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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915273/longitudinal-co-variations-between-inflammatory-cytokines-lung-function-and-patient-reported-outcomes-in-patients-with-asthma
#1
Karin Lodin, Mats Lekander, Jörgen Syk, Kjell Alving, Predrag Petrovic, Anna Andreasson
BACKGROUND: Asthma is a chronic inflammatory respiratory disorder associated with reduced lung function and poor quality of life. The condition is also associated with poor self-rated health, a major predictor of objective health trajectories. Of biological correlates to self-rated health, evidence suggests a role for inflammatory cytokines and related sickness behaviours. However, this is mainly based on cross-sectional data, and the relation has not been investigated in patients with chronic inflammatory conditions...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28901005/delivery-arrangements-for-health-systems-in-low-income-countries-an-overview-of-systematic-reviews
#2
REVIEW
Agustín Ciapponi, Simon Lewin, Cristian A Herrera, Newton Opiyo, Tomas Pantoja, Elizabeth Paulsen, Gabriel Rada, Charles S Wiysonge, Gabriel Bastías, Lilian Dudley, Signe Flottorp, Marie-Pierre Gagnon, Sebastian Garcia Marti, Claire Glenton, Charles I Okwundu, Blanca Peñaloza, Fatima Suleman, Andrew D Oxman
BACKGROUND: Delivery arrangements include changes in who receives care and when, who provides care, the working conditions of those who provide care, coordination of care amongst different providers, where care is provided, the use of information and communication technology to deliver care, and quality and safety systems. How services are delivered can have impacts on the effectiveness, efficiency and equity of health systems. This broad overview of the findings of systematic reviews can help policymakers and other stakeholders identify strategies for addressing problems and improve the delivery of services...
September 13, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28895125/governance-arrangements-for-health-systems-in-low-income-countries-an-overview-of-systematic-reviews
#3
REVIEW
Cristian A Herrera, Simon Lewin, Elizabeth Paulsen, Agustín Ciapponi, Newton Opiyo, Tomas Pantoja, Gabriel Rada, Charles S Wiysonge, Gabriel Bastías, Sebastian Garcia Marti, Charles I Okwundu, Blanca Peñaloza, Andrew D Oxman
BACKGROUND: Governance arrangements include changes in rules or processes that determine authority and accountability for health policies, organisations, commercial products and health professionals, as well as the involvement of stakeholders in decision-making. Changes in governance arrangements can affect health and related goals in numerous ways, generally through changes in authority, accountability, openness, participation and coherence. A broad overview of the findings of systematic reviews can help policymakers, their technical support staff and other stakeholders to identify strategies for addressing problems and improving the governance of their health systems...
September 12, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28893563/the-impact-of-murine-lrrk2-g2019s-transgene-overexpression-on-acute-responses-to-inflammatory-challenge
#4
Darcy Litteljohn, Chris Rudyk, Zach Dwyer, Kyle Farmer, Teresa Fortin, Shawn Hayley
The most common Parkinson's disease (PD) mutation is the gain-of-function LRRK2 G2019S variant, which has also been linked to inflammatory disease states. Yet, little is known of the role of G2019S in PD related complex behavioral or immune/hormonal processes in response to inflammatory/toxicant challenges. Hence, we characterized the behavioural, neuroendocrine-immune and central monoaminergic responses in G2019S overexpressing mutants following systemic interferon-gamma (IFN-γ) or lipopolysaccharide (LPS) administration...
September 8, 2017: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28891235/financial-arrangements-for-health-systems-in-low-income-countries-an-overview-of-systematic-reviews
#5
REVIEW
Charles S Wiysonge, Elizabeth Paulsen, Simon Lewin, Agustín Ciapponi, Cristian A Herrera, Newton Opiyo, Tomas Pantoja, Gabriel Rada, Andrew D Oxman
BACKGROUND: One target of the Sustainable Development Goals is to achieve "universal health coverage, including financial risk protection, access to quality essential health-care services and access to safe, effective, quality and affordable essential medicines and vaccines for all". A fundamental concern of governments in striving for this goal is how to finance such a health system. This concern is very relevant for low-income countries. OBJECTIVES: To provide an overview of the evidence from up-to-date systematic reviews about the effects of financial arrangements for health systems in low-income countries...
September 11, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28851955/circulating-endothelial-cell-derived-extracellular-vesicles-mediate-the-acute-phase-response-and-sickness-behaviour-associated-with-cns-inflammation
#6
Yvonne Couch, Naveed Akbar, Jay Roodselaar, Matthew C Evans, Chris Gardiner, Ian Sargent, Ignacio A Romero, Adrian Bristow, Alastair M Buchan, Norman Haughey, Daniel C Anthony
Brain injury elicits a systemic acute-phase response (APR), which is responsible for co-ordinating the peripheral immunological response to injury. To date, the mechanisms responsible for signalling the presence of injury or disease to selectively activate responses in distant organs were unclear. Circulating endogenous extracellular vesicles (EVs) are increased after brain injury and have the potential to carry targeted injury signals around the body. Here, we examined the potential of EVs, isolated from rats after focal inflammatory brain lesions using IL-1β, to activate a systemic APR in recipient naïve rats, as well as the behavioural consequences of EV transfer...
August 29, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28780924/the-influence-of-previous-medical-treatments-on-milking-order-in-dairy-cows
#7
A Littooij, A Butterworth
Animal health issues are a problem on many dairy farms, and much is already known about clinical treatments and the behaviour of sick animals. Animal health issues can influence behaviour seen around the milking parlour, but less is known about the relationship between the number of previous medical treatments and the queuing to be milked, the 'milking order'. Information was collected on five afternoon milking sessions, the individual cows' age and the medical treatment history of each cow in a group of 100 cows...
August 7, 2017: Animal: An International Journal of Animal Bioscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28766065/body-temperatures-of-hibernating-little-brown-bats-reveal-pronounced-behavioural-activity-during-deep-torpor-and-suggest-a-fever-response-during-white-nose-syndrome
#8
Heather W Mayberry, Liam P McGuire, Craig K R Willis
Hibernating animals use torpor [reduced body temperature (T b) and metabolic rate] to reduce energy expenditure during winter. Periodic arousals to normal T b are energetically expensive, so hibernators trade off arousal benefits against energetic costs. This is especially important for bats with white-nose syndrome (WNS), a fungal disease causing increased arousal frequency. Little brown bats (Myotis lucifugus) with WNS show upregulation of endogenous pyrogens and sickness behaviour. Therefore, we hypothesized that WNS should cause a fever response characterized by elevated T b...
August 1, 2017: Journal of Comparative Physiology. B, Biochemical, Systemic, and Environmental Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28761599/factors-associated-with-severe-malaria-among-children-below-ten-years-in-mutasa-and-nyanga-districts-zimbabwe-2014-2015
#9
Faith Mutsigiri-Murewanhema, Patron Trish Mafaune, Gerald Shambira, Tsitsi Juru, Donewell Bangure, More Mungati, Notion Tafara Gombe, Mufuta Tshimanga
INTRODUCTION: Severe malaria is a rare life threatening illness. Only a small proportion of patients with clinical malaria progress to this medical emergency. On reviewing 61 malaria death investigation forms submitted to the provincial office in 2014, 22(36%) were children below ten years who succumbed to severe malaria. Mutasa and Nyanga Districts reported 73% of these deaths. This study was conducted to determine factors associated with severe malaria so as to come up with evidence based interventions to prevent severe malaria and associated mortality...
2017: Pan African Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28760701/repeated-daily-administration-of-increasing-doses-of-lipopolysaccharide-provides-a-model-of-sustained-inflammation-induced-depressive-like-behaviour-in-mice-that-is-independent-of-the-nlrp3-inflammasome
#10
Robin A Wickens, Luc Ver Donck, Amanda B MacKenzie, Sarah J Bailey
Mounting preclinical evidence has implicated the NLRP3 inflammasome in depression-related behaviours elicited by chronic stress or acute lipopolysaccharide (LPS) challenge. However, the relevance of acute LPS as a model of depression has been questioned and behavioural time-courses of its effects can be inconsistent. The aims of this study were (1) to develop a novel protocol for repeated daily LPS administration and (2) to use this model to assess the involvement of NLRP3 inflammasome signalling in sustained inflammation-induced depressive-like behaviour in adult C57BL/6J mice deficient in NLRP3...
July 28, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28756415/cognitive-behavioural-therapy-and-return-to-work-intervention-for-patients-on-sick-leave-due-to-common-mental-disorders-a-randomised-controlled-trial
#11
Sigrid Salomonsson, Fredrik Santoft, Elin Lindsäter, Kersti Ejeby, Brjánn Ljótsson, Lars-Göran Öst, Martin Ingvar, Mats Lekander, Erik Hedman-Lagerlöf
OBJECTIVES: Common mental disorders (CMDs) cause great individual suffering and long-term sick leave. Cognitive-behavioural therapy (CBT) effectively treats CMDs, but sick leave is not reduced to the same extent as psychiatric symptoms. Research results regarding return-to-work interventions (RTW-Is) and their effect on sick leave are inconclusive. The aim of this study was to evaluate CBT, a RTW-I and combined CBT and RTW-I (COMBO) for primary care patients on sick leave due to CMDs...
July 29, 2017: Occupational and Environmental Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28747933/i-think-i-m-going-to-be-sick-an-eight-year-old-boy-with-emetophobia-and-secondary-food-restriction
#12
Sarabpreet Dosanjh, William Fleisher, Diana Sam
We present a case of an eight-year-old boy with a specific phobia of vomiting who developed subsequent food restriction and weight loss. Our case report includes a review of treatment modalities for specific phobias including cognitive behavioural and exposure therapy in young children and the importance of parental involvement in the treatment process. After an initial assessment and diagnosis of this boy with emetophobia, treatment took place over ten subsequent visits, one hour each in duration. His treatment included a cognitive approach utilizing exposure therapy to re-introduce foods to his diet, working through a fear hierarchy, addressing cognitive distortions/misconceptions and psychoeducational supports...
July 2017: Journal of the Canadian Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28726263/developing-a-medical-picture-book-for-reducing-venipuncture-distress-in-preschool-aged-children
#13
Ying Tsao, Hui-Chen Kuo, Hsui-Chuan Lee, Shuenn-Jiun Yiin
AIM: Distress associated with needle-related procedures is a major concern in preschool-aged children nursing. This study developed a medical picture book for supporting preschool-aged children facing a venipuncture and determined the effectiveness of such a book intervention in decreasing behavioural distress. METHODS: The picture book was designed in 3 stages: developing stories on medical situations, penning the text, and drafting the book. We conducted a quasiexperimental study to examine the effectiveness of the book...
July 20, 2017: International Journal of Nursing Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28709405/rehabilitation-access-and-effectiveness-for-persons-with-back-pain-the-protocol-of-a-cohort-study-rehab-bp-drks00011554
#14
Matthias Bethge, Kerstin Mattukat, David Fauser, Wilfried Mau
BACKGROUND: Back pain is one of the most common chronic diseases in Germany and has a major impact on work ability and social participation. The German Pension Insurance (GPI) is the main provider of medical rehabilitation to improve work ability and prevent disability pensions in Germany. However, over half of the persons granted a disability pension have never used a medical rehabilitation service. Furthermore, evidence on the effects of medical rehabilitation in Germany is inconclusive...
July 14, 2017: BMC Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28699463/investigating-the-attitudes-of-nurses-who-are-obese
#15
Jane Wills, Muireann Kelly
The prevalence of obesity is higher among nurses than in any other group of healthcare professionals. Obesity is an issue for the nursing workforce because of its effects on work-related sickness absence and productivity, through related conditions such as arthritis and diabetes. Aim To investigate the attitudes, motivations and behaviours of, and the uptake of workplace health initiatives by, nurses who are obese. Method Nurses who are or were obese and who practised in England were recruited at the Royal College of Nursing congress in Glasgow in June 2016...
July 12, 2017: Nursing Standard
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28628287/-professional-fatigue-syndrome-burnout-part-2-from-therapeutic-management
#16
REVIEW
P Mesters, N Clumeck, S Delroisse, S Gozlan, M Le Polain, A-C Massart, W Pitchot
Burnout or professional fatigue syndrome is the result of exposure to a situation in which the strategies of the subject who are supposed to manage the stresses of the environment become outdated and inoperative. An imbalance is created between the demands and the material, operational and psychological resources to cope with them. Many health professions are confronted with the challenge of managing burnout, but the general practitioner is very often on the front line. After a first article devoted to the epidemiology, diagnosis, causes and consequences of the burnout, this second article is focusing on its therapeutic management, through listening, sick leave, dietary supplements, antidepressants, behavioural and cognitive therapy, professional coaching and multidisciplinary approach...
June 2017: Revue Médicale de Liège
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28624926/limited-awareness-of-animal-influenza-prevention-and-control-among-dai-lue-smallholder-farmers-in-southwest-china
#17
Xiang Zhao, Gareth Davey
Awareness of animal influenza and its prevention and control is important for ensuring livestock health, production and welfare. In China, a country stereotyped as a major source of emerging zoonotic infectious diseases, research on the public understanding of animal influenza is limited to the Han, the main ethnic group. The present qualitative study in Southwest China investigated awareness of animal influenza among the Dai, an ethnic minority. The participants (15 men and 10 women, ages 18-83) were smallholder farmers of pigs and poultry in rural areas of Jinghong, Xishuangbanna, Yunnan Province...
June 17, 2017: Tropical Animal Health and Production
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28615327/where-are-we-now-a-multicountry-qualitative-study-to-explore-access-to-pre-antiretroviral-care-services-a-precursor-to-antiretroviral-therapy-initiation
#18
Dominic Bukenya, Alison Wringe, Mosa Moshabela, Morten Skovdal, Robert Ssekubugu, Sara Paparini, Jenny Renju, Estelle McLean, Oliver Bonnington, Joyce Wamoyi, Janet Seeley
OBJECTIVE: To explore barriers and facilitators to accessing postdiagnosis HIV care in five sub-Saharan African countries. METHODS: In-depth interviews were conducted with 77 people living with HIV (PLHIV) in preantiretroviral therapy care or not-yet-in care and 46 healthcare workers. Participants were purposely selected from health and demographic surveillance sites in Karonga (Malawi), Manicaland (Zimbabwe), uMkhanyakude (South Africa), Kisesa (Tanzania) and Rakai and Kyamulibwa (Uganda)...
June 14, 2017: Sexually Transmitted Infections
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28595825/nursing-staff-s-experiences-of-working-in-an-evidence-based-designed-icu-patient-room-an-interview-study
#19
Fredrika Sundberg, Sepideh Olausson, Isabell Fridh, Berit Lindahl
INTRODUCTION: It has been known for centuries that environment in healthcare has an impact, but despite this, environment has been overshadowed by technological and medical progress, especially in intensive care. Evidence-based design is a concept concerning integrating knowledge from various research disciplines and its application to healing environments. OBJECTIVE: The aim was to explore the experiences of nursing staff of working in an evidence-based designed ICU patient room...
June 5, 2017: Intensive & Critical Care Nursing: the Official Journal of the British Association of Critical Care Nurses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28583170/community-dialogues-for-child-health-results-from-a-qualitative-process-evaluation-in-three-countries
#20
Sandrine Martin, Jordana Leitão, Denis Muhangi, Anthony Nuwa, Dieterio Magul, Helen Counihan
BACKGROUND: Across the developing world, countries are increasingly adopting the integrated community case management of childhood illnesses (iCCM) strategy in efforts to reduce child mortality. This intervention's effectiveness is dependent on community adoption and changes in care-seeking practices. We assessed the implementation process of a theory-driven community dialogue (CD) intervention specifically designed to strengthen the support and uptake of the newly introduced iCCM services and related behaviours in three African countries...
June 5, 2017: Journal of Health, Population, and Nutrition
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