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Sickness behaviour

Antonio Pangallo, Lara Zibarras, Fiona Patterson
OBJECTIVES: Relatively little research has been directed toward the assessment of resilience in the health care context. Given the stressors associated with the provision of health care, the present study describes the development and evaluation of a situational judgement test (SJT) designed to assess resilience in palliative care health care workers. METHODS: An SJT was developed to measure behaviours associated with resilience in a palliative care context. Next, SJT reliability and validity analyses were assessed in a sample of acute ward, hospice and community palliative care workers (n = 284)...
November 2016: Medical Education
Fay Giæver, Signe Lohmann-Lafrenz, Lise Tevik Løvseth
BACKGROUND: Recurrent reports from national and international studies show a persistent high prevalence of sickness presence among hospital physicians. Despite the negative consequences reported, we do not know a lot about the reasons why physicians choose to work when ill, and whether there may be some positive correlates of this behaviour that in turn may lead to the design of appropriate interventions. The aim of this study is to explore the perception and experience with sickness presenteeism among hospital physicians, and to explore possible positive and negative foundations and consequences associated with sickness presence...
October 5, 2016: BMC Health Services Research
Trine Eilenberg
Health anxiety is prevalent (5-9%) in all healthcare settings and in the general population, may have an early onset, and a poor prognosis is seen in severe cases if untreated. Research shows that health anxiety is rarely diagnosed though it causes great suffering for the individual and constitutes a substantial socio-economic burden. Studies have shown that individual cognitive behavioural therapy can relieve health anxiety, but these studies are affected by methodological problems, among others, struggling with patients declining participation, high dropout rates, and some patients not responding to the treatment...
October 2016: Danish Medical Journal
C Westgarth, M Knuiman, H E Christian
BACKGROUND: Many people live with dogs but not all walk with them regularly. This study examines the demographic and behavioural factors that contribute towards owners reporting having a strong sense of encouragement and motivation to walk provided by their dogs, which we call 'the Lassie effect'. METHODS: Data was collected from 629 dog owners participating in the RESIDE cross-sectional survey in Perth, Western Australia. Multivariable logistic regression analyses of factors associated with two separate outcome survey items 'Dog encouragement to walk' (how often dog encouraged me to go walking in last month) and 'Dog motivation to walk' (Having a dog makes me walk more)...
September 29, 2016: BMC Public Health
Sanchari Basu Mallik, Jayesh Mudgal, Madhavan Nampoothiri, Susan Hall, Shailendra Anoopkumar- Dukie, Gary Grant, C Mallikarjuna Rao, Devinder Arora
Accumulating data links inflammation, oxidative stress and immune system in the pathophysiology of major depressive disorders. Sickness behaviour is a set of behavioural changes that develop during infection, eventually leading to decrease in mobility and depressed behaviour. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) induces a depression-like state in animals that mimics sickness behaviour. Caffeic acid, a naturally occurring polyphenol, possesses antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. The present study was designed to explore the potential of caffeic acid against LPS-induced sickness behaviour in mice...
October 6, 2016: Neuroscience Letters
T Berger
In this review, the immune-to-brain communication pathways are briefly summarized, with emphasis on the impact of immune cells and their mediators on learning, memory and other cognitive domains. Further, the acute response of the central nervous system to peripherally generated inflammatory stimuli - termed as sickness behaviour - is described, and the central role of microglia in this immune-to-brain crosstalk in physiological and pathological conditions is highlighted. Finally, the role and consequences of immunological processes related to cognitive impairment in multiple sclerosis are discussed...
September 2016: Acta Neurologica Scandinavica
Mercy Abbey, Margaret A Chinbuah, Margaret Gyapong, L Kay Bartholomew, Bart van den Borne
BACKGROUND: The World Health Organization recommends community case management of malaria and pneumonia for reduction of under-five mortality in developing countries. Caregivers' perception and understanding of the illness influences the care a sick child receives. Studies in Ghana and elsewhere have routinely shown adequate recognition of malaria by caregivers. Similarly, evidence from Asia and some African countries have shown adequate knowledge on pneumonia. However, in Ghana, little has been documented about community awareness, knowledge, perceptions and management of childhood pneumonia particularly in the Dangme West district...
2016: BMC Public Health
Barry McGuiness, Sinead M Gibney, Wouter Beumer, Marjan A Versnel, Inge Sillaber, Andrew Harkin, Hemmo A Drexhage
: The non-obese diabetic (NOD) mouse, an established model for autoimmune diabetes, shows an exaggerated reaction of pancreas macrophages to inflammatory stimuli. NOD mice also display anxiety when immune-stimulated. Chronic mild brain inflammation and a pro-inflammatory microglial activation is critical in psychiatric behaviour. OBJECTIVE: To explore brain/microglial activation and behaviour in NOD mice at steady state and after systemic lipopolysaccharide (LPS) injection...
August 17, 2016: Neuroimmunomodulation
E Salou, J B Rayaisse, D Kaba, V Djohan, W Yoni, I Barry, F Dofini, J Bouyer, P Solano
Tsetse flies Glossina palpalis gambiensis and G. tachinoides are among the major vectors of sleeping sickness (Human African Trypanosomiasis-HAT) and nagana (African Animal Trypanosomiasis - AAT) in West Africa. Both riparian species occur sympatrically in gallery forests of south west Burkina Faso, but little is known of their interspecies relationships although different authors think there may be some competition between them. The aim of this study was to check if sympatric species have different strategies when approaching a host...
August 11, 2016: Medical and Veterinary Entomology
Jean-Baptiste Leclerc, Claire Detrain
Social insects have evolved an array of individual and social behaviours that limit pathogen entrance and spread within the colony. The detection of ectoparasites or of fungal spores on a nestmate body triggers their removal by allogrooming and appears as a primary component of social prophylaxis. However, in the case of fungal infection, one may wonder whether ant workers are able to detect, discriminate and keep at bay diseased nestmates that have no spores over their cuticle but which constitute a latent sanitary risk due to post-mortem corpse sporulation...
August 2016: Die Naturwissenschaften
Marcel A Kopp, Thomas Liebscher, Ralf Watzlawick, Peter Martus, Stefan Laufer, Christian Blex, Ralf Schindler, Gerhard J Jungehulsing, Sven Knüppel, Martin Kreutzträger, Axel Ekkernkamp, Ulrich Dirnagl, Stephen M Strittmatter, Andreas Niedeggen, Jan M Schwab
INTRODUCTION: The approved analgesic and anti-inflammatory drugs ibuprofen and indometacin block the small GTPase RhoA, a key enzyme that impedes axonal sprouting after axonal damage. Inhibition of the Rho pathway in a central nervous system-effective manner requires higher dosages compared with orthodox cyclooxygenase-blocking effects. Preclinical studies on spinal cord injury (SCI) imply improved motor recovery after ibuprofen/indometacin-mediated Rho inhibition. This has been reassessed by a meta-analysis of the underlying experimental evidence, which indicates an overall effect size of 20...
2016: BMJ Open
Kristen E McLean, Sharon Alane Abramowitz, Jacob D Ball, Josephine Monger, Kodjo Tehoungue, Sarah Lindley McKune, Mosoka Fallah, Patricia A Omidian
The goal of this study was to assess morbidity, mortality, and health-seeking behaviours during the 2014 Ebola outbreak in Monrovia, Liberia. This study examined commonly reported symptoms of illness, pre-clinical diagnostic practices, typical healthcare-seeking strategies, and health resources available to populations, in order to identify salient needs and gaps in healthcare that would inform local emergency response efforts. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with household members in four Monrovia neighbourhoods...
July 27, 2016: Global Public Health
Anna Andreasson, Rikard K Wicksell, Karin Lodin, Bianka Karshikoff, John Axelsson, Mats Lekander
Symptoms after inflammatory activation, so-called sickness behaviour, overlap with trans-diagnostic complaints. As no self-report questionnaire to assess sickness behaviour exists, we aimed to develop such an instrument, the Sickness Questionnaire. Items responsive to experimentally induced inflammatory activation (randomized double-blind study endotoxin (0.6 ng/kg) versus placebo, n = 52) were selected and the statistical properties were examined in 172 primary care patients. A principal component analysis indicated a one-factor solution (Cronbach's alpha = ...
July 24, 2016: Journal of Health Psychology
T Alex Perkins, Valerie A Paz-Soldan, Steven T Stoddard, Amy C Morrison, Brett M Forshey, Kanya C Long, Eric S Halsey, Tadeusz J Kochel, John P Elder, Uriel Kitron, Thomas W Scott, Gonzalo M Vazquez-Prokopec
Pathogens inflict a wide variety of disease manifestations on their hosts, yet the impacts of disease on the behaviour of infected hosts are rarely studied empirically and are seldom accounted for in mathematical models of transmission dynamics. We explored the potential impacts of one of the most common disease manifestations, fever, on a key determinant of pathogen transmission, host mobility, in residents of the Amazonian city of Iquitos, Peru. We did so by comparing two groups of febrile individuals (dengue-positive and dengue-negative) with an afebrile control group...
July 13, 2016: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
Blanca Escribano Ferrer, Jayne Webster, Jane Bruce, Solomon A Narh-Bana, Clement T Narh, Naa-KorKor Allotey, Roland Glover, Constance Bart-Plange, Isabella Sagoe-Moses, Keziah Malm, Margaret Gyapong
BACKGROUND: Ghana has developed two main community-based strategies that aim to increase access to quality treatment for malaria, diarrhoea and pneumonia: the Home-based Care (HBC) and the Community-based Health Planning and Services (CHPS). The objective was to assess the effectiveness of HBC and CHPS on utilization, appropriate treatment given and users' satisfaction for the treatment of malaria, diarrhoea and pneumonia. METHODS: A household survey was conducted 2 and 8 years after implementation of HBC in the Volta and Northern Regions of Ghana, respectively...
2016: Malaria Journal
Johanna Muckenhuber, Lorenz Pollak, Katharina Viktoria Stein, Thomas Ernst Dorner
BACKGROUND: Individual cognitive social capital has repeatedly been shown to be linked to health disparities in many dimensions. The aim of the study was to investigate the association between social capital and pain-related measures. METHODS: 15,474 subjects older than 15 years were personally interviewed on subjective health, quality of life, health behaviour, and utilisation of healthcare in the Austrian Health Interview Survey. An indicator for cognitive social capital at the individual level consisting of nine questions targeted at different social resources was built and its association with pain-related items analysed...
2016: PloS One
Susumu Tanaka, Nae Takizawa, Yoshiko Honda, Taro Koike, Souichi Oe, Hiromi Toyoda, Tohru Kodama, Hisao Yamada
Hypocretin, also known as orexin, maintains the vigilance state and regulates various physiological processes, such as arousal, sleep, food intake, energy expenditure, and reward. Previously, we found that when wild-type mice and hypocretin/ataxin-3 littermates (which are depleted of hypothalamic hypocretin-expressing neurons postnatally) were administered lipopolysaccharide (LPS), the two genotypes exhibited significant differences in their sleep/wake cycle, including differences in the degree of increase in sleep periods and in recovery from sickness behaviour...
October 2016: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity
Lay Khoon Too, Kong M Li, Cacang Suarna, Ghassan J Maghzal, Roland Stocker, Iain S McGregor, Nicholas H Hunt
Tryptophan, an amino acid involved in routine energy metabolism, is a key modulator of sickness behaviors associated with inflammatory states and also plays roles in some psychiatric disorders. Tissue concentrations of tryptophan are regulated primarily by the enzymes indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase 1 (IDO1), IDO2 and tryptophan 2,3-dioxygenase (TDO, encoded by TDO2). Altered IDO1 and TDO activities have been linked to the perturbed serotonergic neurotransmission that may underlie certain psychopathologies. Here we assessed mice genetically modified to be deficient in IDO1, IDO2 or TDO2 for their behavior and cognitive function using an automated home cage system, the IntelliCage™...
October 1, 2016: Behavioural Brain Research
Charlotte Diana Nørregaard Rasmussen, Andreas Holtermann, Marie Birk Jørgensen, Anders Ørberg, Ole Steen Mortensen, Karen Søgaard
AIMS: The aims of this study were to test whether a multi-faceted intervention effective for low back pain was effective for physical capacity, work demands, maladaptive pain behaviours, work ability and sickness absence due to low back pain. METHODS: A stepped wedge cluster randomised, controlled trial with 594 nurses' aides was conducted. The intervention lasted 12 weeks and consisted of physical training (12 sessions), cognitive behavioural training (two sessions) and participatory ergonomics (five sessions)...
August 2016: Scandinavian Journal of Public Health
Bas J de Weerd, Maarten K van Dijk, Jolijn N van der Linden, Corné A M Roelen, Marc J P M Verbraak
BACKGROUND: Dialogue between supervisor and employee is of great importance for occupational rehabilitation. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effectiveness of a convergence dialogue meeting (CDM) of employee, therapist and supervisor aimed at facilitating return to work (RTW) as part of cognitive-behavioural treatment. METHODS: Randomized controlled trial including 60 employees sick-listed with common mental disorders and referred for specialized mental healthcare...
June 4, 2016: Work: a Journal of Prevention, Assessment, and Rehabilitation
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