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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29781668/the-brief-death-implicit-association-test-scoring-recommendations-reliability-validity-and-comparisons-with-the-death-implicit-association-test
#1
Alexander J Millner, Daniel D L Coppersmith, Bethany A Teachman, Matthew K Nock
Assessing suicidal thoughts and behaviors is difficult because at-risk individuals often fail to provide honest or accurate accounts of their suicidal thoughts or intentions. Research has shown that the Death Implicit Association Test (D-IAT), a behavioral test that measures implicit (i.e., outside of conscious control) associations between oneself and death concepts, can differentiate among people with different suicidal histories, such as those with different severity or recency of suicidal behaviors. We report here on the development and evaluation of a shorter and simpler version of the D-IAT called the Death Brief Implicit Association Test (D-BIAT)...
May 21, 2018: Psychological Assessment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29779116/a-holistic-approach-to-factors-affecting-depression-in-haemodialysis-patients
#2
REVIEW
Georgia Gerogianni, Anastasios Kouzoupis, Eirini Grapsa
Depression in dialysis populations is affected by co-morbid diseases, such as cardiovascular disease, diabetes, and immune dysfunction, and it also includes high suicide risk and frequent hospitalizations. Depressive disorders have a close association with malnutrition and chronic inflammation, as well as with cognitive impairment. Impaired cognitive function may be manifested as low adherence to dialysis treatment, leading to malnutrition. Additionally, chronic pain and low quality of sleep lead to high rates of depressive symptoms in haemodialysis patients, while an untreated depression can cause sleep disturbances and increased mortality risk...
May 19, 2018: International Urology and Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29761579/latent-class-analysis-differentiation-of-adjustment-disorder-and-demoralization-more-severe-depressive-and-anxiety-disorders-and-somatic-symptoms-in-patients-with-cancer
#3
I Bobevski, D W Kissane, S Vehling, D P McKenzie, H Glaesmer, A Mehnert
OBJECTIVES: Demoralization as a form of existential distress involves poor coping, low morale, hopelessness, helplessness and meaninglessness. In a secondary analysis of a cohort of German cancer patients, we aimed to explore latent class structure to assess the contribution that symptoms of demoralization make to anhedonic depression, anxiety, adjustment and somatic disorders. METHODS: Measures of demoralization, depression, anxiety, physical symptoms and functional impairment had been completed cross-sectionally by 1527 patients with early or advanced cancer...
May 14, 2018: Psycho-oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29744872/profound-consequences-of-hidradenitis-suppurativa-a-review
#4
REVIEW
Ł Matusiak
Hidradenitis suppurativa (HS) influences patients' lives in many ways. The most troublesome symptom of HS is chronic pain, of mild-to-moderate intensity, which is reported by almost all patients. With reference to psychosocial evaluation, HS appears to be a highly debilitating disease. The major factors influencing patients' well-being are disease severity, the number of flares or affected skin areas, and the lesion location. The mean Dermatology Life Quality Index scores of 8·3-12·7 points obtained among patients with HS are typical for severe dermatoses, which have a large impact on patients' quality of life (QoL)...
May 9, 2018: British Journal of Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29738276/psychosocial-risk-factors-and-asthma-among-adults-in-puerto-rico
#5
Yueh-Ying Han, Erick Forno, Glorisa Canino, Juan C Celedón
OBJECTIVE: Asthma and psychosocial stressors are common among Puerto Rican adults living in the United States. We estimated the prevalence of current asthma, and examined potential psychosocial risk factors and current asthma, among adults in Puerto Rico. METHODS: Cross-sectional study of 3,049 Puerto Ricans aged 18-64 years living in Puerto Rico between May 2014 and June 2016. A structured interview was conducted to obtain information on demographics, lifestyles, mental disorders, and respiratory health...
May 8, 2018: Journal of Asthma: Official Journal of the Association for the Care of Asthma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29730599/a-social-change-perspective-on-injury-prevention-in-china
#6
Joan Ozanne-Smith, Qingfeng Li
INTRODUCTION: China has undergone massive social change over the past four decades. Since national estimates became available in 1987, the overall fatal injury rate has decreased. This paper investigates targeted interventions and sociodemographic factors that may have contributed to fatal injury rate changes particularly for road traffic fatality (RTF), suicide and drowning. AIMS: (1) To review the recent epidemiology of injury in China.(2)To investigate factors influencing trends in overall and specific cause injury mortality rates...
May 5, 2018: Injury Prevention: Journal of the International Society for Child and Adolescent Injury Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29726276/suicide-prevention-in-australia-does-the-funding-match-the-burden
#7
Allison Milner, Humaira Maheen
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 1, 2018: Australian and New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29706155/the-workforce-shortage-of-child-and-adolescent-psychiatrists-is-it-time-for-a-different-approach
#8
EDITORIAL
Robert L Findling, Ekaterina Stepanova
Psychiatric disorders affect a large number of children around the world. Recent data have reported that approximately 10% to 13% of children have a serious emotional disturbance with significant functional impairment, suggesting that at least 1 in 10 children require mental health services.1,2 Approximately half the adults with mental illness received their diagnosis before 15 years of age3 and close to three fourths of mental health disorders start by the mid-20s.4 Mental illnesses are associated with a large disease burden because these conditions lead to increases in morbidity, mortality, and financial costs...
May 2018: Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29704411/are-suicide-risk-factors-gender-specific
#9
Joanna Maria Pawlak, Izabela Miechowicz, Monika Dmitrzak-Węglarz, Aleksandra Szczepankiewicz, Dorota Zaremba, Paweł Kapelski, Aleksandra Rajewska-Rager, Piotr Czerski, Maria Skibińska, Joanna Hauser
OBJECTIVES: Suicide is an important clinical problem in psychiatric patients. The highest risk of suicide attempts is noted in affective disorders. In this study we tested 20 factors described in the literature (sociodemographic and clinical factors as well as family burden) in association with suicidal behavior and we analyzed whether the significance of those factors differs between males and females. METHODS: In the study we included patients with major depressive disorder (MDD; n = 249) and bipolar affective disorder (BP; n = 582)...
February 28, 2018: Psychiatria Polska
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29665516/-cool-and-hot-executive-functions-in-suicide-attempters-with-major-depressive-disorder
#10
Ming-Chou Ho, Yi-Chieh Hsu, Mong-Liang Lu, Michael Gossop, Vincent Chin-Hung Chen
RATIONALE: The World Health Organization reports that, by 2030, depression is expected to be the largest contributor to disease burden. Only small proportion of patients with major depressive disorder (MDD) achieves remission and the majority of them do not achieve long-term functional recovery. One of the neuropsychological domains that have been shown to be particularly impaired in depression, is that of executive function (EF). OBJECTIVES: We examined whether the patients with MDD with and without suicide attempts had deteriorated 'cool' EF and 'hot' EF...
April 7, 2018: Journal of Affective Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29658315/the-use-of-theory-based-formative-research-to-design-suicide-prevention-messaging-for-u-s-veterans-in-midlife
#11
Elizabeth Karras, Cara M Stokes, Sara C Warfield, Heather Elder, Brady Stephens, Robert M Bossarte
BACKGROUND: Communication campaigns offer a viable mechanism to promote suicide prevention and reinforce mental health for U.S. veterans in midlife, a group with a high suicide burden. However, little empirical investigation of this type of messaging has been conducted, with formative campaign research conspicuously missing from the limited literature. AIMS: Using the theory of planned behavior as a guide, formative research was conducted to inform the design of suicide prevention messaging by (a) describing and measuring several theoretical constructs among our audience and (b) modeling associations between constructs and intentions to seek help for suicidal behaviors and mental health more broadly...
April 1, 2018: Health Education & Behavior: the Official Publication of the Society for Public Health Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29656915/substance-use-and-suicide-in-pacific-islander-american-indian-and-multiracial-youth
#12
Andrew M Subica, Li-Tzy Wu
INTRODUCTION: National estimates of U.S. Native Hawaiian and other Pacific Islander (NHPI), American Indian/Alaskan Native (AIAN), and multiracial adolescent substance use and suicidality are scarce because of their small population sizes. The aim was to estimate the national prevalence of, and disparities in, substance use and suicidality among these understudied adolescents. METHODS: Analyses conducted in 2017 of U.S. adolescents (grades ninth to 12th) from the 1991-2015 Combined National Youth Behavioral Risk Surveys estimated (1) prevalence of lifetime and current (past 30-day) substance use, past 12-month depressed mood, and suicidality by racial group; and (2) AORs for depressed mood and suicidality regressed on current alcohol, cigarette, and marijuana use...
April 12, 2018: American Journal of Preventive Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29619024/extracellular-ngfr-spacers-allow-efficient-tracking-and-enrichment-of-fully-functional-car-t-cells-co-expressing-a-suicide-gene
#13
Monica Casucci, Laura Falcone, Barbara Camisa, Margherita Norelli, Simona Porcellini, Anna Stornaiuolo, Fabio Ciceri, Catia Traversari, Claudio Bordignon, Chiara Bonini, Attilio Bondanza
Chimeric antigen receptor (CAR)-T cell immunotherapy is at the forefront of innovative cancer therapeutics. However, lack of standardization of cellular products within the same clinical trial and lack of harmonization between different trials have hindered the clear identification of efficacy and safety determinants that should be unveiled in order to advance the field. With the aim of facilitating the isolation and in vivo tracking of CAR-T cells, we here propose the inclusion within the CAR molecule of a novel extracellular spacer based on the low-affinity nerve-growth-factor receptor (NGFR)...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29617305/the-cost-of-youth-suicide-in-australia
#14
Irina Kinchin, Christopher M Doran
Suicide is the leading cause of death among Australians between 15 and 24 years of age. This study seeks to estimate the economic cost of youth suicide (15–24 years old) for Australia using 2014 as a reference year. The main outcome measure is monetized burden of youth suicide. Costs, in 2014 AU$, are measured and valued as direct costs, such as coronial inquiry, police, ambulance, and funeral expenses; indirect costs, such as lost economic productivity; and intangible costs, such as bereavement. In 2014, 307 young Australians lost their lives to suicide (82 females and 225 males)...
April 4, 2018: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29561228/technical-note-a-histochemical-approach-in-diagnosing-hanging-mechanical-asphyxia-on-cadavers-undergoing-advanced-putrefactive-phenomena
#15
Francesca Maghin, Salvatore A Andreola, Michele Boracchi, Guendalina Gentile, Francesca Maciocco, Enrico Muccino, Riccardo Zoja
The authors used a particular protocol on putrefied corpses to highlight the cutaneous furrow. Two groups of cadavers were selected: in the first group (suicide by hanging mechanical asphyxia), the authors sampled cutaneous lozenges on the furrow still macroscopically recognisable, while in the second group (corpses deceased by different means), we sampled cutaneous lozenges in the hypostatic leaning. All specimens were divided in two: one underwent standard fixation while the other, previously rehydrated in Sandison's solution, was then fixed in formalin...
January 1, 2018: Medico-legal Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29554617/intervention-related-reductions-in-perceived-burdensomeness-mediates-incidence-of-suicidal-thoughts
#16
Nicholas P Allan, Joseph W Boffa, Amanda M Raines, Norman B Schmidt
BACKGROUND: Interventions aimed at preventing suicidal thoughts target people at risk for suicide based on risk factor elevations. Based on the interpersonal psychological theory of suicide, elevated perceived burdensomeness (PB) and thwarted belongingness (TB) are potential targets for prevention of the occurrence of suicidal thoughts. PB is the belief that one is a burden to others. TB is the perceived lack of social connectedness. METHODS: This study was designed to examine the effects of a preventative intervention targeting PB and TB on the 6-month incidence of suicide ideation in a sample of 138 people (M = 38...
July 2018: Journal of Affective Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29553778/the-burden-of-co-occurring-alcohol-use-disorder-and-ptsd-in-u-s-military-veterans-comorbidities-functioning-and-suicidality
#17
Sonya B Norman, Moira Haller, Jessica L Hamblen, Steven M Southwick, Robert H Pietrzak
Alcohol use disorder (AUD) and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) are among the most prevalent disorders in U.S. military veterans and often co-occur. To date, most studies have focused on treatment-seeking samples, although many veterans with AUD/PTSD do not seek treatment. We evaluated the prevalence of psychiatric comorbidities, functioning, and quality of life in a nationally representative sample of U.S. veterans (using data from the National Health and Resilience in Veterans Study) with AUD alone, PTSD alone, and comorbid AUD/PTSD to understand the incremental burden of having both disorders relative to either one...
March 2018: Psychology of Addictive Behaviors: Journal of the Society of Psychologists in Addictive Behaviors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29533869/the-economic-burden-of-child-sexual-abuse-in-the-united-states
#18
Elizabeth J Letourneau, Derek S Brown, Xiangming Fang, Ahmed Hassan, James A Mercy
The present study provides an estimate of the U.S. economic impact of child sexual abuse (CSA). Costs of CSA were measured from the societal perspective and include health care costs, productivity losses, child welfare costs, violence/crime costs, special education costs, and suicide death costs. We separately estimated quality-adjusted life year (QALY) losses. For each category, we used the best available secondary data to develop cost per case estimates. All costs were estimated in U.S. dollars and adjusted to the reference year 2015...
May 2018: Child Abuse & Neglect
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29521848/can-statewide-emergency-department-hospital-discharge-and-violent-death-reporting-system-data-be-used-to-monitor-burden-of-firearm-related-injury-and-death-in-rhode-island
#19
Yongwen Jiang, Megan L Ranney, Brian Sullivan, Dennis Hilliard, Samara Viner-Brown, Nicole Alexander-Scott
CONTEXT: National data on the epidemiology of firearm injuries and circumstances of firearm deaths are difficult to obtain and often are nonreliable. Since firearm injury and death rates and causes can vary substantially between states, it is critical to consider state-specific data sources. OBJECTIVE: In this study, we illustrate how states can systematically examine demographic characteristics, firearm information, type of wound, toxicology tests, precipitating circumstances, and costs to provide a comprehensive picture of firearm injuries and deaths using data sets from a single state with relatively low rates of firearm injury and death...
March 7, 2018: Journal of Public Health Management and Practice: JPHMP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29514554/grief-tragic-death-and-multiple-loss-in-the-lives-of-irish-traveller-community-health-workers
#20
Mary Tobin, Sharon Lambert, John McCarthy
Recent data on the inequities in mortality, health, and access to health services experienced by the Traveller community in Ireland show higher rates of death by suicide and other sudden causes among members of this marginalized minority group than in the general population. Psychological literature on bereavement suggests that traumatic deaths and multiple deaths within a close network may be more likely to lead to complicated grief reactions. The aim of this study is to add to our understanding of the effects of the differential mortality rate by exploring how grief is experienced within the Traveller community in the context of bereavement from multiple deaths or sudden deaths (including suicide)...
January 1, 2018: Omega
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