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Sickness behaviour

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28325373/host-parasite-relationships-and-life-histories-of-trypanosomes-in-australia
#1
C Cooper, P L Clode, C Peacock, R C A Thompson
Trypanosomes constitute a group of flagellate protozoan parasites responsible for a number of important, yet neglected, diseases in both humans and livestock. The most significantly studied include the causative agents of African sleeping sickness (Trypanosoma brucei) and Chagas disease (Trypanosoma cruzi) in humans. Much of our knowledge about trypanosome host-parasite relationships and life histories has come from these two human pathogens. Recent investigations into the diversity and life histories of wildlife trypanosomes in Australia highlight that there exists a great degree of biological and behavioural variation within and between trypanosomes...
2017: Advances in Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28288095/trypanosoma-brucei-metabolism-is-under-circadian-control
#2
Filipa Rijo-Ferreira, Daniel Pinto-Neves, Nuno L Barbosa-Morais, Joseph S Takahashi, Luisa M Figueiredo
The Earth's rotation forced life to evolve under cyclic day and night environmental changes. To anticipate such daily cycles, prokaryote and eukaryote free-living organisms evolved intrinsic clocks that regulate physiological and behavioural processes. Daily rhythms have been observed in organisms living within hosts, such as parasites. Whether parasites have intrinsic molecular clocks or whether they simply respond to host rhythmic physiological cues remains unknown. Here, we show that Trypanosoma brucei, the causative agent of human sleeping sickness, has an intrinsic circadian clock that regulates its metabolism in two different stages of the life cycle...
March 13, 2017: Nature Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28284363/-evaluation-of-family-doctor-centred-health-care-in-germany-based-on-aok-rheinland-hamburg-claims-data
#3
Mike Klora, Jan Zeidler, Melanie May, Nils Raabe, J-Matthias Graf von der Schulenburg
BACKGROUND: Health insurance funds in Germany are obliged to offer family doctor-centred health care models (Hausarztzentrierte Versorgung, "HzV"). The participation is voluntary for the insured persons. Participants agree to utilise outpatient specialist care only if their family doctor or general practitioner ("gatekeeper") refers them to a specialist. The aim of this programme is to both strengthen the role of general practitioners and to avoid unnecessary specialist visits and double examinations...
February 2017: Zeitschrift Für Evidenz, Fortbildung und Qualität Im Gesundheitswesen
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28249602/relating-professionalism-and-conscientiousness-to-develop-an-objective-scalar-proxy-measure-of-professionalism-in-anaesthetic-trainees
#4
M A Sawdon, K Whitehouse, G M Finn, J C McLachlan, D Murray
BACKGROUND: The concept of professionalism is complex and subjective and relies on expert judgements. Currently, there are no existing objective measures of professionalism in anaesthesia. However, it is possible that at least some elements of professionalism may be indicated by objective measures. A number of studies have suggested that conscientiousness as a trait is a significant contributor to professionalism. METHODS: A 'Conscientiousness Index' (CI) was developed by collation of routinely collected data from tasks expected to be carried out by anaesthetic trainees such as punctual submission of holiday and 'not-on-call' requests, attendance at audit meetings, timely submission of completed appraisal documentation and sickness/absence notifications...
March 1, 2017: BMC Medical Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28237711/pharmacological-inhibition-of-faah-modulates-tlr-induced-neuroinflammation-but-not-sickness-behaviour-an-effect-partially-mediated-by-central-trpv1
#5
Rebecca J Henry, Daniel M Kerr, Lisa E Flannery, Marykate Killilea, Edel M Hughes, Louise Corcoran, David P Finn, Michelle Roche
Aberrant activation of toll-like receptors (TLRs), key components of the innate immune system, has been proposed to underlie and exacerbate a range of central nervous system disorders. Increasing evidence supports a role for the endocannabinoid system in modulating inflammatory responses including those mediated by TLRs, and thus this system may provide an important treatment target for neuroinflammatory disorders. However, the effect of modulating endocannabinoid tone on TLR-induced neuroinflammation in vivo and associated behavioural changes is largely unknown...
February 22, 2017: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28178725/presenteeism-in-the-new-zealand-senior-medical-workforce-a-mixed-methods-analysis
#6
Charlotte Chambers, Chris Frampton, Murray Barclay
AIM: To estimate rates of presenteeism in the New Zealand senior medical workforce and identify reasons why this workforce feels pressured to work through illness. METHODS: A cross-sectional survey was returned by 1,806/3,740 publically employed senior doctors and dentists (48%). Relationships between rates of presenteeism, sick leave and demographic factors were explored alongside views on cultural and professional norms. RESULTS: Presenteeism was reported by 88% of respondents...
January 27, 2017: New Zealand Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28129746/study-protocol-of-the-tired-study-a-randomised-controlled-trial-comparing-either-graded-exercise-therapy-for-severe-fatigue-or-cognitive-behaviour-therapy-with-usual-care-in-patients-with-incurable-cancer
#7
Hanneke Poort, Constans A H H V M Verhagen, Marlies E W J Peters, Martine M Goedendorp, A Rogier T Donders, Maria T E Hopman, Maria W G Nijhuis-van der Sanden, Thea Berends, Gijs Bleijenberg, Hans Knoop
BACKGROUND: Fatigue is a common and debilitating symptom for patients with incurable cancer receiving systemic treatment with palliative intent. There is evidence that non-pharmacological interventions such as graded exercise therapy (GET) or cognitive behaviour therapy (CBT) reduce cancer-related fatigue in disease-free cancer patients and in patients receiving treatment with curative intent. These interventions may also result in a reduction of fatigue in patients receiving treatment with palliative intent, by improving physical fitness (GET) or changing fatigue-related cognitions and behaviour (CBT)...
January 28, 2017: BMC Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28114918/helping-intentions-of-undergraduates-towards-their-depressed-peers-a-cross-sectional-study-in-sri-lanka
#8
Santushi D Amarasuriya, Nicola J Reavley, Alyssia Rossetto, Anthony F Jorm
BACKGROUND: Despite showing high rates of depression, university students prefer to seek assistance for their depression from informal sources, such as their friends, rather than seeking professional assistance. Therefore, the helping behaviours of those who provide informal help to these students need examination. This study examines the helping intentions of undergraduates in Sri Lanka towards their depressed peers and the correlates of their helping intentions. METHOD: The undergraduates were presented with a vignette of a hypothetical depressed undergraduate...
January 23, 2017: BMC Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28059059/-fighting-malpractice-and-uncooperative-behaviour-in-the-swiss-archive-for-veterinary-science-1816-2016
#9
U Jenny
Already back in the 18th century, the treatment of sick animals was reserved for licensed veterinarians in most Cantons. Various articles from the first 100 years of the Swiss Archives for Veterinary Science show that over and over again unqualified people offered their services to livestock owners. A detailed article from the year 1843 on the resulting situation in the Canton of Berne and the need for corrective measures are presented. At the beginning of the 20th century articles about malpractice among veterinarians, especially regarding the trade of medication predominate...
January 2017: Schweizer Archiv Für Tierheilkunde
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28057525/lipopolysaccharide-administration-induces-sex-dependent-behavioural-and-serotonergic-neurochemical-signatures-in-mice
#10
Jonathon Sens, Eric Schneider, Joseph Mauch, Anna Schaffstein, Sara Mohamed, Kathryn Fasoli, Joseph Saurine, Aikaterini Britzolaki, Connor Thelen, Pothitos M Pitychoutis
Challenging the innate immune machinery with the pro-inflammatory agent lipopolysaccharide (LPS) results in the development of a sickness syndrome characterized by numerous depressive-like behavioural and physiological manifestations, most of which overlap with the clinical symptoms of major depression. Although women are known to mount stronger pro-inflammatory responses during infections and being at higher risk to develop depressive disorders compared to men, the vast majority of experimental studies investigating the neurobiological effects of LPS administration have been conducted in males...
February 2017: Pharmacology, Biochemistry, and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28040520/predictors-of-differences-in-health-services-utilization-for-children-in-nigerian-communities
#11
Victor T Adekanmbi, Sulaimon T Adedokun, Sian Taylor-Phillips, Olalekan A Uthman, Aileen Clarke
Health service utilization is an important component of child health promotion. Evidence shows that two-thirds of child deaths in low and middle income countries could be prevented if current interventions were adequately utilized. Aim of this study was to identify determinants of variation in health services utilization for children in communities in Nigeria. Multivariable negative binomial regression model attempting to explain observed variability in health services usage in Nigerian communities was applied to the 2013 Nigeria Demographic and Health Survey data...
March 2017: Preventive Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27884936/constances-a-general-prospective-population-based-cohort-for-occupational-and-environmental-epidemiology-cohort-profile
#12
Marcel Goldberg, Matthieu Carton, Alexis Descatha, Annette Leclerc, Yves Roquelaure, Gaëlle Santin, Marie Zins
WHY THE COHORT WAS SET UP?: CONSTANCES is a general-purpose cohort with a focus on occupational and environmental factors. COHORT PARTICIPANTS: CONSTANCES was designed as a randomly selected sample of French adults aged 18-69 years at inception; 200 000 participants will be included. DATA COLLECTION PHASES: At enrolment, the participants are invited to complete questionnaires and to attend a health screening centre (HSC) for a health examination. A biobank will be set up...
January 2017: Occupational and Environmental Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27862626/pro-and-anti-inflammatory-cytokine-associations-with-major-depression-in-cancer-patients
#13
Madeline Li, Ekaterina Kouzmina, Megan McCusker, Danielle Rodin, Paul C Boutros, Christopher J Paige, Gary Rodin
OBJECTIVE: Cytokines may be linked to depression, although it has been challenging to demonstrate this association in cancer because of the overlap between depressive symptoms and other sickness behaviors. This study investigates the relationship between cytokines and depression in cancer patients, accounting for confounding clinical and methodological factors. METHODS: The GRID Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression and Neurotoxicity Rating Scale (NRS) for cytokine-induced sickness behaviors were administered to 61 cancer patients and 38 healthy controls...
November 15, 2016: Psycho-oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27810210/early-detection-of-health-and-welfare-compromises-through-automated-detection-of-behavioural-changes-in-pigs
#14
REVIEW
Stephen G Matthews, Amy L Miller, James Clapp, Thomas Plötz, Ilias Kyriazakis
Early detection of health and welfare compromises in commercial piggeries is essential for timely intervention to enhance treatment success, reduce impact on welfare, and promote sustainable pig production. Behavioural changes that precede or accompany subclinical and clinical signs may have diagnostic value. Often referred to as sickness behaviour, this encompasses changes in feeding, drinking, and elimination behaviours, social behaviours, and locomotion and posture. Such subtle changes in behaviour are not easy to quantify and require lengthy observation input by staff, which is impractical on a commercial scale...
November 2016: Veterinary Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27793181/internet-based-self-help-therapy-with-fearfighter%C3%A2-versus-no-intervention-for-anxiety-disorders-in-adults-study-protocol-for-a-randomised-controlled-trial
#15
Morten Fenger, Jane Lindschou, Christian Gluud, Per Winkel, Lise Jørgensen, Sten Kruse-Blinkenberg, Marianne Lau
BACKGROUND: Internet-based self-help psychotherapy (IBT) could be an important alternative or supplement to ordinary face-to-face therapy. The findings of randomised controlled trials indicate that the effects of various IBT programmes for anxiety disorders seem better than no intervention and in some instances are equivalent to usual therapy. In Denmark, IBT is part of future treatment plans in mental health care services, but the verification level of the current clinical scientific knowledge is insufficient...
October 28, 2016: Trials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27776506/background-design-and-conceptual-model-of-the-cluster-randomized-multiple-component-workplace-study-framed-intervention-to-decrease-occupational-muscle-pain-fridom
#16
Jeanette Reffstrup Christensen, Thomas Viskum Gjelstrup Bredahl, Jenny Hadrévi, Gisela Sjøgaard, Karen Søgaard
BACKGROUND: Several RCT studies have aimed to reduce either musculoskeletal disorders, sickness presenteeism, sickness absenteeism or a combination of these among females with high physical work demands. These studies have provided evidence that workplace health promotion (WHP) interventions are effective, but long-term effects are still uncertain. These studies either lack to succeed in maintaining intervention effects or lack to document if effects are maintained past a one-year period...
October 24, 2016: BMC Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27762011/measuring-resilience-in-palliative-care-workers-using-the-situational-judgement-test-methodology
#17
Antonio Pangallo, Lara Zibarras, Fiona Patterson
OBJECTIVES: Relatively little research has been directed toward the assessment of resilience in the health care context. Given the stressors associated with the provision of health care, the present study describes the development and evaluation of a situational judgement test (SJT) designed to assess resilience in palliative care health care workers. METHODS: An SJT was developed to measure behaviours associated with resilience in a palliative care context. Next, SJT reliability and validity analyses were assessed in a sample of acute ward, hospice and community palliative care workers (n = 284)...
November 2016: Medical Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27716317/why-hospital-physicians-attend-work-while-ill-the-spiralling-effect-of-positive-and-negative-factors
#18
Fay Giæver, Signe Lohmann-Lafrenz, Lise Tevik Løvseth
BACKGROUND: Recurrent reports from national and international studies show a persistent high prevalence of sickness presence among hospital physicians. Despite the negative consequences reported, we do not know a lot about the reasons why physicians choose to work when ill, and whether there may be some positive correlates of this behaviour that in turn may lead to the design of appropriate interventions. The aim of this study is to explore the perception and experience with sickness presenteeism among hospital physicians, and to explore possible positive and negative foundations and consequences associated with sickness presence...
October 5, 2016: BMC Health Services Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27697138/acceptance-and-commitment-group-therapy-act-g-for-health-anxiety
#19
REVIEW
Trine Eilenberg
Health anxiety is prevalent (5-9%) in all healthcare settings and in the general population, may have an early onset, and a poor prognosis is seen in severe cases if untreated. Research shows that health anxiety is rarely diagnosed though it causes great suffering for the individual and constitutes a substantial socio-economic burden. Studies have shown that individual cognitive behavioural therapy can relieve health anxiety, but these studies are affected by methodological problems, among others, struggling with patients declining participation, high dropout rates, and some patients not responding to the treatment...
October 2016: Danish Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27682237/understanding-how-dogs-encourage-and-motivate-walking-cross-sectional-findings-from-reside
#20
C Westgarth, M Knuiman, H E Christian
BACKGROUND: Many people live with dogs but not all walk with them regularly. This study examines the demographic and behavioural factors that contribute towards owners reporting having a strong sense of encouragement and motivation to walk provided by their dogs, which we call 'the Lassie effect'. METHODS: Data was collected from 629 dog owners participating in the RESIDE cross-sectional survey in Perth, Western Australia. Multivariable logistic regression analyses of factors associated with two separate outcome survey items 'Dog encouragement to walk' (how often dog encouraged me to go walking in last month) and 'Dog motivation to walk' (Having a dog makes me walk more)...
September 29, 2016: BMC Public Health
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