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Sickness behaviour

Outi Hälli, Minna Haimi-Hakala, Tapio Laurila, Claudio Oliviero, Elina Viitasaari, Toomas Orro, Olli Peltoniemi, Mika Scheinin, Saija Sirén, Anna Valros, Mari Heinonen
Background: Infection with respiratory pathogens can influence production as well as animal welfare. There is an economical and ethical need to treat pigs that suffer from respiratory diseases. Our aim was the evaluation of the possible effects of oral NSAID medication given in feed in acute outbreaks of respiratory disease in finishing pigs. The short- and long-term impact of NSAID dosing on clinical signs, daily weight gain, blood parameters and behaviour of growing pigs in herds with acute respiratory infections were evaluated...
2018: Porcine Health Management
David G Ashbrook, Benjamin Hing, Lindsay T Michalovicz, Kimberly A Kelly, Julie V Miller, Wilfred C de Vega, Diane B Miller, Gordon Broderick, James P O'Callaghan, Patrick O McGowan
BACKGROUND: Gulf War illness (GWI) is an archetypal, medically unexplained, chronic condition characterised by persistent sickness behaviour and neuroimmune and neuroinflammatory components. An estimated 25-32% of the over 900,000 veterans of the 1991 Gulf War fulfil the requirements of a GWI diagnosis. It has been hypothesised that the high physical and psychological stress of combat may have increased vulnerability to irreversible acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibitors leading to a priming of the neuroimmune system...
March 17, 2018: Journal of Neuroinflammation
Marianne Bracconi, Christian Hervé, Philippe Pirnay
In a world open to the movement of people, medical ethics is today associated with the area of loyal behavior of the practitioner and oriented in the patient's interest and accountability of each. The universal vision of respect for the dignity of the sick person progresses. Yet, many behaviours are sometimes illegitimate, but not in principle legally reprehensible. One of the main principles marking the observance of patient consent is based on the autonomy given to the patient to decide for himself what appears to be adapted to his or her care...
March 5, 2018: Eastern Mediterranean Health Journal, la Revue de Santé de la Méditerranée Orientale
Suzanne Jolley, Elizabeth Kuipers, Catherine Stewart, Sophie Browning, Karen Bracegirdle, Nedah Basit, Kimberley Gin, Colette Hirsch, Richard Corrigall, Partha Banerjea, Grainne Turley, Daniel Stahl, Kristin R Laurens
OBJECTIVES: Health care guidelines recommend psychological interventions for childhood unusual experiences that are associated with distress or adverse functional impact (UEDs), based on adult, rather than child-specific, evidence. We report the first randomized controlled evaluation of the acceptability and potential clinical utility of cognitive behavioural therapy for childhood UEDs (CBT-UED). DESIGN: Pilot randomized controlled trial. METHODS: Participants aged 8-14 years were recruited from referrals to community services for children with emotional/behavioural problems and screened for self-reported UEDs...
March 12, 2018: British Journal of Clinical Psychology
Kristina Karstad, Anette F B Jørgensen, Birgit A Greiner, Alex Burdorf, Karen Søgaard, Reiner Rugulies, Andreas Holtermann
PURPOSE: Musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs), sickness absence and premature retirement are highly prevalent among eldercare workers. We conducted a prospective observational workplace study with the main purpose to investigate longitudinal associations between physical and psychosocial working conditions and occurrence of MSD and its consequences (pain-related interference with daily work activities and sickness absence) among Danish eldercare workers. PARTICIPANTS: At 20 Danish nursing homes, a total of 941 eldercare workers employed in day and evening shifts were invited to the study...
February 28, 2018: BMJ Open
Katariina Hinkka, Mikko Niemelä, Ilona Autti-Rämö, Heikki Palomäki
AIMS: The aim of this study was to explore Finnish physicians' perceptions of sickness absence (SA) certification. METHODS: A questionnaire was sent to 50% of the physicians in Finland who provide care to working-age patients in a clinical practice setting. Of the 8867 physicians, 3089 responded. Physicians handling SA certification patients at least a few times per month were included ( n = 2472). RESULTS: At least a few times per month, 61% of all physicians perceived SA issues as problematic, 60% had experienced a lack of time in dealing with SA matters, 36% had disagreed with a patient on SA certification, and 36% had met a patient who wanted a SA certificate for reasons other than a disease or injury...
February 1, 2018: Scandinavian Journal of Public Health
Kandace Ryckman, Sarah A Richmond, Laura N Anderson, Catherine S Birken, Patricia C Parkin, Colin Macarthur, Jonathon L Maguire, Andrew W Howard
Objectives: Approximately one-half of all children will sustain a fracture before adulthood. Understanding the factors that place a child at increased risk of fracture is necessary to inform effective injury prevention strategies. The purpose of this study was to examine the association between temperament and fracture risk in preschool-aged children. Methods: Children aged 3 to 6 years who were diagnosed with a fracture were recruited from the Hospital for Sick Children Fracture Clinic...
July 2017: Paediatrics & Child Health
J M Ravalier, J Walsh
Background: The UK education sector has among the highest level of stress sickness absence of all occupations. However, investigations of psychosocial working conditions which contribute to stress, including behaviour of students and parents, has not been conducted. Aims: To investigate the psychosocial working conditions and prevalence of negative parental and student behaviour in a large sample of school teachers and college lecturers based in England. In addition, to assess the influence of working conditions, student behaviour and parental behaviour on perceived stress...
February 17, 2018: Occupational Medicine
María José Suárez, Cristina Muñiz
Labour absenteeism may be detrimental to firms and society because of the economic costs, organizational problems and production cuts that it involves. Although involuntary absenteeism due to accident or illness that prevents workers from performing their work is unavoidable, avoidable voluntary absenteeism may also emerge due to asymmetric information given that neither employers nor doctors have perfect information about workers' health status. Assuming that there is heterogeneity in individual's behaviour and thus some workers are more likely to take sick leave than others due to differences in observable and unobservable characteristics, we specify a Finite Mixture Model to analyse sick leave days per year using a sample of employees from the 2014 European Health Survey in Spain...
February 21, 2018: European Journal of Health Economics: HEPAC: Health Economics in Prevention and Care
Padmore Adusei Amoah, Adwoa Owusuaa Koduah, Razak Mohammed Gyasi
PURPOSE: Although social capital influences health-related decisions and behavioural patterns in many developing countries, minimal attention has been paid to the nuances of its effect on healthcare. This paper examines how bonding social capital affects healthcare delivery for inpatients in Ghana. METHODS: Semi-structured in-depth interviews were used and thematic analysis method employed to analyse the data. Interviews were conducted with health professionals and relatives and close friends of inpatients in three public health facilities in Ashanti region...
December 2018: International Journal of Qualitative Studies on Health and Well-being
Emiliano Rodriguez-Sánchez, Olaya Tamayo-Morales, Jesús González-Sanchez, Sara Mora-Simón, Andrés Losada-Baltar, Jaime Unzueta-Arce, María C Patino-Alonso, Elena De Dios-Rodríguez, Manuel A Gómez-Marcos, Luis García-Ortiz
AIM: This study evaluates the effectiveness of a behavioural intervention program aimed at reducing the reluctance of dependent people to attend Adult Day Care Centres. We hope that reducing resistance will have a positive influence on the mental health of caregivers. BACKGROUND: Care centres offer important relief and rest services for family caregivers. Some caregivers report being affected by behavioural and psychological symptoms of dementia when they prepare dependents for the Care Centres, especially when these have dementia...
February 9, 2018: Journal of Advanced Nursing
Q Liao, W W T Lam, B J Cowling, R Fielding
Hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD), usually a self-limiting illness for young children, could cause a significant burden for parents because it can take up to 1-2 weeks for a sick child to recover. We conducted a two-wave longitudinal study over one summer peak season (May-July 2014) of HFMD to examine parents' HFMD-related risk perceptions and protective responses. In total, 618 parents with at least one child aged ⩽12 years, recruited using randomly-dialled household telephone calls completed the baseline survey interview, 452 of whom subsequently completed the follow-up survey...
February 1, 2018: Epidemiology and Infection
Sigrid Salomonsson, Erik Hedman-Lagerlöf, Lars-Göran Öst
Sick leave due to common mental disorders (CMDs) increase rapidly and present a major societal challenge. The overall effect of psychological interventions to reduce sick leave and symptoms has not been sufficiently investigated and there is a need for a systematic review and meta-analysis of the field. The aim of the present meta-analysis was to calculate the effect size of psychological interventions for CMDs on sick leave and psychiatric symptoms based on all published randomized controlled trials. Methodological quality, the risk of bias and publication bias were also assessed...
January 30, 2018: Psychological Medicine
Gregory P Brown, Damian Holden, Richard Shine, Ben L Phillips
1.Acute activation of the immune system often initiates a suite of behavioural changes. These 'sickness behaviours'-involving lethargy and decreased activity-may be particularly costly on invasion fronts, where evolutionary pressures on dispersal favour individuals that move large distances. 2.We used a combination of field and laboratory studies to compare sickness behaviours of cane toads from populations differing in invasion history. To do this we stimulated immune system activation by injecting lipopolysaccharide (LPS) to mimic bacterial infection...
January 30, 2018: Journal of Animal Ecology
Aimée Gayed, Bridget T Bryan, Katherine Petrie, Mark Deady, Allison Milner, Anthony D LaMontagne, Rafael A Calvo, Andrew Mackinnon, Helen Christensen, Arnstein Mykletun, Nicholas Glozier, Samuel B Harvey
BACKGROUND: Within high income countries, mental health is now the leading cause of long term sickness absence in the workplace. Managers are in a position to make changes and decisions that have a positive effect on the wellbeing of staff, the recovery of employees with mental ill health, and potentially prevent future mental health problems. However, managers report addressing workplace mental health issues as challenging. The aim of the HeadCoach trial is to evaluate the effectiveness of a newly developed online training intervention to determine whether it is able to build managers' confidence to better support individuals within their teams who are experiencing mental ill health, and the confidence to promote manager behaviour likely to result in a more mentally healthy workplace...
January 29, 2018: BMC Psychiatry
Cecilie Høgsbro, Michael Davidsen, Jan Sørensen
AIMS: The aim of this study was to explore the relationship between leisure-time physical inactivity and long-term sickness absence in a representative sample of individuals aged 16-54 years, within the labour market and in good health. It was hypothesised that physically inactive individuals have a higher risk of long-term sickness absence and longer duration of sickness absence. METHODS: The study population was identified from the National Health and Morbidity Survey, 2010...
January 1, 2018: Scandinavian Journal of Public Health
Elzbieta Klimiec, Paulina Pasinska, Katarzyna Kowalska, Joanna Pera, Agnieszka Slowik, Tomasz Dziedzic
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: In animals, peripheral lipopolysaccharide (LPS) injection before cerebral ischemia exacerbates neurological deficit, impairs survival and augments sickness behaviour. The goal of our study was to determine a relationship between plasma LPS, LPS pathway proteins (LPS binding protein (LBP) and sCD14) and outcome in stroke patients. METHODS: We included 335 patients with ischemic stroke. Plasma LPS activity and levels of LBP and sCD14 were measured within 24 h after stroke onset...
December 27, 2017: Atherosclerosis
G Kinman, S Wray
Background: There is growing evidence that presenteeism can be damaging for individuals and organizations. It is, therefore, important to identify the prevalence of working while sick in different working environments and the factors that contribute to such behaviour. Aims: To examine the prevalence of self-reported presenteeism in academic staff working in UK universities and colleges and the extent to which job demands, control, support and work engagement are risk factors...
February 16, 2018: Occupational Medicine
Yogarabindranath Swarna Nantha, Lei Hum Wee, Caryn Mei-Hsien Chan
BACKGROUND: Providing sickness certification is a decision that primary care physicians make on a daily basis. The majority of sickness certification studies in the literature involve a general assessment of physician or patient behaviour without the use of a robust psychological framework to guide research accuracy. To address this deficiency, this study utilized the Theory of Planned Behaviour (TPB) to specifically gauge the intention and other salient predictors related to sickness certification prescribing behaviour amongst primary care physicians...
January 16, 2018: BMC Family Practice
Ksenia Musaelyan, Steven Aldridge, Andrea Du Preez, Martin Egeland, Patricia A Zunszain, Carmine M Pariante, Sandrine Thuret, Cathy Fernandes
Repeated lipopolysaccharide exposure is often used in longitudinal preclinical models of depression. However, the potential phenotypic differences from acute depression-mimicking effects are rarely described. This study compared chronic lipopolysaccharide administration of doses previously used in depression research to a new mode of escalating dose injections. Adult male BALB/c mice ( n=8/group) were injected intraperitoneally with either a single 0.83 mg/kg dose, a repeated 0.1 mg/kg lipopolysaccharide dose or a dose which escalated weekly from 0...
January 1, 2018: Journal of Psychopharmacology
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