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Methyl chloride

Ram Naresh Bharagava, Gaurav Saxena, Sikandar I Mulla, Devendra Kumar Patel
Tannery wastewater (TWW) is of serious environmental concern to pollution control authorities, because it contains highly toxic, recalcitrant organic and inorganic pollutants. The nature and characteristics of recalcitrant organic pollutants (ROPs) are not fully explored to date. Hence, the purpose of this study was to characterize and identify the ROPs present in the treated TWW. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry data analysis showed the presence of a variety of ROPs in the treated TWW. Results unfolded that benzyl chloride, butyl octyl phthalate, 2,6-dihydroxybenzoic acid 3TMS, dibutyl phthalate, benzyl alcohol, benzyl butyl phthalate, 4-chloro-3-methyl phenol, phthalic acid, 2'6'-dihydroxyacetophenone, diisobutyl phthalate, 4-biphenyltrimethylsiloxane, di-(-2ethy hexyl)phthalate, 1,2-benzenedicarboxylic acid, dibenzyl phthalate, and nonylphenol were present in the treated TWW...
December 14, 2017: Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology
Mina C Nakhla, John L Wood
The total synthesis of (±)-aspergilline A (1) is described. Key features of the synthesis include pyrrolinone formation via reaction of an intermediate propargyl amine with a methyl malonyl chloride derived ammonium enolate and a formal [3+2] cycloaddition between an imidate and cyclopropenone.
December 13, 2017: Journal of the American Chemical Society
Adam Blumenberg, Roshank Benabbas, Ian de Souza, Alyssa Conigliaro, Lorenzo Paladino, Elliot Warman, Richard Sinert, Sage W Wiener
Organophosphates (OP) account for the majority of pesticide-related unintentional or intentional poisonings in lower- and middle-income countries. The therapeutic role of atropine is well-established for patients with acute OP poisoning. The benefit of adding 2-pyridine aldoxime methyl chloride (2-PAM), however, is controversial. We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis of available randomized controlled trials (RCT) to compare 2-PAM plus atropine in comparison to atropine alone for acute OP poisoning...
December 11, 2017: Journal of Medical Toxicology: Official Journal of the American College of Medical Toxicology
Sung Jin Pai, Sang Soo Han
An electrophilic substitution (SE) reaction of BN isosteres has been investigated for the dehydrogenation of ammonia borane (AB) by metal chlorides (MCl2) using various ab initio calculations. In contrast to the typical SE reaction occurring at the carbon atom, the nitrogen atom in AB serves as the reaction center for the SE reaction with the boron moiety as the leaving group when the MCl2 approaches the AB. The SE2 backside reaction is favored as a trigger step for the dehydrogenation of AB by the MCl2 The SE2 reaction is found for 3d-transition-metal chlorides (e...
December 11, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Qin Yang, Rui Tao, Bo Yang, Hao Zhang, Yong Q Chen, Haiqin Chen, Wei Chen
This study evaluated the quenching and extraction procedures using different solvents at different temperatures for Lactobacillus plantarum ZS2058. Eight quenching methods that used readily available organic solvents (methanol and ethanol) or cryoprotectants (glycerol and dimethyl sulfoxide) were evaluated quantitatively, and their effects on cell membrane integrity and metabolic inactivation were assessed by propidium iodide and energy charge assays, respectively. The combination of 20% methanol and 0.9% sodium chloride (-4 °C), with the lowest propidium iodide labelling rate of 3...
December 7, 2017: Analytical Biochemistry
Kai Li, Yanli Fan, Yaojia He, Leping Zeng, Xiaotao Han, Yunjun Yan
Biodiesel production using immobilized lipase as a biocatalyst is a promising process. The performance of immobilized lipase is mainly determined by supporting materials and immobilization method. To avoid the shortcomings of adsorption and covalent bonding methods, in this study, we developed a novel heterofunctional carrier of being strengthened anion exchange and weakened covalent binding to avoid activity loss and improve operational stability of the immobilized lipase. 2,3-epoxypropyltrimethylammonium chloride with epoxy and quaternary ammonium group and glutaraldehyde were grafted onto aminated magnetic nanoparticles (AMNPs) to generate a new matrix, named GEAMNP...
November 28, 2017: Scientific Reports
Agnieszka Szopa, Adam Kokotkiewicz, Agata Król, Maria Luczkiewicz, Halina Ekiert
Dibenzocyclooctadiene lignans are a specific group of secondary metabolites that occur solely in Schisandra chinensis. The aim of the presented work was to boost the accumulation of lignans in the agitated microshoot cultures of S. chinensis, using different elicitation schemes. The experiments included testing of various concentrations and supplementation times of cadmium chloride (CdCl2), chitosan (Ch), yeast extract (YeE), methyl jasmonate (MeJa), and permeabilizing agent-dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO). After 30 days, the microshoots were harvested and evaluated for growth parameters and lignan content by LC-DAD method...
November 27, 2017: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
Xing-Xing Shi, Yuexing Zhang, Qiu-Jie Chen, Zheng Yin, Xue-Li Chen, Zhenxing Wang, Zhong-Wen Ouyang, Mohamedally Kurmoo, Ming-Hua Zeng
Herein, quasi-square planar Cu(II)(Hmbm)Cl2 (CBC, Hmbm = (1-methyl-1H-benzo[d]imidazol-2-yl)methanol) was arranged in a pseudo orthogonal way to form Cl-bridged chains, and further ππ interactions resulted in distorted hexagonal layers. DFT calculations reveal a bond strength order of Cu-Cl > Cu-O/N ≫ CuCl. ESI-MS data reveal several small fragments from CBC, but oligomeric [Cu], [Cu], and [Cu] for non-zero in-source energies; MS data indicates the occurrence of several chemical processes, viz. splitting of the ligand, oligomerization, and redox reaction of alcohol to aldehyde and Cu(II) to Cu(I)...
November 23, 2017: Dalton Transactions: An International Journal of Inorganic Chemistry
Meriem Hamdi, Ricaurte Lopera-Vasquez, Veronica Maillo, Maria Jesus Sanchez-Calabuig, Carolina Núnez, Alfonso Gutierrez-Adan, Dimitrios Rizos
In order to mimic the maternal oviductal environment, we evaluated the effect of oviductal fluid (OF) and/or uterine fluid (UF) supplementation on in vitro embryo development and quality. In vitro-produced zygotes were cultured with 1.25% OF from Day 1 to Day 4 after insemination (OF group), 1.25% OF from Day 1 to Day 4 followed by 1.25% UF from Day 4 to Day 9 (OF+UF group) or 1.25% UF only from Day 4 to Day 9 (UF group). Control groups were cultured in the presence of synthetic oviduct fluid (SOF) supplemented with 3mgmL-1 bovine serum albumin (BSA) or 5% fetal calf serum (FCS)...
November 23, 2017: Reproduction, Fertility, and Development
Rashmi Shrivastava, Alok Dube
Coating gold nanorods (GNRs) with polyelectrolytes is an effective approach to make them biocompatible for potential use in photothermal treatment (PTT) of cancer. The authors report the effect of coating of the GNRs with polystyrene sulphonate (PSS-GNRs) and PSS plus poly di-allyl di-methyl ammonium chloride (PDDAC-GNRs) on its photothermal conversion efficiency (PTE), cellular uptake and subsequently the photothermal induced cytotoxicity in human oral cancer cells (NT8e). Coating of GNRs with PSS led to decrease in PTE by ∼30% and further coating it with PDDAC led to its increase to similar level, with respect to as- prepared GNRs...
December 2017: IET Nanobiotechnology
Cassidy A Benson, Gage Bateman, Jordan M Cox, Jason B Benedict
The title compound, (C2H8N)(C7H11N2)[PbCl4], is a hybrid organic-inorganic material. It crystallizes in the space group C2/c and contains one half of a mol-ecule of lead chloride, 4-(di-methyl-amino)-pyridinium, and di-methyl-ammonium in the asymmetric unit. The crystal structure exhibits chains of lead chloride capped by 4-(di-methyl-amino)-pyridinium and di-methyl-ammoium by hydrogen bonding. This creates a one-dimensional zipper-like structure down the a axis. The crystal structure is examined and compared to a similar structure containing lead chloride and di-methyl-benzene-1,4-diaminium...
November 1, 2017: Acta Crystallographica. Section E, Crystallographic Communications
Chu Shan Tan, Yean Chun Loh, Chiew Hoong Ng, Yung Sing Ch'ng, Mohd Zaini Asmawi, Mariam Ahmad, Mun Fei Yam
Although Banxia Baizhu Tianma Tang (BBT) has been long administered for hypertensive treatment in Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM), the ratio of the herbal components that makes up the formulation has not been optimized with respect to the anti-hypertensive effect that it inherently possesses. A newly amended BBT (ABBT) formulation was developed using the evidence-based approach of orthogonal stimulus-response compatibility model. The ABBT showed enhanced therapeutic effect while maintaining its traditional theoretical approach rooted in TCM...
November 7, 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
Huggins Z Msimanga, Truong Thach Ho Lam, Nathaniel Latinwo, Mihyang Kristy Song, Newsha Tavakoli
A calibration matrix has been developed and successfully applied to quantify actives in Children's Dimetapp®, a cough mixture whose active components suffer from heavy spectral interference. High-performance liquid chromatography/photodiode array instrument was used to identify the actives and any other UV-detectable excipients that might contribute to interferences. The instrument was also used to obtain reference data on the actives, instead of relying on the manufacturer's claims. Principal component analysis was used during the developmental stages of the calibration matrix to highlight any mismatch between the calibration and sample spectra, making certain that "apples" were not compared with "oranges"...
November 3, 2017: Spectrochimica Acta. Part A, Molecular and Biomolecular Spectroscopy
Eksuree Saksornchai, Jutarat Kavinchan, Somchai Thongtem, Titipun Thongtem
Stibnite (Sb2S3) semiconducting material was successfully synthesized by a rapid and facile microwave route using antimony chloride (SbCl3) and sodiumthiosulfate (Na2S2O3) dissolved in propylene glycol (PG) containing different hydroxyethyl cellulose (HEC) masses. The phase identification, morphology, and elemental composition of products were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), field- emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) spectroscopy, and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR)...
November 9, 2017: Nanoscale Research Letters
Andrey Finegersh, Scott Kulich, Theresa Guo, Alexander V Favorov, Elana J Fertig, Ludmila V Danilova, Daria A Gaykalova, Joseph A Califano, Umamaheswar Duvvuri
ANO1 is a calcium-activated chloride channel that is frequently overexpressed in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) and other cancers. While ANO1 expression negatively correlates with survival in several cancers, its epigenetic regulation is poorly understood. We analyzed HNSCC samples from TCGA and a separate dataset of HPV+ oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma (OPSCC) samples to identify differentially methylated regions. E6 and E7 transfected normal oral keratinocytes (NOK) were used to induce hypermethylation of the ANO1 promoter...
November 9, 2017: Scientific Reports
Benjamin James Frogley, Lakshika Perera, L James Wright
The first examples of amino-substituted fused-ring metallabenzenes, the cationic iridabenzofuran [Ir(C7H4O{NH2-2}{OMe-7})(CO)(PPh3)2][O3SCF3] (5) and neutral analogue Ir(C7H4{NH2-2}{OMe-7})Cl(PPh3)2 (6), can be prepared by reduction of the corresponding nitro-substituted iridabenzofurans with zinc and concentrated hydrochloric acid. N-functionalised derivatives of 5 and 6 are formed through alkylation, sulfonylation or acylation. Thus, consecutive treatments with methyl triflate and base gives the corresponding trimethylammonium-substituted iridabenzofurans while sulfonamide derivatives are formed with p-toluenesulfonyl chloride...
November 7, 2017: Chemistry: a European Journal
Jatinder P Bassin, Michelle J Botha, Rajesh Garikipati, Madhu Goyal, Lee Martin, Amit Shah
Using a routine procedure, a number of derivatives of the benzo[4,5]isothiazolo[2,3-a]pyrazine-6,6-dioxide ring system have been synthesized from readily available starting materials. A series of chalcones were synthesized, which were subsequently reacted with chlorosulfonic acid to generate chalcone sulfonyl chlorides. The chalcone sulfonyl chlorides were then treated with bromine to generate dibromo chalcone sulfonyl chlorides. These were subsequently reacted with 1,2-diaminopropane and 2-methyl-1,2-diaminopropane in boiling ethanol resulting in compounds 2-10 and 11-19 respectively, in 12-80% yields...
November 4, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
Tomoteru Yamasaki, Masayuki Fujinaga, Wakana Mori, Yiding Zhang, Hidekatsu Wakizaka, Nobuki Nengaki, Lin Xie, Akiko Hatori, Ming-Rong Zhang
Metabotropic glutamate receptor subtype 1 (mGluR1) is a crucial pharmacological target for several central nervous system disorders. In this study, we aimed to monitor in vivo regional changes of mGluR1 related to neuroinflammation in the brains of rats after pilocarpine-induced status epilepticus (PISE) using longitudinal positron emission tomography (PET). PISE was induced in rats by administering lithium chloride, followed by repeated pilocarpine hydrochloride treatments. PET assessments were conducted using N-[4-[6-(isopropylamino)-pyrimidin-4-yl]-1,3-thiazol-2-yl]-N-methyl-4-[(11)C]methylbenzamide ([(11)C]ITDM), a selective radioligand for mGluR1, and N-benzyl-N-[(11)C]methyl-2-(7-methyl-8-oxo-2-phenyl-7,8-dihydro-9H-purin-9-yl)acetamide ([(11)C]DAC), a selective translocator protein PET ligand for neuroinflammation monitoring...
November 2, 2017: Scientific Reports
Lin-Na Xie, Chun-Hua Huang, Dan Xu, Feng Li, Jun-Ge Zhu, Chen Shen, Bo Shao, Hui-Ying Gao, Balaraman Kalyanaraman, Ben-Zhan Zhu
Pyridinium aldoximes, which are best-known as therapeutic antidotes for organophosphorus chemical warfare nerve-agents and pesticides, have been found to markedly detoxify polyhalogenated quinones which are a class of carcinogenic intermediates and recently identified disinfection byproducts in drinking water. However, the exact chemical mechanism underlying this detoxication remains unclear. Here we demonstrate that pralidoxime can remarkably facilitate the dechlorination/hydroxylation of the highly toxic tetrachloro-1, 4-benzoquinone in two-consecutive steps to generate the much less toxic 2, 5-dichloro-3, 6-dihydroxy-1, 4-benzoquonine, with rate enhancements of up to 180,000-times...
November 2, 2017: Journal of Organic Chemistry
Nishchal K Sharma, Mingan Choct, Shu-Biao Wu, Robert A Swick
Necrotic enteritis (NE) challenge and high dietary sodium (from sodium chloride) level on odor flux from broiler litter was investigated using 160 day-old Ross 308 male chicks randomly assigned to 4 dietary treatments with 4 replicates of 10 birds each. A 2 × 2 factorial arrangement of treatments was employed. Factors were: presence or absence of NE challenge and normal (1.6 g/kg) or high (4.0 g/kg) dietary sodium (Na) level. On d 20, odorants were collected from litter headspace with a flux hood and measured using selected ion flow tube mass spectrometry (SIFT-MS)...
October 25, 2017: Poultry Science
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