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Methyl chloride

Eun Lee, Seung Kook Son, Jisun Yoon, Hyun Ju Cho, Song I Yang, Sungsu Jung, Kyung Hyun Do, Young Ah Cho, So Yeon Lee, Dong Uk Park, Soo Jong Hong
Previous animal studies have not conclusively determined the association between exposure to humidifier disinfectants (HDs) containing 5-chloro-2-methyl-4-isothiazolin-3-one (CMIT) and/or 2-methyl-4-isothiazolin-3-one (MIT) and development of HD-associated lung injuries. Nonetheless, patients exposed to HDs containing only CMIT and/or MIT showed clinically similar lung injuries to those exposed to HDs containing polyhexamethylene guanidine (PHMG) or oligo (2-[2-ethoxy]ethoxyethyl) guanidinium chloride (PGH)...
April 16, 2018: Journal of Korean Medical Science
Luminita Ghimici, Marieta Nichifor
A large variety of hydrophilic and amphiphilic polyelectrolytes based on dextran have been previously tested as coagulating and flocculating agents in model wastewater treatment and the results are presented in this review article. The dextran derivatives are either cationic, bearing (i) pendent quaternary ammonium groups, N-alkyl-N,N-dimethyl-N-(2-hydroxypropyl)ammonium chloride and (ii)1-(2-hydroxypropyl)-3-methyl imidazolium chloride, randomly distributed along the polymer backbone or anionic, (i) dextran monobasic phosphate with HP(O)(OH) groups and (ii) dextran derivatives with carboxylic groups namely, dextran-g-poly(acrylamide-co-sodium acrylates)...
June 15, 2018: Carbohydrate Polymers
Tim Oswald, Nicolai Lauterbach, Marc Schmidtmann, Rüdiger Beckhaus
Metallocene dihalides and derivatives thereof are of great interest as precursors for catalysts in polymerization reactions, as antitumor agents and, due to their increased stability, as suitable starting materials in salt metathesis reactions and the generation of metallocene fragments. We report the synthesis and structural characterization of a series of eleven substituted bis(η5 -cyclopentadienyl)titanium dihalides, namely bis[η5 -1-(diphenylmethyl)cyclopentadienyl]difluoridotitanium(IV), [Ti(C18 H15 )2 F2 ], bis{η5 -1-[bis(4-methylphenyl)methyl]cyclopentadienyl}difluoridotitanium(IV), [Ti(C20 H19 )2 F2 ], and bis{η5 -1-[bis(adamantan-2-yl)methyl]cyclopentadienyl}difluoridotitanium(IV), [Ti(C15 H19 )2 F2 ], together with the bromide and iodide analogues, and the chloride analogues of the diphenylmethyl and adamantyl complexes...
April 1, 2018: Acta Crystallographica. Section C, Structural Chemistry
Stefanie Wieck, Oliver Olsson, Klaus Kümmerer
The emission sources of biocidal active substances in households have been under discussion since these substances have been detected frequently in municipal wastewater and receiving surface water bodies. Therefore, the goal of this study was to investigate the products responsible for the emission of these substances to wastewater. We analysed the wastewater of two streets for a set of biocidal active substances. Time-proportional sampling was conducted for one week of each season during one year in each street...
March 29, 2018: Environment International
Shu-Hui Chuang, Doodipala Samba Reddy
Neurosteroids are powerful modulators of GABA-A receptors. Ganaxolone (3α-hydroxy-3β-methyl-5α-pregnan-20-one, GX) and synthetic analogs of the neurosteroid allopregnanolone (AP) are designed to treat epilepsy and related conditions. However, their precise mechanism of action in native neurons remains unclear. Here, we sought to determine the mode of action of GX and its analogs at GABA-A receptors in native hippocampal neurons by analyzing extrasynaptic receptor-mediated tonic currents and synaptic receptor-mediated phasic currents...
March 30, 2018: Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics
Ying-Ying Li, Lian-Peng Tong, Rong-Zhen Liao
The mononuclear [Cl-FeIII (dpa)-Cl]+ (1Cl ) complex containing a square planar tetradentate polypyridine ligand has been reported to catalyze water oxidation in pH = 1 aqueous medium with ceric ammonium nitrate (CAN) as a chemical oxidant. The reaction mechanism of the oxygen evolution driven by this catalyst was investigated by means of density functional calculations. The results showed that one chloride ligand of 1Cl has to exchange with a water molecule to generate 1, [Cl-FeIII (dpa)-OH2 ]2+ , as the starting species of the catalytic cycle...
March 30, 2018: Inorganic Chemistry
Işıl Çoruh, Özge Çevik, Kemal Yelekçi, Teodora Djikic, Ş Güniz Küçükgüzel
A series of (R,S)-1-{[5-(substituted)sulfanyl-4-substituted-4H-1,2,4-triazole-3-yl]methyl}-1,8-diethyl-1,3,4,9-tetrahydropyrano[3,4-b]indoles (5a-v) were designed and synthesized using a five-step synthetic protocol that involves substituted benzyl chlorides and (R,S)-5-[(1,8-diethyl-1,3,4,9-tetrahydropyrano[3,4-b]indole-1-yl)methyl]-4-substituted-2,4-dihydro-3H-1,2,4-triazole-3-thiones in the final step. The synthesized derivatives were evaluated for cytotoxicity and anticancer activity in vitro using the MTT (3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide) colorimetric method against VERO, HEPG2 (human hepatocellular liver carcinoma), SKOV3 (ovarian carcinoma), MCF7 (human breast adenocarcinoma), PC3 and DU145 (prostate carcinoma) cells at 10-5  M (10 μM) for 24 h...
March 25, 2018: Archiv der Pharmazie
Jessica Henoch, Armin Auch, Fatima Diab, Klaus Eichele, Hartmut Schubert, Peter Sirsch, Theresa Block, Rainer Pöttgen, Lars Wesemann
1,1'-Dilithioferrocene was reacted with 2 equiv of isopropyl (Ar*) or methyl (Ar') substituted terphenyl tin(II) chloride. Reaction product 1, carrying the bulkier terphenyl substituent Ar*, displays a bis(stannylene) structure in the solid state without formation of a tin-tin bond. Temperature-dependent solution119 Sn NMR spectroscopy, however, revealed a dynamic interplay between bis(stannylene) (100 °C) and cyclic distannene (-80 °C). In contrast to 1, the less bulky Ar' substituent results in a cyclic distannene 2...
March 21, 2018: Inorganic Chemistry
Karsten Klauke, Dzmitry H Zaitsau, Mark Bülow, Li He, Maximilian Klopotowski, Tim-Oliver Knedel, Juri Barthel, Christoph Held, Sergey P Verevkin, Christoph Janiak
Three selenoether-functionalized ionic liquids (ILs) of N-[(phenylseleno)methylene]pyridinium (1), N-(methyl)- (2) and N-(butyl)-N'-[(phenylseleno)methylene]imidazolium (3) with bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide anions ([NTf2]) were prepared from pyridine, N-methylimidazole and N-butylimidazole with in situ obtained phenylselenomethyl chloride, followed by ion exchange to give the desired compounds. The crystal structures of the bromide and tetraphenylborate salts of the above cations (1-Br, 2-BPh4 and 3-BPh4) confirm the formation of the desired cations and indicate a multitude of different supramolecular interactions besides the dominating Coulomb interactions between the cations and anions...
March 21, 2018: Dalton Transactions: An International Journal of Inorganic Chemistry
Mark F McCarty, James H O'Keefe, James J DiNicolantonio
Background: Glutathione is a key scavenging antioxidant that opposes the proinflammatory signaling of hydrogen peroxide. Boosting cellular glutathione levels may have broad utility in the prevention and treatment of disorders driven by oxidative stress. Supplemental N-acetylcysteine has been employed for this purpose. Could supplemental glycine likewise promote glutathione synthesis? Methods: We conducted a review of the pertinent literature using PubMed. Results: Tissue glycine levels are lower than the glutathione synthase Michaelis constant (Km ) for glycine...
2018: Ochsner Journal
Chu Shan Tan, Mun Fei Yam
Previous studies have demonstrated that 3'-hydroxy-5,6,7,4'-tetramethoxyflavone (TMF) content in Orthosiphon stamineus fractions correlate with its vasorelaxation activity. Even with the availability of previous studies, there is still very little information on the vasorelaxation effect of TMF, and few scientific studies have been carried out. Therefore, the present study was designed to investigate the vasorelaxation activity and mechanism of action of the TMF. The vasorelaxation activity and the underlying mechanisms of TMF were evaluated on thoracic aortic rings isolated from Sprague Dawley rats...
March 19, 2018: Naunyn-Schmiedeberg's Archives of Pharmacology
Anna Gołąbiewska, Marta Paszkiewicz-Gawron, Aleksandra Sadzińska, Wojciech Lisowski, Ewelina Grabowska, Adriana Zaleska-Medynska, Justyna Łuczak
To investigate the effect of the ionic liquid (IL) chain length on the surface properties and photoactivity of TiO2 , a series of TiO2 microspheres have been synthesized via a solvothermal method assisted by 1-methyl-3-octadecylimidazolium chloride ([ODMIM][Cl]) and 1-methyl-3-tetradecylimidazolium chloride ([TDMIM][Cl]). All as-prepared samples were characterized by X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (DRS), scanning transmission microscopy (STEM) and the Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) surface area method, whereas the photocatalytic activity was evaluated by the degradation of phenol in aqueous solution under visible light irradiation (λ > 420 nm)...
2018: Beilstein Journal of Nanotechnology
Cássio S Meira, José Maurício Dos Santos Filho, Caroline C Sousa, Pâmela S Anjos, Jéssica V Cerqueira, Humberto A Dias Neto, Rafael G da Silveira, Helena M Russo, Jean-Luc Wolfender, Emerson F Queiroz, Diogo R M Moreira, Milena B P Soares
4-(Nitrophenyl)hydrazone derivatives of N-acylhydrazone were synthesized and screened for suppress lymphocyte proliferation and nitrite inhibition in macrophages. Compared to an unsubstituted N-acylhydrazone, active compounds were identified within initial series when hydroxyl, chloride and nitro substituents were employed. Structure-activity relationship was further developed by varying the position of these substituents as well as attaching structurally-related substituents. Changing substituent position revealed a more promising compound series of anti-inflammatory agents...
February 25, 2018: Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry
Steven Caskey, John E Moore, Jacqueline C Rendall
Background: Mycobacterium abscessus pulmonary infection has recently emerged as a significant pathogen in patients with cystic fibrosis (CF) and is associated with significant morbidity and accelerated pulmonary decline. There is a paucity of data describing the activity of hospital biocides against this organism. Methods: M. abscessus isolates (n = 13) were recovered from CF and non-CF respiratory specimens. Seven commonly employed hospital biocides with generic ingredients as follows: acetone, propan-2-ol, diethylene glycol, 5-chloro-2-methyl-4-isothiazolin-3-one and 2-methyl-4-isothiazolin-3-one, chlorine dioxide, 4% chlorhexidine, alcohol, and disodium carbonate, compound with hydrogen peroxide, 10% sodium hypochlorite were assayed for their biocidal activity against M...
January 2018: International Journal of Mycobacteriology
Yaxiong Wang, Ping Liu, Baoqing Zeng, Liming Liu, Jianjun Yang
A hydrothermal method for synthesizing ultralong and thin copper nanowires (CuNWs) with average diameter of 35 nm and average length of 100 μm is demonstrated in this paper. The concerning raw materials include copric (II) chloride dihydrate (CuCl2 ·2H2 O), octadecylamine (ODA), and ascorbic acid, which are all very cheap and nontoxic. The effect of different reaction time and different molar ratios to the reaction products were researched. The CuNWs prepared by the hydrothermal method were applied to fabricate CuNW transparent conductive electrode (TCE), which exhibited excellent conductivity-transmittance performance with low sheet resistance of 26...
March 7, 2018: Nanoscale Research Letters
Saisai Lin, Yin Li, Lin Zhang, Shengfu Chen, Li'an Hou
Zwitterions of charge-balanced units have super-low fouling properties induced by ionic solvation, but their extensive applications on polymeric substrates are strictly constrained by current constructing strategies. In this work, a zwitterion-like, charge-balanced ultrathin layer with high antifouling capacity was covalently constructed on delicate aromatic polyamide (PA) reverse osmosis (RO) membranes via a mild and solvent-free grafting-to strategy. Two oppositely charged commercial short-chain carbonyl alkenes, 2-acrylamido-2-methyl propane sulfonic acid (AMPS) and methacryloxyethyltrimethyl ammonium chloride (DMSDMC), were directly mixed-grafted with amino groups on PA RO membrane surface via Michael addition...
March 7, 2018: Environmental Science & Technology
Logan J Voss, Sebastian Karalus, Vilhelm Englund, James W Sleigh
BACKGROUND: Ketamine is a general anesthetic thought to act by antagonizing N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors. However, ketamine acts on multiple channels, many of which are potential targets-including hyperpolarization-activated cyclic nucleotide-gated and potassium channels. In this study we tested the hypothesis that potassium leak channels contribute to the anesthetic action of ketamine. METHODS: Adult mouse cortical slices (400 µm) were exposed to no-magnesium artificial cerebrospinal fluid to generate seizure-like event activity...
March 6, 2018: Anesthesiology
Nurul H Ansari, Björn C G Söderberg
Treatment of 2-nitro- N -(2-methyl-1-propen-1-yl)benzenamines with potassium tert -butoxide in tert -butanol followed by the addition of an electrophile affords N -alkoxy-2 H -benzimidazoles. Electrophiles including methyl iodide, allylic bromides, propargylic bromides, benzyl bromide, and acetyl chloride gave good to excellent yields of product while 1-iodo- and 2-iodo-butane afforded very low yields.
December 13, 2017: Tetrahedron Letters
Chizoba I Ezugwu, Md Ali Asraf, Xiao Li, Shengwei Liu, Chih-Ming Kao, Serge Zhuiykov, Francis Verpoort
The positively charged azolium moieties make imidazolium linker an ideal linker for the construction of cationic metal-organic frameworks because the ligand induces cationic environments in the frameworks. Therefore, we employed two imidazolium ligands, 1,3-bis(4-carboxyphenyl)imidazolium chloride (H2 L+ Cl¯) and 1,3-bis(3,5-dicarboxyphenyl)imidazolium chloride (H4 L+ Cl¯), to synthesize two nickel azolium-based MOFs, 1 and 2. The as-synthesis MOFs were characterized by PXRD, TGA, FE-SEM, HR-TEM, FTIR and BET measurements...
February 3, 2018: Journal of Colloid and Interface Science
Xiaoxiao Wei, Yuzhi Wang, Jing Chen, Panli Xu, Yigang Zhou
A novel magnetic solid-phase extraction (MSPE) method based on 1-hexyl-3-methyl imidazolium chloride ionic liquid (IL) modified magnetic Fe3 O4 nanoparticles, hydroxylated multiwall carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs-OH) and zeolitic imidazolate frameworks (ZIFs) nanocomposites (Fe3 O4 -MWCNTs-OH@ZIF-67@IL) were proposed and applied to extract α-chymotrypsin. The magnetic materials were synthesized successfully and characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscope (TEM), thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA), fourier transform infrared spectrometry (FT-IR), vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM) and zeta potentials...
May 15, 2018: Talanta
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