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Methyl chloride

Jie Yang, Gaoran Li, Meidan Cai, Pengju Pan, Zhoupeng Li, Yongzhong Bao, Zhongwei Chen
Herein, we present a facile synthesis of hierarchical carbon frameworks with microporous skeletons and interconnected meso/macropores by employing poly(vinylidene chloride-co-methyl acrylate)-b-polystyrene copolymers as precursors. The obtained porosity can be tuned over a broad range via well-selected block proportions of the precursor, enabling its advantageous applications in target-oriented energy storage systems.
April 21, 2017: Chemical Communications: Chem Comm
Longfang Zheng, Xian-En Zhao, Shuyun Zhu, Yanduo Tao, Wenhua Ji, Yanling Geng, Xiao Wang, Guang Chen, Jinmao You
In this work, for the first time, a new hyphenated technique of stable isotope-labeling derivatization-ultrasound-assisted dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction has been developed for the simultaneous determination of monoamine neurotransmitters (MANTs) and their biosynthesis precursors and metabolites. The developed method was based on ultra high performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry detection using multiple-reaction monitoring mode. A pair of mass spectrometry sensitizing reagents, d0-10-methyl-acridone-2-sulfonyl chloride and d3-10-methyl-acridone-2-sulfonyl chloride, as stable isotope probes was utilized to facilely label neurotransmitters, respectively...
April 10, 2017: Journal of Chromatography. B, Analytical Technologies in the Biomedical and Life Sciences
Jian Wu, Bingjie Zhang, Lifen Zhang, Zhenping Cheng, Xiulin Zhu
Iron-mediated atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP) has gained extensive attention because of the superiority of iron catalysts, such as low toxicity, abundant reserves, and good biocompatibility. Herein, a practical iron catalyst recycling system, photoinduced iron-based water-induced phase separable catalysis ATRP with initiators for continuous activator regeneration, at room temperature is developed for the first time. In this polymerization system, the polymerization is conducted in homogenous solvents consisting of p-xylene and ethanol, using commercially available 5,10,15,20-tetraphenyl-21H,23H-porphine iron(III) chloride as the iron catalyst, ethyl 2-bromophenylacetate as the ATRP initiator, 2,4,6-trimethylbenzoyl diphenylphosphine oxide as the photoinitiator, and poly(ethylene glycol) methyl ether methacrylate as the model hydrophilic monomer...
April 19, 2017: Macromolecular Rapid Communications
Qian Li, Min-Di He, Lin Mao, Xue Wang, Yu-Lin Jiang, Min Li, Yong-Hui Lu, Zheng-Ping Yu, Zhou Zhou
BACKGROUND: Nickel compounds are well-established human carcinogens with weak mutagenic activity. Histone methylation has been proposed to play an important role in nickel-induced carcinogenesis. Nicotinamide N-methyltransferase (NNMT) decreases histone methylation in several cancer cells by altering the cellular ratio of S-adenosylmethionine (SAM) to S-adenosylhomocysteine (SAH). However, the role of NNMT in nickel-induced histone methylation remains unclear. METHODS: BEAS-2B cells were exposed to different concentrations of nickel chloride (NiCl2) for 72 h or 200 μM NiCl2 for different time periods...
April 13, 2017: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
Grazia Maria Lanzafame, Mohamed Sarakha, Debora Fabbri, Davide Vione
This study shows that methyl 2-aminobenzoate (also known as methyl anthranilate, hereafter MA) undergoes direct photolysis under UVC and UVB irradiation and that its photodegradation is further accelerated in the presence of H₂O₂. Hydrogen peroxide acts as a source of hydroxyl radicals (·OH) under photochemical conditions and yields MA hydroxyderivatives. The trend of MA photodegradation rate vs. H₂O₂ concentration reaches a plateau because of the combined effects of H₂O₂ absorption saturation and ·OH scavenging by H₂O₂...
April 12, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
Tobias Janoschka, Christian Friebe, Martin D Hager, Norbert Martin, Ulrich S Schubert
By combining a viologen unit and a 2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidin-1-oxyl (TEMPO) radical in one single combi-molecule, an artificial bipolar redox-active material, 1-(4-(((1-oxyl-2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidin-4-yl)oxy)carbonyl)benzyl)-1'-methyl-[4,4'-bipyridine]-1,1'-diium-chloride (VIOTEMP), was created that can serve as both the anode (-0.49 V) and cathode (0.67 V vs. Ag/AgCl) in a water-based redox-flow battery. While it mimics the redox states of flow battery metals like vanadium, the novel aqueous electrolyte does not require strongly acidic media and is best operated at pH 4...
April 2017: ChemistryOpen
Deepa Palanisamy, B Vijaya Pandiyan, Thirumeignanam Duraisamy, Ponmalai Kolandaivel
The present study aims to spotlight on the strength of interaction between different fatty acids with the Bovine-lactoglobulin (LGB) protein side chains along with the crystal water molecules at M062X/def2-QZVP level of theory. To analyse the role of carboxylic acid and its interaction with side chains and to reveal the significance of carboxylic acid, it was replaced by Acyl chloride (COCl), Acyl Bromide (COBr) and Acyl-Fluorine (COF) group and COS group. The ligands are linear with a straight and branched chain of carbon atoms, but extended methyl group make the ligand bend resulting in non-planar geometry...
March 22, 2017: Journal of Molecular Graphics & Modelling
Akihiro Taguchi, Kiyotaka Kobayashi, Akira Kotani, Kyohei Muguruma, Misaki Kobayashi, Kentarou Fukumoto, Kentaro Takayama, Hideki Hakamata, Yoshio Hayashi
In this paper, we describe a new disulfide-forming agent based on the finding that alkoxy 3-nitro-2-pyridinesulfenates (Npys-OR) can oxidize thiol groups. Methyl 3-nitro-2-pyridinesulfenate (Npys-OMe), which is easily prepared from 3-nitro-2-pyridinesulfenyl chloride in a one-step reaction and has a reduction peak potential (Epc) of -0.543 V vs. Ag/AgCl, produces the cyclic nonapeptide oxytocin from its linear form in a good yield (92%) with minimal oligomer formation. Npys-OMe in the solid-phase also demonstrated excellent results in oxytocin synthesis...
April 13, 2017: Chemistry: a European Journal
Jan Szabo, Julian Greiner, Gerhard Maas
Depending on the reaction conditions, N,N',N''-tris(benzylamino)guanidinium salts can react with carboxylic acid chlorides to form either symmetrical N,N',N''-tris(N-acyl-N-benzylamido)guanidines 6 or mesoionic 4-amino-1,2,4-triazolium-3-hydrazinides 7. The latter were converted into 1,2,4-triazolium salts by protonation or methylation at the hydrazinide nitrogen atom. Neutral 1,2,4-triazoles 10 were obtained by catalytic hydrogenation of an N-benzyl derivative. Crystal structure analyses of a 4-benzylamino-1,2,4-triazolium-3-hydrazinide and of two derived 1,2,4-triazolium salts are presented...
2017: Beilstein Journal of Organic Chemistry
Norman Lu, Rong Jyun Wei, Kwan Yu Lin, Mani Alagesan, Yuh Sheng Wen, Ling Kang Liu
Neutralization of 4-[(2,2,3,3-tetrafluoropropoxy)methyl]pyridine with hydrohalo acids HX (X = Cl and Br) yielded the pyridinium salts 4-[(2,2,3,3-tetrafluoropropoxy)methyl]pyridinium chloride, C9H10F4NO(+)·Cl(-), (1), and 4-[(2,2,3,3-tetrafluoropropoxy)methyl]pyridinium bromide, C9H10F4NO(+)·Br(-), (2), both carrying a fluorous side chain at the para position of the pyridinium ring. Single-crystal X-ray diffraction techniques revealed that (1) and (2) are isomorphous. The halide anions accept four hydrogen bonds from N-H, ortho-C-H and CF2-H groups...
April 1, 2017: Acta Crystallographica. Section C, Structural Chemistry
Tirut Morkaew, Onruthai Pinyakong, Wanpen Tachaboonyakiat
The effect of the quaternary ammonium chitin structure on the bactericidal activity and specificity against Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus was investigated. Quaternary ammonium chitins were synthesized by the separate acylation of chitin (CT) with carboxymethyl trimethylammonium chloride (CMA), 3-carboxypropyl trimethylammonium chloride (CPA) and N-dodecyl-N,N-(dimethylammonio)butyrate (DDMAB). The successful acylation was confirmed by newly formed ester linkage. All three derivatives had a higher surface charge than chitin due to the additional positively charged quaternary ammonium groups...
March 29, 2017: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
Natália P Nogueira, Francis M S Saraiva, Matheus P Oliveira, Ana Paula M Mendonça, Job D F Inacio, Elmo E Almeida-Amaral, Rubem F Menna-Barreto, Gustavo A T Laranja, Eduardo J Lopes Torres, Marcus F Oliveira, Marcia C Paes
Trypanosoma cruzi is the causative agent of Chagas disease and has a single mitochondrion, an organelle responsible for ATP production and the main site for the formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). T. cruzi is an obligate intracellular parasite with a complex life cycle that alternates between vertebrate and invertebrate hosts, therefore the development of survival strategies and morphogenetic adaptations to deal with the various environments is mandatory. Over the years our group has been studying the vector-parasite interactions using heme as a physiological oxidant molecule that triggered epimastigote proliferation however, the source of ROS induced by heme remained unknown...
March 29, 2017: Free Radical Biology & Medicine
W L Liu, C S Dou, Y Wang, P Zhao, J L Fu, B Y Yao, Z C Zhou
Objective: To investigate the effect of manganese chloride (MnCl(2)) or 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium (MPP (+)) on oxidative stress and autophagy in human neuroblastomaSK-N-SH cells and the mechanism of the neurotoxicity of manganese. Methods: SK-N-SH cells were treated with MnCl(2) or MPP(+) at doses of 0.062 5, 0.125, 0.25, 0.5, 1.0, and 2.0 mmol/L for 24 hours, and MTT assay was used to measure cell viability. The cells weretreated with MnCl(2) or MPP(+) at doses of 0.125, 0.25, and 0.5 mmol/L for 24 hours, and flow cytometry was used to measure the content of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in cells, a laser scanning confocal microscope was used to observe autophagosome in cells, and Western blot was used to measure the expression of autophagy-related proteins P62 and LC3-II/LC3-I...
February 20, 2017: Chinese Journal of Industrial Hygiene and Occupational Diseases
Byung-Ho Lee, Chung-Gyoo Park, Yonglin Ren
Monochamus alternatus Hopeis is an important vector of nematode pests of timber in Korea, particularly Bursaphelenchus xylophilus (Steiner & Buhrer) Nickle. Previously, we reported that ethanedinitrile (C2N2) has the potential to replace methyl bromide and metam sodium to control M. alternatus larvae and B. xylophilus under low-temperature (<5 °C) conditions. Herein, we report on fumigation trials of C2N2 over a 3-yr period (February 2013-October 2015) conducted at higher temperatures. The trials were conducted under 24 different conditions that incorporated varying fumigation chamber types (plastic sheeting-enclosed chambers of differing construction or an ISO shipping container, interior size: 5...
April 1, 2017: Journal of Economic Entomology
Riikka Laitinen, Jukka Räty, Kristiina Korhonen, Jarkko Ketolainen, Kai-Erik Peiponen
Pharmaceutical thin films are versatile drug-delivery platforms i.e. allowing transdermal, oral, sublingual and buccal administration. However, dissolution testing of thin films is challenging since the commonly used dissolution tests for conventional dosage forms correspond rather poorly to the physiological conditions at the site of administration. Here we introduce a traditional optical reflection method for monitoring the dissolution behavior of thin polymeric films. The substances, e.g. drug molecules, released from the film generate an increase in the refractive index in the liquid medium which can be detected by reflectance monitoring...
March 18, 2017: International Journal of Pharmaceutics
Hongwei Zhang, Ying Shi, Chao Wang, Kangfeng Zhao, Shaoping Zhang, Lan Wei, Li Dong, Wen Gu, Yongjun Xu, Hongjie Ruan, Hong Zhi, Xiaoyan Yang
We developed a modified local lymph node assay based on ATP (LLNA:DA), termed the Two-Stage LLNA:DA, to further reduce the animal numbers in the identification of sensitizers. In the Two-Stage LLNA:DA procedure, 13 chemicals ranging from non-sensitizers to extreme sensitizers were selected. The first stage used reduced LLNA:DA (rLLNA:DA) to screen out sensitive chemicals. The second stage used LLNA:DA based on OECD 442 (A) to classify those potential sensitizers screened out in the first stage. In the first stage, the SIs of the methyl methacrylate, salicylic acid, methyl salicylate, ethyl salicylate, isopropanol and propanediol were below 1...
2017: Journal of Toxicological Sciences
Varsha Rani, Harkesh B Singh, Ray J Butcher
In the title mercury complex, catena-poly[[di-chlorido-mercury(II)]-μ-2,2'-(2-bromo-5-tert-butyl-1,3-phenyl-ene)bis-(1-methyl-1H-benzimidazole)-κ(2)N(3):N(3')], [HgCl2(C26H25BrN4)] n , the Hg(II) atom is coordinated by two Cl atoms and by two N atoms from two 2,2'-(2-bromo-5-tert-butyl-1,3-phenyl-ene)bis-(1-methyl-1H-benzimidazole) ligands. The metal cation adopts a distorted tetrahedral coordination geometry with with bond angles around mercury of 100.59 (15)° [N-Hg-N] and 126.35 (7)° [Cl-Hg-Cl]. This arrangement gives rise to a zigzag helical 1-D polymer propagating along the b-axis direction...
March 1, 2017: Acta Crystallographica. Section E, Crystallographic Communications
Nathaniel J L K Davis, Francisco J de la Peña, Maxim Tabachnyk, Johannes M Richter, Robin D Lamboll, Edward P Booker, Florencia Wisnivesky Rocca Rivarola, James T Griffiths, Caterina Ducati, S Matthew Menke, Felix Deschler, Neil C Greenham
Cesium lead halide nanocrystals, CsPbX3 (X = Cl, Br, I), exhibit photoluminescence quantum efficiencies approaching 100% without the core-shell structures usually used in conventional semiconductor nanocrystals. These high photoluminescence efficiencies make these crystals ideal candidates for light-emitting diodes (LEDs). However, because of the large surface area to volume ratio, halogen exchange between perovskite nanocrystals of different compositions occurs rapidly, which is one of the limiting factors for white-light applications requiring a mixture of different crystal compositions to achieve a broad emission spectrum...
February 23, 2017: Journal of Physical Chemistry. C, Nanomaterials and Interfaces
Katarzyna Domeradzka-Gajda, Marek Nocuń, Joanna Roszak, Beata Janasik, C Derrick Quarles, Wojciech Wąsowicz, Jarosław Grobelny, Emilia Tomaszewska, Grzegorz Celichowski, Katarzyna Ranoszek-Soliwoda, Małgorzata Cieślak, Dorota Puchowicz, Jhanis J Gonzalez, Richard E Russo, Maciej Stępnik
Some reports indicate that the silver released from dermally applied products containing silver nanoparticles (AgNP) (e.g. wound dressings or cosmetics) can penetrate the skin, particularly if damaged. AgNP were also shown to have cytotoxic and genotoxic activity. In the present study percutaneous absorption of AgNP of two different nominal sizes (Ag15nm or Ag45nm by STEM) and surface modification, i.e. citrate or PEG stabilized nanoparticles, in combination with cosmetic ingredients, i.e. aluminum chloride (AlCl3), methyl paraben (MPB), or di-n-butyl phthalate (DBPH) was assessed using in vitro model based on dermatomed pig skin...
March 14, 2017: Toxicology Letters
Panpan Zhou, Yu Xie, Jing Fang, Yun Ling, Changling Yu, Xiaoming Liu, Yuhua Dai, Yuancheng Qin, Dan Zhou
In this paper, the mesoporous TiO2 with different concentration of CdS quantum dots (i.e., x% CdS/TiO2) was successfully fabricated by the sol-gel method. The composition, structure and morphology of the nanocomposites were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), UV-vis diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (UV-Vis/DRS) and nitrogen physical adsorption test and so on. The proportion of CdS and TiO2 is very important for the photocatalytic performance...
March 8, 2017: Chemosphere
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