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Methyl chloride

Shuhei Hattori, Tetsuro Kamiya, Hirokazu Hara, Masayuki Ninomiya, Mamoru Koketsu, Tetsuo Adachi
Extracellular-superoxide dismutase (EC-SOD), one of the SOD isozymes, is negatively regulated under hypoxic conditions, and decreases in its expression may exacerbate vascular diseases. Moreover, epigenetics, such as DNA methylation and histone modifications, are known to play a critical role in the progression of cancer, type 2 diabetes, and atherosclerosis. We previously investigated the involvement of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) in decreases in EC-SOD expression in hypoxic COS7 cells; however, the role of epigenetics in this process currently remains unknown...
2016: Biological & Pharmaceutical Bulletin
Niels van Boxtel, Kris Wolfs, Marta Guillén Palacín, Ann Van Schepdael, Erwin Adams
The analysis of quaternary ammonium salts (QAS) using GC is often performed by "in injector" pyrolysis to create volatile degradation products for quantification purposes. Besides the risk of severe system contamination, the application of this approach on aqueous samples is problematic. In this work, the sample is treated in a vial with 2,2-dimethoxypropane (DMP) under acidic catalysis. In addition to the removal of water and sample enrichment, the QAS are decomposed. As HS transfers only volatile compounds to the GC system, contamination is avoided...
November 9, 2016: Journal of Chromatography. A
Lara Hettmanczyk, Bianca Schmid, Stephan Hohloch, Biprajit Sarkar
A series of novel palladium(ii) acetylacetonato complexes bearing mesoionic carbenes (MICs) have been synthesized and characterized. The synthesis of the complexes of type (MIC)Pd(acac)I (MIC = 1-mesityl-3-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3-triazol-5-ylidene (1), 1,4-(2,4,6-methyl)-phenyl-3-methyl-1,2,3-triazol-5-ylidene (2), 1,4-(2,6-diisopropyl)-phenyl-3-methyl-1,2,3-triazol-5-ylidene (3); acac = acetylacetonato) via direct metalation starting from the corresponding triazolium iodides and palladium(ii) acetylacetonate is described herein...
November 17, 2016: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
Andres E Barcala Tabarrozzi, Luz Andreone, Julie Deckers, Carla N Castro, María L Gimeno, Laura Ariolfo, Paula M Berguer, María Antunica-Noguerol, Ana C Liberman, Sabine Vettorazzi, Jan P Tuckermann, Karolien De Bosscher, Marcelo J Perone
Dendritic cells (DC) initiate the adaptive immune response. Glucocorticoids (GCs) down-modulate the function of DC. Compound A (CpdA, (2-(4-acetoxyphenyl)-2-chloro-N-methyl-ethylammonium chloride) is a plant-derived GR-ligand with marked dissociative properties. We investigated the effects of CpdA on in vitro generated GM-CSF-conditioned bone marrow-derived DC (BMDC). CpdA-exposed BMDC exhibited low expression of cell-surface molecules and diminution of the release of proinflammatory cytokines upon LPS stimulation; processes associated with BMDC maturation and activation...
November 18, 2016: Scientific Reports
Farhad Ullah, Tayllon Dos Anjos-Garcia, Joyce Mendes-Gomes, Daoud Hibrahim Elias-Filho, Luiz Luciano Falconi-Sobrinho, Renato Leonardo de Freitas, Asmat Ullah Khan, Ricardo de Oliveira, Norberto Cysne Coimbra
The electrical and chemical stimulation of the dorsal periaqueductal grey matter (dPAG) elicits panic-like explosive escape behaviour. Although neurons of the ventromedial hypothalamus (VMH) seem to organise oriented escape behaviour, when stimulated with excitatory amino acids at higher doses, non-oriented/explosive escape reactions can also be displayed. The aim of this work was to examine the importance of reciprocal projections between the VMH and the dPAG for the organisation of this panic-like behaviour...
November 14, 2016: Behavioural Brain Research
Penjuri Subhash Chandra Bose, Ravouru Nagaraju, Damineni Saritha, Budumuru Padmasri, Poreddy Srikanth Reddy
Indomethacin-loaded alginate microspheres were prepared by the ionic cross linking technique using calcium chloride. The effect of calcium chloride concentration was evaluated with respect to the size, entrapment efficiency and shape (sphericity) of the particles. The entrapment efficiency and in vitro release profiles were found to be altered by changing various formulation parameters. The desired indomethacin in vitro release profile (as per USP specifications for extended release formulations) was obtained from microspheres prepared from gel containing 2% of sodium alginate and 2% of methyl cellulose hardened in 3% calcium chloride solution...
2016: Ceská a Slovenská Farmacie
Jitka Kopecká, Miroslav Mrlík, Robert Olejník, Dušan Kopecký, Martin Vrňata, Jan Prokeš, Patrycja Bober, Zuzana Morávková, Miroslava Trchová, Jaroslav Stejskal
Polypyrrole (PPy) in globular form and as nanotubes were prepared by the oxidation of pyrrole with iron(III) chloride in the absence and presence of methyl orange, respectively. They were subsequently converted to nitrogen-containing carbons at 650 °C in an inert atmosphere. The course of carbonization was followed by thermogravimetric analysis and the accompanying changes in molecular structure by Fourier Transform Infrared and Raman spectroscopies. Both the original and carbonized materials have been tested in sensing of polar and non-polar organic vapors...
November 15, 2016: Sensors
Christine E Duval, Timothy A DeVol, Scott M Husson
This contribution describes the synthesis of robust extractive scintillating resin and its use in a flow-cell detector for the direct detection of uranium in environmental waters. The base poly[(4-methyl styrene)-co-(4-vinylbenzyl chloride)-co-(divinylbenzene)-co-(2-(1-napthyl)-4-vinyl-5-phenyloxazole)] resin contains covalently bound fluorophores. Uranium-binding functionality was added to the resin by an Arbuzov reaction followed by hydrolysis via strong acid or trimethylsilyl bromide (TMSBr)-mediated methanolysis...
December 1, 2016: Analytica Chimica Acta
Sami A Goussous, Mike T L Casford, Simon A Johnson, Paul B Davies
Molecular scale information about the structure of surfactants at interfaces underlies their application in consumer products. In this study the non-linear optical technique of Sum Frequency Generation (SFG) vibrational spectroscopy has been used to investigate the structure and temporal behaviour of two cationic surfactants used frequently in hair conditioners. SFG spectra of films of behenyltrimethylammonium methosulfate (BTMS) and behenyltrimethylammonium chloride (BTAC) were recorded at the air/water interface and on glass slides following Langmuir Blodgett (LB) deposition...
November 3, 2016: Journal of Colloid and Interface Science
Inkeri Kontro, Kirsi Svedström, Filip Duša, Patrik Ahvenainen, Suvi-Katriina Ruokonen, Joanna Witos, Susanne K Wiedmer
The effects of ionic liquids on model phospholipid membranes were studied by small-angle X-ray scattering, dynamic light scattering (DLS) and zeta potential measurements. Multilamellar 1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine liposomes and large unilamellar vesicles composed of l-α-phosphatidylcholine (eggPC) and l-α-phosphatidylglycerol (eggPG) (80:20mol%) or eggPC, eggPG, and cholesterol (60:20:20mol%) were used as biomimicking membrane models. The effects of the phosphonium-based ionic liquids: tributylmethylphosphonium acetate, trioctylmethylphosphonium acetate, tributyl(tetradecyl)-phosphonium acetate, and tributyl(tetradecyl)-phosphonium chloride, were compared to those of 1-ethyl-3-methyl-imidazolium acetate...
November 9, 2016: Chemistry and Physics of Lipids
Colin P O'Donnell, Kelly A Allott, Brendan P Murphy, Hok Pan Yuen, Tina-Marie Proffitt, Alicia Papas, Jennifer Moral, Tee Pham, Michaela K O'Regan, Christina Phassouliotis, Raelene Simpson, Patrick D McGorry
OBJECTIVE: Taurine is an inhibitory neuromodulatory amino acid in the central nervous system that activates the GABA- and glycine-insensitive chloride channel and inhibits the N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor. It also functions as a neuroprotective agent and has a role in neural development and neurogenesis. The aim of this study was to determine the efficacy of adjunctive taurine in improving symptomatology and cognition among patients with a DSM-IV first-episode psychotic disorder. METHODS: 121 patients with first-episode psychosis, aged 18-25 years, attending early intervention services consented to participate in this randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial conducted from January 2007 to May 2009...
November 8, 2016: Journal of Clinical Psychiatry
Milena Kolpaczynska, Christopher A DeRosa, William A Morris, Cassandra L Fraser
Difluoroboron β-diketonates have impressive optical properties in both solution and the solid state. In particular, both fluorescence and room-temperature phosphorescence are present when the dyes are confined to a rigid matrix, such as poly(lactic acid) (PLA). To expand current knowledge and color range capabilities of this unique type of multi-emitting chromophore, a series of thienyl-substituted BF2bdk complexes have been synthesized. The photophysical properties were investigated in methylene chloride solution and in the solid state as dye/PLA blends...
2016: Australian Journal of Chemistry
Adrian E Ion, Liliana Cristian, Mariana Voicescu, Masroor Bangesh, Augustin M Madalan, Daniela Bala, Constantin Mihailciuc, Simona Nica
4'-Azulenyl-substituted terpyridines were efficiently synthesized following the Kröhnke methodology via azulenylchalcone intermediates. These azulenyl-containing terpyridines showed fluorescent emission with a fluorescence quantum yield varying from 0.14, in the case of parent terpyridine, to 0.64 when methyl groups are grafted on the azulenyl seven-membered ring. According to the crystal structures and TDDFT calculations, different twisting of the aromatic constituents is responsible for the observed fluorescent behavior...
2016: Beilstein Journal of Organic Chemistry
Joy Sarkar, Md Masud Rahaman Mollick, Dipankar Chattopadhyay, Krishnendu Acharya
In recent times, biosynthetic approaches toward the synthesis of nanoparticles have been shown to have several advantages over physical and chemical methods. Here, we report the extracellular mycosynthesis of γ-Fe2O3 nanoparticles by Alternaria alternata. The fungal biomass when exposed to aqueous iron(III) chloride solution led to the formation of highly stable γ-Fe2O3 nanoparticles extracellularly. The influence of these biosynthesized γ-Fe2O3 nanoparticles on the properties of hydroxyl propyl methyl cellulose was also investigated...
November 8, 2016: Bioprocess and Biosystems Engineering
Runsheng Yin, Chunhao Gu, Xinbin Feng, Lirong Zheng, Ningning Hu
Calcination of Hg ores has resulted in serious contamination of mercury (Hg) in the environment. To understand the mobilization of Hg in the calcine pile, the speciation of Hg in a profile of a large calcine pile in the Wanshan Mercury Mine, SW China was investigated using the X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XANES), to understand the mobilization of Hg in the calcine pile. Higher concentrations of Hg were observed at the 30-50 cm depth of the profile, corresponding to a cemented layer. This layer is observed in the entire pile, and was formed due to cementation of calcines...
November 4, 2016: Environmental Pollution
Noah R Angel, Raneen M Khatib, Julia Jenkins, Michelle Smith, Justin M Rubalcava, Brian Khoa Le, Daniel Lussier, Zhuo Georgia Chen, Fook S Tham, Emma H Wilson, Jack F Eichler
In an effort to find alternatives to the antitumor drug cisplatin, a series of copper (II) complexes possessing alkyl-substituted polypyridyl ligands have been synthesized. Eight new complexes are reported herein: μ-dichloro-bis{2,9-di-sec-butyl-1,10-phenanthrolinechlorocopper(II)} {[((di-sec-butyl)phen)ClCu(μ-Cl)2CuCl((di-sec-butyl)phen)]}(1), 2-sec-butyl-1,10-phenanthrolinedichlorocopper(II) {([mono-sec-butyl)phen) CuCl2} (2), 2,9-di-n-butyl-1,10-phenanthrolinedichlorocopper(II) {[(di-n-butyl)phen) CuCl2}(3), 2-n-butyl-1,10-phenanthrolinedichlorocopper(II) {[(mono-n-butyl)phen) CuCl2} (4), 2,9-di-methyl-1,10-phenanthrolineaquadichlorocopper(II) {[(di-methyl)phen) Cu(H2O)Cl2}(5), μ-dichloro-bis{6-sec-butyl-2,2'-bipyridinedichlorocopper(II)} {((mono-sec-butyl)bipy) ClCu(μ-Cl)2CuCl((mono-sec-butyl)bipy)} (6), 6,6'-di-methyl-2,2'-bipyridinedichlorocopper(II) {(6,6'-di-methyl)bipy) CuCl2} (7), and 4,4'-dimethyl-2,2'-bipyridinedichlorocopper(II) {(4,4'-di-methyl)bipy) CuCl2} (8)...
October 22, 2016: Journal of Inorganic Biochemistry
Lakkoji Satish, Sabera Millan, Harekrushna Sahoo
The study of protein-ionic liquid interactions is very important because of the widespread use of ionic liquids as protein stabilizer in the recent years. In this work, the interaction of bovine serum albumin (BSA) with different imidazolium-based ionic liquids (ILs) such as [1-ethyl-3-methyl-imidazolium ethyl sulfate (EmimESO4 ), 1-ethyl-3-methyl-imidazolium chloride (EmimCl) and 1-butyl-3-methyl-imidazolium chloride (BmimCl)] has been investigated using different spectroscopic techniques. The intrinsic fluorescence of BSA is quenched by ILs by the dynamic mechanism...
November 3, 2016: Luminescence: the Journal of Biological and Chemical Luminescence
Rajashree Patnaik, Rabindra Nath Padhy
The aim was to investigate whether a human neural stem cell (NSC) line derived from human umbilical cord blood (hUCB) can be used for toxicity study. Toxicity of both neurotoxic environmental xenobiotics, methyl mercury chloride (CH3HgCl), lead acetate (CH3COOPb), and chlorpyrifos (CP), and non-neurotoxic insecticide, dichlorvos, as well as non-neurotoxic drugs, theophylline and acetaminophen were assessed. Additionally, differentiation of neuronal and glial cell lines derived from hUCB was elucidated. It was observed that CH3HgCl was more toxic to human NSCs in comparison to CH3COOPb and CP...
November 2, 2016: Neurotoxicity Research
Abhishek Banerjee, Rajeev V Rikhye, Vincent Breton-Provencher, Xin Tang, Chenchen Li, Keji Li, Caroline A Runyan, Zhanyan Fu, Rudolf Jaenisch, Mriganka Sur
Rett syndrome (RTT) arises from loss-of-function mutations in methyl-CpG binding protein 2 gene (Mecp2), but fundamental aspects of its physiological mechanisms are unresolved. Here, by whole-cell recording of synaptic responses in MeCP2 mutant mice in vivo, we show that visually driven excitatory and inhibitory conductances are both reduced in cortical pyramidal neurons. The excitation-to-inhibition (E/I) ratio is increased in amplitude and prolonged in time course. These changes predict circuit-wide reductions in response reliability and selectivity of pyramidal neurons to visual stimuli, as confirmed by two-photon imaging...
November 1, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Emine Ertekin, Konstantinos T Konstantinidis, Ulas Tezel
Recently, an array of eight genes involved in the biotransformation of benzalkonium chlorides (BACs) - an active ingredient of many disinfectants - to benzyldimethyl amine (BDMA) was identified in the genome of Pseudomonas sp. BIOMIG1, which is a bacterium present in various environments and mineralizes BACs. In this study, we showed that heterologous expression of an oxygenase gene (oxyBAC) present in this gene array in E. coli resulted in formation of BDMA from BACs at a rate of 14 µM h-1. oxyBAC is phylogenetically classified as a Rieske-type oxygenase (RO) and belongs to a group which catalyzes the cleavage of C-N+ bond between either methyl or alkyl ester and a quaternary nitrogen (N) of natural QACs such as stachydrine, carnitine and trimethylglycine...
October 28, 2016: Environmental Science & Technology
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