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Modeling tuberculosis

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906024/rate-of-initial-highly-active-anti-retroviral-therapy-regimen-change-and-its-predictors-among-adult-hiv-patients-at-university-of-gondar-referral-hospital-northwest-ethiopia-a-retrospective-follow-up-study
#1
Degefaye Zelalem Anlay, Zinahbizu Abay Alemayehu, Berihun Assefa Dachew
BACKGROUND: Regimen change is a major challenge for the sustainability of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) treatment program. In a resource limited setting where treatment options are limited, designing strategies to increase the durability of original regimen are essential. However, information's on rate of initial regimen change and its predictors is scarce in Ethiopia. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to assess the rate of initial highly active anti retroviral therapy (HAART) regimen change and its predictors among adult HIV patients at the University of Gondar Referral Hospital, Northwest Ethiopia...
February 17, 2016: AIDS Research and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906006/integrated-therapy-for-hiv-and-tuberculosis
#2
REVIEW
Weerawat Manosuthi, Surasak Wiboonchutikul, Somnuek Sungkanuparph
Tuberculosis (TB) has been the most common opportunistic infection and cause of mortality among HIV-infected patients, especially in resource-limited countries. Clinical manifestations of TB vary and depend on the degree of immunodeficiency. Sputum microscopy and culture with drug-susceptibility testing are recommended as a standard method for diagnosing active TB. TB-related mortality in HIV-infected patients is high especially during the first few months of treatment. Integrated therapy of both HIV and TB is feasible and efficient to control the diseases and yield better survival...
May 12, 2016: AIDS Research and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905997/the-adult-prevalence-of-hiv-in-zambia-results-from-a-population-based-mobile-testing-survey-conducted-in-2013-2014
#3
Pascalina Chanda-Kapata, Nathan Kapata, Eveline Klinkenberg, Ngosa William, Liwewe Mazyanga, Katoba Musukwa, Elizabeth Chizema Kawesha, Felix Masiye, Peter Mwaba
OBJECTIVE: To estimate the adult prevalence of HIV among the adult population in Zambia and determine whether demographic characteristics were associated with being HIV positive. METHODS: A cross sectional population based survey to asses HIV status among participants aged 15 years and above in a national tuberculosis prevalence survey. Counselling was offered to participants who tested for HIV. The prevalence was estimated using a logistic regression model. Univariate and multivariate associations of social demographic characteristics with HIV were determined...
January 19, 2016: AIDS Research and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905897/cost-and-cost-effectiveness-of-tuberculosis-treatment-shortening-a-model-based-analysis
#4
G B Gomez, D W Dowdy, M L Bastos, A Zwerling, S Sweeney, N Foster, A Trajman, M A Islam, S Kapiga, E Sinanovic, G M Knight, R G White, W A Wells, F G Cobelens, A Vassall
BACKGROUND: Despite improvements in treatment success rates for tuberculosis (TB), current six-month regimen duration remains a challenge for many National TB Programmes, health systems, and patients. There is increasing investment in the development of shortened regimens with a number of candidates in phase 3 trials. METHODS: We developed an individual-based decision analytic model to assess the cost-effectiveness of a hypothetical four-month regimen for first-line treatment of TB, assuming non-inferiority to current regimens of six-month duration...
December 1, 2016: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27901128/heterozygote-advantage-of-the-rs3794624-polymorphism-in-cyba-for-resistance-to-tuberculosis-in-two-chinese-populations
#5
Qianqian Liu, Shouquan Wu, Miao Xue, Andrew J Sandford, Jingcan Wu, Yu Wang, Guo Chen, Chuanmin Tao, Yin Tang, Yulin Feng, Jun Luo, Jian-Qing He
Phagocyte Nicotinamide Adenine Dinucleotide Phosphate (NADPH) oxidase complex is a key enzyme that catalyzes the production of reactive oxygen species, which mediate oxygen-dependent killing of microorganisms, such as Mycobacterium tuberculosis. P22phox, encoded by CYBA, is the key regulatory subunit of NADPH oxidase. Our study aimed to investigate the association of CYBA polymorphisms with susceptibility to tuberculosis. Three SNPs (rs9932581, rs3794624 and rs4673) were genotyped in the discovery cohort composed of Chinese Han individuals...
November 30, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27893809/model-of-selective-and-non-selective-management-of-badgers-meles-meles-to-control-bovine-tuberculosis-in-badgers-and-cattle
#6
Graham C Smith, Richard J Delahay, Robbie A McDonald, Richard Budgey
Bovine tuberculosis (bTB) causes substantial economic losses to cattle farmers and taxpayers in the British Isles. Disease management in cattle is complicated by the role of the European badger (Meles meles) as a host of the infection. Proactive, non-selective culling of badgers can reduce the incidence of disease in cattle but may also have negative effects in the area surrounding culls that have been associated with social perturbation of badger populations. The selective removal of infected badgers would, in principle, reduce the number culled, but the effects of selective culling on social perturbation and disease outcomes are unclear...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27889632/synthesis-biological-evaluation-and-in-silico-molecular-modeling-of-pyrrolyl-benzohydrazide-derivatives-as-enoyl-acp-reductase-inhibitors
#7
Shrinivas D Joshi, Sheshagiri R Dixit, Venkatarao H Kulkarni, Christian Lherbet, Mallikarjuna N Nadagouda, Tejraj M Aminabhavi
In efforts to develop lead anti-TB compounds, a novel series of 19 pyrrolyl benzohydrazides were synthesized and screened to target enoyl-ACP reductase enzyme, which is one of the important enzymes involved in type II fatty acid biosynthetic pathway of M. tuberculosis. Pharmacophores were constructed using GALAHAD to generate alignment of data sets and calculated by Pareto ranking. The pharmacophore features were then filtered by Surflex-dock study using enoyl ACP reductase from M. tuberculosis. Compounds 5b and 5d showed H-bonding interactions with Tyr158, Thr196 and co-factor NAD(+) that fitted well within the binding pocket of InhA...
November 17, 2016: European Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27888000/enhanced-laboratory-capacity-development-a-boost-for-effective-tb-control-in-resource-limited-settings
#8
Abraham Sunday Alabi, Afsatou Ndama Traoré, Marguerite Massinga Loembe, Ulysse Ateba-Ngoa, Matthias Frank, Ayola Akim Adegnika, Bertrand Lell, Jocelyn Mahoumbou, Carsten Köhler, Peter Gottfried Kremsner, Martin Peter Grobusch
Both routine and research tuberculosis laboratory capacity urgently need to be expanded in large parts of sub-Saharan Africa. In 2009, the "Centre de Recherches Médicales de Lambaréné" (CERMEL), took a strategic decision to expand its activities by building tuberculosis (TB) laboratory capacity to address research questions and to improve routine diagnostic and treatment capacity. Over those past seven years, we have developed a standard a standard laboratory contributing significantly to TB diagnosis, treatment and control in Gabon; and providing training for TB research staff in Central Africa...
November 22, 2016: International Journal of Infectious Diseases: IJID
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27887600/individual-household-and-community-level-factors-associated-with-keeping-tuberculosis-status-secret-in-ghana
#9
Joshua Amo-Adjei
BACKGROUND: In tuberculosis (TB) control, early disclosure is recommended for the purposes of treatment as well as a means of reducing or preventing person-to-person transmission of the bacteria. However, disclosure maybe avoided as a means of escaping stigma, and possible discrimination. This study aimed at providing insights into factors associated with intentions of Ghanaians to keep positive TB diagnosis in their families' a secret. METHODS: The paper was based on data from the 2014 Ghana Demographic and Health Survey...
November 25, 2016: BMC Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27885861/additional-synthesis-on-thiophene-containing-trisubstituted-methanes-trsms-as-inhibitors-of-m-tuberculosis-and-3d-qsar-studies
#10
P Singh, T Saha, P Mishra, M K Parai, S Ireddy, S Lavanya Kumar M, S Krishna, S K Kumar, V Chaturvedi, S Sinha, M I Siddiqi, G Panda
We earlier reported thiophene-containing trisubstituted methanes (TRSMs) as novel cores carrying anti-tubercular activity, and identified S006-830 as the phenotypic lead with potent bactericidal activity against single- and multi-drug resistant clinical isolates of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M. tb). In this work, we carried out additional synthesis of several TRSMs. The reaction scheme essentially followed the Grignard reaction and Friedel-Crafts alkylation, followed by insertion of a dialkylaminoethyl chain...
November 2016: SAR and QSAR in Environmental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27884716/therapeutic-effects-of-traditionalchinesemedicineniubeixiaohe-in-mouse-tuberculosis-models
#11
Yan Liang, Xiaomei Wang, Jinying Song, Lan Wang, Dan Chen, Yourong Yang, Xuejuan Bai, Jie Wang, Yingchang Shi, Shibing Chen, Jun Liu, Cunwei Yang, Huafeng Luo, Guangling Liu, Xueqiong Wu
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: The traditional Chinese medicine Niubeixiaohe (NBXH) is an effective anti-tuberculosis prescription, which is made up of Bulbus Fritillariae Cirrhosae, Rhizoma Bletillae, Radix Platycodonis, Fructus Arctii, Herba Houttuyniae and Glutinous rice. In this study, NBXH powder (I) and three kinds of NBXH extracts (II, III, and IV) were prepared. The water decoction of NBXH had been used to treat TB in clinic sixteen years suggested that it was effective to treat TB...
November 21, 2016: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27882832/geographic-variation-in-the-quality-and-cost-of-care-for-patients-with-rheumatoid-arthritis
#12
Jason Shafrin, Arijit Ganguli, Yuri Sanchez Gonzalez, Jin Joo Shim, Seth A Seabury
BACKGROUND: There is considerable push to improve value in health care by simultaneously increasing quality while lowering or containing costs. However, for diseases that are best treated with comparatively expensive treatments, such as rheumatoid arthritis (RA), there could be tension between these aims. In this study, we measured geographic variation in quality, access, and cost for patients with RA, a disease with effective but costly specialty treatments. OBJECTIVE: To assess the geographic differences in the quality, access, and cost of care for patients with RA...
December 2016: Journal of Managed Care & Specialty Pharmacy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27879332/mucosal-bcg-vaccination-induces-protective-lung-resident-memory-t-cell-populations-against-tuberculosis
#13
Carolina Perdomo, Ulrike Zedler, Anja A Kühl, Laura Lozza, Philippe Saikali, Leif E Sander, Alexis Vogelzang, Stefan H E Kaufmann, Andreas Kupz
: Mycobacterium bovis Bacille Calmette-Guérin (BCG) is the only licensed vaccine against tuberculosis (TB), yet its moderate efficacy against pulmonary TB calls for improved vaccination strategies. Mucosal BCG vaccination generates superior protection against TB in animal models; however, the mechanisms of protection remain elusive. Tissue-resident memory T (TRM) cells have been implicated in protective immune responses against viral infections, but the role of TRM cells following mycobacterial infection is unknown...
November 22, 2016: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27879136/optimal-control-of-a-tuberculosis-model-with-state-and-control-delays
#14
Cristiana J Silva, Helmut Maurer, Delfim F M Torres
We introduce delays in a tuberculosis (TB) model, representing the time delay on the diagnosis and commencement of treatment of individuals with active TB infection. The stability of the disease free and endemic equilibriums is investigated for any time delay. Corresponding optimal control problems, with time delays in both state and control variables, are formulated and studied. Although it is well-known that there is a delay between two to eight weeks between TB infection and reaction of body's immune system to tuberculin, delays for the active infected to be detected and treated, and delays on the treatment of persistent latent individuals due to clinical and patient reasons, which clearly justifies the introduction of time delays on state and control measures, our work seems to be the first to consider such time-delays for TB and apply time-delay optimal control to carry out the optimality analysis...
February 1, 2017: Mathematical Biosciences and Engineering: MBE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27879115/preface
#15
Avner Friedman, Mirosław Lachowicz, Urszula Ledzewicz, Monika Joanna Piotrowska, Zuzanna Szymanska
This volume was inspired by the topics presented at the international conference "Micro and Macro Systems in Life Sciences" which was held on Jun 8-12, 2015 in Będlewo, Poland. System biology is an approach which tries to understand how micro systems, at the molecular and cellular levels, affect macro systems such as organs, tissue and populations. Thus it is not surprising that a major theme of this volume evolves around cancer and its treatment. Articles on this topic include models for tumor induced angiogenesis, without and with delays, metastatic niche of the bone marrow, drug resistance and metronomic chemotherapy, and virotherapy of glioma...
February 1, 2017: Mathematical Biosciences and Engineering: MBE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27876780/a-meta-analysis-of-mbl2-polymorphisms-and-tuberculosis-risk
#16
Mohammed Y Areeshi, Raju K Mandal, Naseem Akhter, Sajad A Dar, Arshad Jawed, Mohd Wahid, Harishankar Mahto, Aditya K Panda, Mohtashim Lohani, Shafiul Haque
MBL2 gene encodes mannose-binding lectin, is a member of innate immune system. Earlier studies revealed that MBL2 gene variants, rs1800451, rs1800450, rs5030737, rs7096206, rs11003125 and rs7095891 are associated with impaired serum level and susceptibility to TB, but their results are inconsistent. A meta-analysis was performed by including 22 studies (7095 TB-patients and 7662 controls) and data were analyzed with respect to associations between alleles, genotypes and minor allele carriers to evaluate the potential association between MBL2 polymorphisms and TB risk...
November 23, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27873510/certain-polymorphisms-in-sp110-gene-confer-susceptibility-to-tuberculosis-a-comprehensive-review-and-updated-meta-analysis
#17
Shuai Zhang, Xue Bin Wang, Ya Di Han, Chen Wang, Ye Zhou, Fang Zheng
PURPOSE: Numerous studies have assessed the association of SP110 gene variants with tuberculosis (TB), but the results were inconsistent. Through a comprehensive review and meta-analysis, our study aimed to clarify the nature of genetic risks contributed by 11 polymorphisms for the development of TB. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Through searching PubMed, web of science, China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI) databases, a total of 11 articles including 13 independent studies were selected...
January 2017: Yonsei Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27872278/reconstitution-of-a-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-proteostasis-network-highlights-essential-cofactor-interactions-with-chaperone-dnak
#18
Tania J Lupoli, Allison Fay, Carolina Adura, Michael S Glickman, Carl F Nathan
During host infection, Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) encounters several types of stress that impair protein integrity, including reactive oxygen and nitrogen species and chemotherapy. The resulting protein aggregates can be resolved or degraded by molecular machinery conserved from bacteria to eukaryotes. Eukaryotic Hsp104/Hsp70 and their bacterial homologs ClpB/DnaK are ATP-powered chaperones that restore toxic protein aggregates to a native folded state. DnaK is essential in Mycobacterium smegmatis, and ClpB is involved in asymmetrically distributing damaged proteins during cell division as a mechanism of survival in Mtb, commending both proteins as potential drug targets...
November 21, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27872018/preventive-therapy-for-latent-tuberculosis-infection-the-promise-and-the-challenges
#19
REVIEW
G J Fox, C C Dobler, B J Marais, J T Denholm
Around one third of the world's population may harbour latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI), an asymptomatic immunological state that confers a heightened risk of subsequently developing tuberculosis (TB). Effectively treating LTBI will be essential if the End TB Strategy is to be realised This review evaluates the evidence the effectiveness preventive antibiotic therapy to treat LTBI due to both drug susceptible and drug resistant bacteria. We summarise current national and international preventive therapy guidelines, as well as ongoing randomised trials evaluating regimen to prevent drug resistant TB...
November 18, 2016: International Journal of Infectious Diseases: IJID
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27866817/discovery-of-novel-n-phenyl-1-4-dihydropyridines-with-a-dual-mode-of-antimycobacterial-activity
#20
Fabian Lentz, Marc Hemmer, Norbert Reiling, Andreas Hilgeroth
There is an urgent need for novel drugs for the treatment of tuberculosis (TB) due to the increasing prevalence of antibiotic resistance among Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) strains against first-line and second-line therapeutics. We developed novel N-phenyl 1,4-dihydropyridines as potential antituberculotic agents. The observed activity depends on the substitution patterns of the aromatic residues. N-unsubstituted 1,4-dihydropyridines are known inhibitors of the cancer-relevant transmembrane efflux pump ABCB1...
December 15, 2016: Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry Letters
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