preventive treatment of latent TB infection (LTBI). Whether this policy is worthwhile depends on the extent of transmission within the country, and introduction of new cases through import...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29440162/sequelae-of-multidrug-resistant-tuberculosis-protocol-for-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#20
Kefyalew Addis Alene, Archie C A Clements, Emma S McBryde, Ernesto Jaramillo, Knut Lonnroth, Debebe Shaweno, Kerri Viney
INTRODUCTION: The sequelae of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) are poorly understood and inconsistently reported. We will aim to assess the existing evidence for the clinical, psychological, social and economic sequelae of MDR-TB and to assess the health-related quality of life in patients with MDR-TB. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: We will perform a systematic review and meta-analysis of published studies reporting sequelae of MDR-TB. We will search PubMed, SCOPUS, ProQuest, Web of Science and PsychINFO databases up to 5 September 2017...
February 10, 2018: BMJ Open
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