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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29338699/assessing-predictors-of-intention-to-prescribe-sick-leave-among-primary-care-physicians-using-the-theory-of-planned-behaviour
#1
Yogarabindranath Swarna Nantha, Lei Hum Wee, Caryn Mei-Hsien Chan
BACKGROUND: Providing sickness certification is a decision that primary care physicians make on a daily basis. The majority of sickness certification studies in the literature involve a general assessment of physician or patient behaviour without the use of a robust psychological framework to guide research accuracy. To address this deficiency, this study utilized the Theory of Planned Behaviour (TPB) to specifically gauge the intention and other salient predictors related to sickness certification prescribing behaviour amongst primary care physicians...
January 16, 2018: BMC Family Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29338496/repeated-lipopolysaccharide-exposure-modifies-immune-and-sickness-behaviour-response-in-an-animal-model-of-chronic-inflammation
#2
Ksenia Musaelyan, Steven Aldridge, Andrea Du Preez, Martin Egeland, Patricia A Zunszain, Carmine M Pariante, Sandrine Thuret, Cathy Fernandes
Repeated lipopolysaccharide exposure is often used in longitudinal preclinical models of depression. However, the potential phenotypic differences from acute depression-mimicking effects are rarely described. This study compared chronic lipopolysaccharide administration of doses previously used in depression research to a new mode of escalating dose injections. Adult male BALB/c mice ( n=8/group) were injected intraperitoneally with either a single 0.83 mg/kg dose, a repeated 0.1 mg/kg lipopolysaccharide dose or a dose which escalated weekly from 0...
January 1, 2018: Journal of Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29310753/destructive-disinfection-of-infected-brood-prevents-systemic-disease-spread-in-ant-colonies
#3
Christopher D Pull, Line V Ugelvig, Florian Wiesenhofer, Anna V Grasse, Simon Tragust, Thomas Schmitt, Mark Jf Brown, Sylvia Cremer
In social groups, infections have the potential to spread rapidly and cause disease outbreaks. Here, we show that in a social insect, the ant Lasius neglectus, the negative consequences of fungal infections (Metarhizium brunneum) can be mitigated by employing an efficient multicomponent behaviour, termed destructive disinfection, which prevents further spread of the disease through the colony. Ants specifically target infected pupae during the pathogen's non-contagious incubation period, utilising chemical 'sickness cues' emitted by pupae...
January 9, 2018: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29298938/identification-of-acutely-sick-people-and-facial-cues-of-sickness
#4
John Axelsson, Tina Sundelin, Mats J Olsson, Kimmo Sorjonen, Charlotte Axelsson, Julie Lasselin, Mats Lekander
Detection and avoidance of sick individuals have been proposed as essential components in a behavioural defence against disease, limiting the risk of contamination. However, almost no knowledge exists on whether humans can detect sick individuals, and if so by what cues. Here, we demonstrate that untrained people can identify sick individuals above chance level by looking at facial photos taken 2 h after injection with a bacterial stimulus inducing an immune response (2.0 ng kg-1 lipopolysaccharide) or placebo, the global sensitivity index being d' = 0...
January 10, 2018: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29282110/the-joint-associations-of-smoking-and-obesity-with-subsequent-short-and-long-sickness-absence-a-five-year-follow-up-study-with-register-linkage
#5
Eira Roos, Tea Lallukka, Eero Lahelma, Ossi Rahkonen
BACKGROUND: Both smoking and obesity are separately associated with sickness absence. Unhealthy lifestyle habits and health conditions may occur concurrently yet studies focusing on their joint association are few. This study examined the joint associations of smoking and obesity with sickness absence (SA). METHODS: A mail survey among employees of the City of Helsinki, Finland, during 2000-2002 included data on obesity, smoking and covariates (N = 8960, response rate 67%, 80% women)...
December 28, 2017: BMC Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29251433/predictors-of-timely-linkage-to-art-within-universal-test-and-treat-in-the-hptn-071-popart-trial-in-zambia-and-south-africa-findings-from-a-nested-case-control-study
#6
Kalpana Sabapathy, Constance Mubekapi-Musadaidzwa, Chama Mulubwa, Ab Schaap, Graeme Hoddinott, Anne Stangl, Sian Floyd, Helen Ayles, Sarah Fidler, Richard Hayes
INTRODUCTION: HPTN 071 (PopART) is a three-arm community randomized trial in Zambia and South Africa evaluating the impact of a combination HIV prevention package, including universal test and treat (UTT), on HIV incidence. This nested study examined factors associated with timely linkage-to-care and ART initiation (TLA) (i.e. within six-months of referral) in the context of UTT within the intervention communities of the HPTN 071 (PopART) trial. METHODS: Of the 7572 individuals identified as persons living with HIV (PLWH) (and not on antiretroviral treatment (ART)) during the first year of the PopART intervention provided by Community HIV-care Providers (CHiPs) through door-to-door household visits, individuals who achieved TLA (controls) and those who did not (cases), stratified by gender and community, were randomly selected to be re-contacted for interview...
December 2017: Journal of the International AIDS Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29200422/whole-system-approaches-to-improving-the-health-and-wellbeing-of-healthcare-workers-a-systematic-review
#7
REVIEW
Sarah L Brand, Jo Thompson Coon, Lora E Fleming, Lauren Carroll, Alison Bethel, Katrina Wyatt
BACKGROUND: Healthcare professionals throughout the developed world report higher levels of sickness absence, dissatisfaction, distress, and "burnout" at work than staff in other sectors. There is a growing call for the 'triple aim' of healthcare delivery (improving patient experience and outcomes and reducing costs; to include a fourth aim: improving healthcare staff experience of healthcare delivery. A systematic review commissioned by the United Kingdom's (UK) Department of Health reviewed a large number of international healthy workplace interventions and recommended five whole-system changes to improve healthcare staff health and wellbeing: identification and response to local need, engagement of staff at all levels, and the involvement, visible leadership from, and up-skilling of, management and board-level staff...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29188454/a-narrative-review-of-the-impact-of-interventions-in-acute-kidney-injury
#8
REVIEW
Lynne Sykes, Rob Nipah, Philip Kalra, Darren Green
Acute kidney injury (AKI) is independently associated with significant morbidity and mortality, and is thus an important challenge facing physicians in modern healthcare. This narrative review assesses the impact of strategies employed to tackle AKI following the 2009 NCEPOD report on acute kidney injury (Sterwart et al. Acute kidney injury: adding insult to injury, pp 1-22, 2009). There is scarce and heterogeneous research into hard end points such as mortality and AKI progression for AKI interventions. This review found that e-alerts have varying effects on mortality and AKI progression, but decrease the incidence of contrast-induced AKI...
November 29, 2017: Journal of Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29154065/does-nurses-role-health-or-symptoms-influence-their-personal-use-of-ingestible-complementary-and-alternative-medicines
#9
Sofia Dimitrelis, Lin Perry, Robyn Gallagher, Christine Duffield, David Sibbritt, Rachel Nicholls, Xiaoyue Xu
OBJECTIVES: To investigate the influence of work-related characteristics, health, health behaviours and symptoms on ingestible biologically-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine (CAM) use within the Australian nursing and midwifery workforce. BACKGROUND: CAM use is widespread worldwide, but there is little research into nurses' and midwives' personal use of ingestible CAM in Australia. METHODS: An online survey in 2014-15 used validated instruments and items to examine use of ingestible biologically-based CAM (herbs, foods and vitamins, minerals, amino acids, enzymes and other supplements), and the health and work-related characteristics of 5041 nurses and midwives recruited through the New South Wales Nurses and Midwives Association and professional networks...
December 2017: Complementary Therapies in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29142237/inner-ear-otolith-asymmetry-in-late-larval-cichlid-fish-oreochromis-mossambicus-perciformes-showing-kinetotic-behaviour-under-diminished-gravity
#10
Ralf Anken, Miriam Knie, Reinhard Hilbig
The inner ears of all vertebrates are designed to perceive auditory and vestibular inputs. Although a tremendous diversity in the inner ear can be found even among bony fishes, the morphologies of the utricle and of the semicircular canals are rather conservative among vertebrates. Fish show kinetoses under reduced gravity (spinning movements and looping responses) and are regarded model organisms concerning the performance of the otolithic organs. Otoliths can be analysed easily because they are compact, in contrast to the otoconial masses of other vertebrates...
November 15, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29118373/establishing-zebrafish-as-a-model-to-study-the-anxiolytic-effects-of-scopolamine
#11
Trevor J Hamilton, Adam Morrill, Kayla Lucas, Joshua Gallup, Megan Harris, Meghan Healey, Taylor Pitman, Melike Schalomon, Shannon Digweed, Martin Tresguerres
Scopolamine (hyoscine) is a muscarinic acetylcholine receptor antagonist that has traditionally been used to treat motion sickness in humans. However, studies investigating depressed and bipolar populations have found that scopolamine is also effective at reducing depression and anxiety symptoms. The potential anxiety-reducing (anxiolytic) effects of scopolamine could have great clinical implications for humans; however, rats and mice administered scopolamine showed increased anxiety in standard behavioural tests...
November 8, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29107155/the-bbi-at-the-bbi-a-culture-change
#12
Ian Galea, V Hugh Perry
The blood-brain interface (BBI) is the subject of a new named series at Brain, Behavior, and Immunity. It is timely to reflect on a number of advances in the field within the last ten years, which may lead to an increased understanding of human behavior and a wide range of psychiatric and neurological conditions. We cover discoveries made in solute and cell trafficking, endothelial cell and pericyte biology, extracellular matrix and emerging tools, especially those which will enable study of the human BBI. We now recognize the central role of the BBI in a number of immunopsychiatric syndromes, including sickness behaviour, delirium, septic encephalopathy, cognitive side effects of cytokine-based therapies and the frank psychosis observed in neuronal surface antibody syndromes...
October 26, 2017: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29104309/quantification-of-within-and-between-farm-dispersal-of-culicoides-biting-midges-using-an-immunomarking-technique
#13
Christopher J Sanders, Lara E Harrup, Laura A Tugwell, Victor A Brugman, Marion England, Simon Carpenter
Culicoides biting midges (Diptera, Ceratopogonidae) are vectors of arboviruses that cause significant economic and welfare impact. Local-scale spread of Culicoides-borne arboviruses is largely determined by the between-farm movement of infected Culicoides.Study of the dispersal behaviour of Culicoides by capture-mark-recapture (CMR) is problematic due to the likelihood of mortality and changes in behaviour upon capture caused by the small size and fragility of these insects, evidenced by low recapture rates...
October 2017: Journal of Applied Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29094426/antecedents-and-associations-of-sickness-presenteeism-and-sickness-absenteeism-in-nurses-a-systematic-review
#14
Hana Brborović, Qëndresë Daka, Kushtrim Dakaj, Ognjen Brborović
AIMS: This study comprehensively analysed and systemized the elements associated with nursing sickness presenteeism (SP) and sickness absenteeism (SA). BACKGROUND: Both behaviours represent a real challenge to nursing departments because they can increase costs, cause health care adverse events, and impact the quality of health care. DESIGN: The systematic review of cohort studies was designed to be consistent with the PRISMA guidelines. DATA SOURCES: PubMed, ProQuest, and Emerald were systematically searched for peer-reviewed articles published from the 1950s to December 2016...
November 1, 2017: International Journal of Nursing Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29051628/deadly-acute-decompression-sickness-in-risso-s-dolphins
#15
A Fernández, E Sierra, J Díaz-Delgado, S Sacchini, Y Sánchez-Paz, C Suárez-Santana, M Arregui, M Arbelo, Y Bernaldo de Quirós
Diving air-breathing vertebrates have long been considered protected against decompression sickness (DCS) through anatomical, physiological, and behavioural adaptations. However, an acute systemic gas and fat embolic syndrome similar to DCS in human divers was described in beaked whales that stranded in temporal and spatial association with military exercises involving high-powered sonar. More recently, DCS has been diagnosed in bycaught sea turtles. Both cases were linked to human activities. Two Risso's dolphin (Grampus griseus) out of 493 necropsied cetaceans stranded in the Canary Islands in a 16-year period (2000-2015), had a severe acute decompression sickness supported by pathological findings and gas analysis...
October 19, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29051086/depression-subtyping-based-on-evolutionary-psychiatry-proximate-mechanisms-and-ultimate-functions
#16
REVIEW
Markus J Rantala, Severi Luoto, Indrikis Krams, Hasse Karlsson
Major depressive disorder constitutes one of the leading causes of disability worldwide. However, it is not a unitary disease-it is a heterogeneous syndrome, with patients differing remarkably in symptom profile, pathophysiology and treatment responsiveness. Previous attempts to subtype major depressive disorder have showed limited clinical applicability. We present a classification of major depressive disorder episodes based on the proximate mechanisms that led to the original mood change that caused the depressive episode...
October 16, 2017: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29031935/workplace-mental-health-training-for-managers-and-its-effect-on-sick-leave-in-employees-a-cluster-randomised-controlled-trial
#17
Josie S Milligan-Saville, Leona Tan, Aimée Gayed, Caryl Barnes, Ira Madan, Mark Dobson, Richard A Bryant, Helen Christensen, Arnstein Mykletun, Samuel B Harvey
BACKGROUND: Mental illness is one of the most rapidly increasing causes of long-term sickness absence, despite improved rates of detection and development of more effective interventions. However, mental health training for managers might help improve occupational outcomes for people with mental health problems. We aimed to investigate the effect of mental health training on managers' knowledge, attitudes, confidence, and behaviour towards employees with mental health problems, and its effect on employee sickness absence...
October 11, 2017: Lancet Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29016957/case-specific-colleague-guidance-for-general-practitioners-management-of-sickness-absence
#18
H P Nordhagen, S B Harvey, E O Rosvold, D Bruusgaard, R Blonk, A Mykletun
Background: General practitioners (GPs) report sickness absence certification as challenging. They express need for support with functional assessment beyond guidelines and reforms. Case-specific collegial one-to-one guidance for other clinical topics has proved popular with GPs and may be an acceptable and effective way to improve GPs skills and competence in sickness absence certification. Aims: To present a new model of case-specific colleague guidance focusing on the management of long-term sickness absence and to describe its feasibility in terms of application and reception among GPs, and also GPs' self-reports of effects on their practice...
August 24, 2017: Occupational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28994103/migratory-animals-feel-the-cost-of-getting-sick-a-meta-analysis-across-species
#19
Alice Risely, Marcel Klaassen, Bethany Hoye
1.Migratory animals are widely assumed to play an important role in the long-distance dispersal of parasites, and are frequently implicated in the global spread of zoonotic pathogens such as avian influenzas in birds and ebolaviruses in bats. However, infection imposes physiological and behavioural constraints on hosts that may act to curtail parasite dispersal via changes to migratory timing ('migratory separation') and survival ('migratory culling'). 2.There remains little consensus regarding the frequency and extent to which migratory separation and migratory culling may operate, despite a growing recognition of the importance of these mechanisms in regulating transmission dynamics in migratory animals...
October 10, 2017: Journal of Animal Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28951431/effects-of-internet-based-cognitive-behavioural-therapy-and-physical-exercise-on-sick-leave-and-employment-in-primary-care-patients-with-depression-two-subgroup-analyses
#20
Viktor Kaldo, Andreas Lundin, Mats Hallgren, Martin Kraepelien, Catharina Strid, Örjan Ekblom, Catharina Lavebratt, Nils Lindefors, Agneta Öjehagen, Yvonne Forsell
OBJECTIVES: Depression can negatively impact work capacity, but treatment effects on sick leave and employment are unclear. This study evaluates if internet-based cognitive behavioural therapy (ICBT) or physical exercise (PE), with already reported positive effects on clinical outcome and short-term work ability, has better effects on employment, sick leave and long-term work ability compared with treatment as usual (TAU) for depressed primary care patients (German clinical trials: DRKS00008745)...
September 26, 2017: Occupational and Environmental Medicine
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