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Harris R Lieberman, Krista G Austin, Emily K Farina
OBJECTIVE: Half the US population takes dietary supplements, but surveillance systems available to regulatory and public health authorities to determine whether specific dietary supplements present a risk are inadequate and numerous severe injuries and deaths have occurred from their consumption. Uniformed military personnel regularly use dietary supplements and are more likely to use potentially dangerous supplements than civilians. Recently, the supplement 1,3-dimethylamylamine (DMAA) was marketed for physical performance-enhancement and weight loss...
November 20, 2017: Public Health Nutrition
Pieter A Cohen, John C Travis, Peter H J Keizers, Patricia Deuster, Bastiaan J Venhuis
BACKGROUND: The United States Food and Drug Administration banned the stimulant 1,3-dimethylamylamine (1,3-DMAA) from dietary supplements and warned consumers that the stimulant can pose cardiovascular risks ranging from high blood pressure to heart attacks. OBJECTIVES: We designed our study to determine if a new stimulant similar in structure to 1,3-DMAA has been introduced as an ingredient in supplements sold in the United States (US). METHODS: We analyzed six brands of supplements that listed an ingredient on the label (e...
November 8, 2017: Clinical Toxicology
Matthew Dunn
In June 2012 DMAA (1,3-dimethylamylamine), an ephedrine-like vasoconstricting substance which had been included in many popular sports supplements, became a scheduled substance in Australia, following bans in several other countries. The underlying rationale for this ban was that DMAA use is unsafe. This paper aimed to critically review the available evidence on the acute and/or long-term harms of DMAA. Using five research databases (PubMed, Embase, ProQuest Health and Medical Complete, and Web of Science) and the key terms 'methylhexaneamine', 'DMAA', 'dimethylamylamine', '1,3-dimethylpentylamine' and '2-amino-4-methylhexane', 842 articles were identified once duplicates removed...
February 2017: International Journal on Drug Policy
Sara Eichner, Michelle Maguire, Leticia A Shea, Matthew G Fete
OBJECTIVES: To identify banned and discouraged-use ingredients, such as ephedra, 1,3-dimethylamylamine, and beta-methyl-phenylethylamine, in readily available weight loss dietary supplements within a 10-mile radius of Regis University. METHODS: A list of banned and discouraged-use ingredients was compiled with the use of the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) dietary supplement website which provides information on supplement ingredients that are no longer legal or are advised against owing to adverse event reporting...
September 2016: Journal of the American Pharmacists Association: JAPhA
Miren García-Cortés, Mercedes Robles-Díaz, Aida Ortega-Alonso, Inmaculada Medina-Caliz, Raul J Andrade
Dietary supplements (DS) are extensively consumed worldwide despite unproven efficacy. The true incidence of DS-induced liver injury (DSILI) is unknown but is probably under-diagnosed due to the general belief of safety of these products. Reported cases of herbals and DS-induced liver injury are increasing worldwide. The aim of this manuscript is to report a tabular listing with a description of DS associated with hepatotoxicity as well as review the phenotype and severity of DSILI. Natural remedies related to hepatotoxicity can be divided into herbal product-induced liver injury and DS-induced liver injury...
April 9, 2016: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Yitong Liu, Michael F Santillo
A number of dietary supplements used for weight loss and athletic performance enhancement have been recently shown to contain a variety of stimulants, for which there is a lack of pharmacological and toxicological information. One concern for these emerging compounds is their potential to inhibit metabolic enzymes in the liver such as cytochromes P450 (CYP), which can lead to unexpected interactions among dietary supplements, drugs, and other xenobiotics. In this study, inhibition of human recombinant CYP2D6 and CYP3A4 by 27 amine stimulants associated with dietary supplements and their analogs was evaluated by luminescence assays...
March 2016: Drug Testing and Analysis
Karl C Klontz, Heidi J DeBeck, Pamela LeBlanc, Kathryn M Mogen, Beverly J Wolpert, Jonathan L Sabo, Monique Salter, Sharon L Seelman, Susan E Lance, Caitlin Monahan, David S Steigman, Kathleen Gensheimer
OBJECTIVE: Liver disease is a potential complication from using dietary supplements. This study investigated an outbreak of non-viral liver disease associated with the use of OxyELITE Pro(TM), a dietary supplement used for weight loss and/or muscle building. METHODS: Illness details were ascertained from MedWatch reports submitted to the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) describing consumers who ingested OxyELITE Pro alone or in combination with other dietary supplements...
September 2015: Public Health Reports
Adam Přibylka, Martin Švidrnoch, Juraj Ševčík, Vítězslav Maier
The CE method employing an indirect UV detection for the enantioseparation of 1,3-dimethylamylamine (DMAA), widely used in various preworkout and dietary supplements labeled as a constituent of geranium extract has been developed. The dual-selector system consisting of negatively charged sulfated α-CD (1.1% w/v) and sulfated β-CD (0.2% w/v) in 5 mM phosphate/Tris buffer (pH 3.0) containing the addition of 10 mM benzyltriethylammonium chloride (BTEAC) as the chromophoric additive was used for the enantiomeric separation of DMAA stereoisomers with the LODs in the range of 7...
December 2015: Electrophoresis
Bharathi Avula, Mei Wang, Satyanarayanaraju Sagi, Pieter A Cohen, Yan-Hong Wang, Pradeep Lasonkar, Amar G Chittiboyina, Wei Feng, Ikhlas A Khan
1,3-dimethylbutylamine (DMBA), is a CNS stimulant, which has recently been identified in multiple dietary supplements and sometimes labeled as a natural constituent of Pouchung tea. DMBA is an homologue of 1,3-dimethylamylamine (DMAA) which the US Food and Drug Administration has attempted to remove from all dietary supplements after DMAA consumption was linked to strokes, heart disease, and sudden death. To address questions concerning the natural origin of DMBA, three independent analytical methods were developed for analyzing authentic tea samples and dietary supplements...
November 10, 2015: Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis
Bharathi Avula, Troy J Smillie, Yan-Hong Wang, Jerry Zweigenbaum, Mahmoud A ElSohly, Ikhlas A Khan
The central nervous system stimulant 1,3-dimethylamylamine (DMAA) has been found in preworkout products and dietary supplements. A fast direct analysis in real time-quadrupole time of flight-MS method was used for identification of DMAA in dietary supplements and to determine if this compound is present in geranium (Pelargonium graveolens) plants or oil. This method involved the use of [M+H]+ ions in the positive mode based on the exact mass of DMAA. The results of this investigation showed that DMAA was not detected from authentic samples of P...
May 2015: Journal of AOAC International
Marie Claire Van Hout, Evelyn Hearne
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 2015: International Journal on Drug Policy
Michael E Powers
CONTEXT: Concussion management has become an area of great concern in athletics, and neurocognitive tests, such as Immediate Post-Concussion Assessment and Cognitive Testing (ImPACT), are commonly used as management tools. Given the restrictive nature of current management plans, anecdotal concerns have been raised about athletes trying to cheat the assessments and return to participation sooner. Stimulants have been shown to improve neurocognitive measures similar to those used in ImPACT...
May 2015: Journal of Athletic Training
John R H Archer, Paul I Dargan, Alfonso M Lostia, Jon van der Walt, Katherine Henderson, Nicola Drake, Sanjay Sharma, David M Wood, Christopher J Walker, Andrew T Kicman
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 2015: Drug Testing and Analysis
Pieter A Cohen, John C Travis, Bastiaan J Venhuis
A synthetic stimulant never before studied in humans, 1,3-dimethylbutylamine (DMBA), was suspected of being present in dietary supplements. DMBA is an analogue of the pharmaceutical stimulant, 1,3-dimethylamylamine (DMAA), which was recently banned by the US Food and Drug Administration. We obtained all dietary supplements sold by US distributors that listed an ingredient on the label, such as AMP Citrate, that might be a marketing name for DMBA. Supplements were analyzed for the presence and quantity of DMBA...
January 2015: Drug Testing and Analysis
Sean Foley, Evan Butlin, Wade Shields, Brent Lacey
1,3-dimethylamylamine (DMAA) is a common additive in sport supplements that was banned by the FDA in 2013. Specifically, this additive received much publication for its role in causing adverse cardiovascular events, particularly sudden cardiac death. However, it has been our experience that products containing this additive may also lead to acute liver injury and liver failure. We present a series of seven cases encountered by a military treatment facility in Southern California which involved the use of OxyELITE Pro, a sport supplement containing DMAA, that all resulted in acute liver injury with two cases requiring transplant for acute liver failure...
December 2014: Digestive Diseases and Sciences
Yulia B Monakhova, Maren Ilse, Julia Hengen, Oliver El-Atma, Thomas Kuballa, Matthias Kohl-Himmelseher, Dirk W Lachenmeier
1,3-Dimethylamylamine (DMAA) is a stimulant that can be found in pre-workout sports nutrition and dietary supplements. This practice is illegal because DMAA is not a safe food ingredient but rather an unapproved medicinal compound due to its pharmacological action. In order to determine the DMAA content in such products, a nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopic method was developed and validated (DMAA was quantified as DMAA-HCl). For quantification, the collective integral from two of the methyl groups of the molecule in the range δ 0...
September 2014: Drug Testing and Analysis
Lioudmila V Karnatovskaia, Juan C Leoni, Michelle L Freeman
Dietary supplements containing 1,3-dimethylamylamine (DMAA) have been determined to be illegal by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA); although banned, the products are still widely available for purchase. Adverse effects reported include cardiac arrest, hemorrhagic stroke, and death. Nonetheless, such products remain popular among young people because of advertised claims of exercise performance enhancement and fat burning. We describe a case of a young man who took such a supplement and suffered a cardiac arrest...
January 2015: Clinical Journal of Sport Medicine: Official Journal of the Canadian Academy of Sport Medicine
Triston B Smith, Brian A Staub, Gayathri M Natarajan, David M Lasorda, Indu G Poornima
We describe the case of a previously healthy 22-year-old man who presented with anginal chest pain and was diagnosed with a non-ST-elevation myocardial infarction. For 3 weeks, he had been ingesting the dietary supplements Jack3d® (principal ingredient, 1,3-dimethylamylamine) and Phenorex™ (principal ingredient, Citrus aurantium) daily, before undertaking physical activity. Coronary angiograms revealed a proximal left anterior descending coronary artery thrombus with distal embolization. A combined medical regimen led to resolution of the thrombus...
February 2014: Texas Heart Institute Journal
Brian K Schilling, Kelley G Hammond, Richard J Bloomer, Chaela S Presley, Charles R Yates
BACKGROUND: 1,3-dimethylamylamine (DMAA) has been a component of dietary supplements and is also used within "party pills," often in conjunction with alcohol and other drugs. Ingestion of higher than recommended doses results in untoward effects including cerebral hemorrhage. To our knowledge, no studies have been conducted to determine both the pharmacokinetic profile and physiologic responses of DMAA. METHODS: Eight men reported to the lab in the morning following an overnight fast and received a single 25 mg oral dose of DMAA...
October 4, 2013: BMC Pharmacology & Toxicology
Viorica Lopez-Avila, Mirela Zorio
UNLABELLED: Methylhexaneamine (MHA) is a stimulant that is added to dietary supplements and its safety is an on-going debate, prompting the World Anti-Doping Agency to add it to the 2010 prohibited list. Gas chromatography-low resolution mass spectrometry (GC-MS) with electron ionization (EI) requires derivatization to convert MHA into a less volatile compound, and a 2-3 min solvent delay to prevent filament damage. Without derivatization, the EI mass spectrum of MHA, which exhibits an abundant immonium ion at m/z 44 and no other fragment ions with relative intensity >10%, is very similar to the EI mass spectra of 2-aminoheptane, 1,4-dimethylamylamine, and n-hexylmethylamine...
September 10, 2013: Forensic Science International
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