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Methyl chloride

Mengwen Qi, Chunfeng Wu, Zhouqing Wang, Li Zhou, Chen Men, Yimei Du, Songming Huang, Lei Chen, Ling Chen
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Glycine plays an important role in regulating hippocampal inhibitory/ excitatory neurotransmission through activating glycine receptors (GlyRs) and acting as a co-agonist of N-methyl-d-aspartate-type glutamate receptors. Activation of transient receptor potential vanilloid 4 (TRPV4) is reported to inhibit hippocampal A-type γ-aminobutyric acid receptor, a ligand-gated chloride ion channel. GlyRs are also ligand-gated chloride ion channels and this paper aimed to explore whether activation of TRPV4 could modulate GlyRs...
February 7, 2018: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
Deuk Jun Jeong, Su Bin Lee, Jong Chan Lee
Combination of urea hydrogen peroxide and p-toluenesulfonyl chloride in methanol was proved to be facile and highly efficient for the oxidative methyl esterification of various aldehydes to the corresponding carboxylic methyl esters.
December 2017: Letters in Organic Chemistry
Johannes Delp, Simon Gutbier, Stefanie Klima, Lisa Hoelting, Kevin Pinto-Gil, Jui-Hua Hsieh, Michael Aichem, Karsten Klein, Falk Schreiber, Raymond R Tice, Manuel Pastor, Mamta Behl, Marcel Leist
The (developmental) neurotoxicity hazard is still unknown for most chemicals. Establishing a test battery covering most of the relevant adverse outcome pathways may close this gap, without requiring a huge animal experimentation program. Ideally, each of the assays would cover multiple mechanisms of toxicity. One candidate test is the human LUHMES cell-based NeuriTox test. To evaluate its readiness for larger-scale testing, a proof of concept library assembled by the U.S. National Toxicology Program (NTP) was screened...
January 21, 2018: ALTEX
Fahimeh Vafadarnejad, Mohammad Mahdavi, Elahe Karimpour-Razkenari, Najmeh Edraki, Bilqees Sameem, Mahnaz Khanavi, Mina Saeedi, Tahmineh Akbarzadeh
A novel series of coumarin-pyridinium hybrids were synthesized and evaluated as inhibitors of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) using Ellman's method. Among synthesized compounds, 1-(3-fluorobenzyl)-4-((2-oxo-2H-chromene-3-carboxamido)methyl)pyridinium bromide (7l) was found to be the most active compound toward AChE (IC50 = 10.14 µM), 1-(3-chlorobenzyl)-3-((2-oxo-2H-chromene-3-carboxamido)methyl)pyridinium bromide (7g) and 1-(2,3-dichlorobenzyl)-3-((2-oxo-2H-chromene-3-carboxamido)methyl)pyridinium chloride (7h) depicted the best BChE inhibitory activity (IC50s = 0...
January 27, 2018: Bioorganic Chemistry
Tawfik A Saleh, Mustafa Tuzen, Ahmet Sarı
A novel efficient adsorbent was prepared by the modification of magnetic palygorskite (MPG) by polyamide via the interfacial polymerization of trimesoyl chloride with m-phenylenediamine. The prepared magnetic palygorskite modified with polyamide (MPGP) material was appraised for its removal of the Hg(II) and CH3Hg species from aqueous solutions. The developed adsorbent was characterized using spectroscopic techniques. The adsorption ability of the MPGP sorbent was systematically investigated by using the batch method...
February 5, 2018: Journal of Environmental Management
Bruno Senghor, Hubert Bassène, Saber Khelaifia, Catherine Robert, Pierre-Edouard Fournier, Raymond Ruimy, Cheikh Sokhna, Didier Raoult, Jean-Christophe Lagier
A Gram-positive, moderately halophilic bacterium, referred to as strain Marseille-P3518T, was isolated from a stool sample with 2% NaCl concentration from a healthy 15-year-old male living in Dielmo, a village in Senegal. Cells are aerobic, rod-shaped and motile and display endospore formation. Strain Marseille-P3518T can grow in a medium with 0-20% (w/v) sodium chloride (optimally at 5-7.5% w/v). The major fatty acids were 12-methyl-tetradecanoic acid (45.8%), 13-methyl-tetradecanoic acid (26.9%) and 12-methyl-tridecanoic acid (12...
February 7, 2018: Antonie Van Leeuwenhoek
J P Bercu, S M Galloway, P Parris, A Teasdale, M Masuda-Herrera, K Dobo, P Heard, M Kenyon, J Nicolette, E Vock, W Ku, J Harvey, A White, S Glowienke, E A Martin, L Custer, R A Jolly, V Thybaud
This paper provides compound-specific toxicology limits for 20 widely used synthetic reagents and common by-products that are potential impurities in drug substances. In addition, a 15 μg/day class-specific limit was developed for monofunctional alkyl bromides, aligning this with the class-specific limit previously defined for monofunctional alkyl chlorides. Both the compound- and class-specific toxicology limits assume a lifetime chronic exposure for the general population (including sensitive subpopulations) by all routes of exposure for pharmaceuticals...
February 2, 2018: Regulatory Toxicology and Pharmacology: RTP
Jelena M Poljarević, G Tamás Gál, Nóra V May, Gabriella Spengler, Orsolya Dömötör, Aleksandar R Savić, Sanja Grgurić-Šipka, Éva A Enyedy
Five Ru(II)(η6-toluene) complexes formed with 2-picolinic acid and its various derivatives have been synthesized and characterized. X-ray structures of four complexes are also reported. Complex formation processes of [Ru(II)(η6-toluene)(H2O)3]2+ organometallic cation with the metal-free ligands were studied in aqueous solution in the presence of chloride ions by the combined use of 1H NMR spectroscopy, UV-visible spectrophotometry and pH-potentiometry. Solution stability, chloride ion affinity and lipophilicity of the complexes were characterized together with in vitro cytotoxic and antiproliferative activity in cancer cell lines being sensitive and resistant to classic chemotherapy and in normal cells as well...
January 6, 2018: Journal of Inorganic Biochemistry
Víctor Samper Barceló, Stefan Bienz
Highly functionalized 5-membered N-heterocyclic compounds, 4-aryl-3-chloro-5-methoxy-1-methyl-3-pyrrolin-2-ones, have been synthesized in moderate to high yields by the reaction of N,N-dimethylated aromatic α-amino acids with oxalyl chloride, followed by solvolysis with MeOH. The products possess a number of functional groups such as an amide, a mixed amido/alkoxy acetal, a vinyl halide, and an alkene, and thus are promising candidates to be used as starting materials for the synthesis of diverse five-membered N-heterocyclic compounds...
February 6, 2018: Journal of Organic Chemistry
Lina M Acosta Quintero, Alirio Palma, Justo Cobo, Christopher Glidewell
A versatile synthesis of multiply substituted cyclic dipeptides has been designed, based on the stepwise construction of the piperazine-2,5-dione ring using molecular fragments from four different precursor molecules. Starting from substituted 2-allylanilines, reaction with methyl 2-bromo-2-phenylacetate yields the corresponding methyl 2-(2-allylanilino)-2-phenylacetates, which react with haloacetyl chlorides to give methyl 2-[N-(2-allylphenyl)-2-haloacetamido]-2-phenylacetates, which then undergo ring closure with benzylamine to yield the corresponding cyclic dipeptides of type 4-(2-allylphenyl)-1-benzyl-3-phenylpiperazine-2,5-dione...
February 1, 2018: Acta Crystallographica. Section C, Structural Chemistry
Shakiru Ademola Salami, Hussein Mofomosara Salahdeen, Evangelshane Chukwudubem Ugbebor, Babatunde Adekunle Murtala, Yinusa Raji
OBJECTIVE: This study investigated the effects of aqueous leaf extract of Tridax procumbens (ALETP) on contractile activity of corpus cavernosum in N-nitro-l-arginine methyl ester (l-NAME)-induced hypertensive male rats. METHODS: Twenty normal, adult male rats (130-150 g) were divided into four groups of five rats each. Group I (control) was given normal saline (0.6 mL/kg) and group II was given l-NAME (40 mg/kg) for 6 weeks. Groups III and IV also received l-NAME (40 mg/kg) for 6 weeks but were further co-treated with 100 and 200 mg/kg of ALETP, respectively, from week 4 to week 6...
January 2018: Journal of Integrative Medicine
Ian R Willick, Daisuke Takahashi, D Brian Fowler, Matsuo Uemura, Karen K Tanino
The wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) crown is the critical organ of low temperature stress survival over winter. In cold-acclimated crowns, ice formation in the apoplast causes severe tissue disruption as it grows at the expense of intracellular water. While previous crown studies have shown the vascular transition zone (VTZ) to have a higher freezing sensitivity than the shoot apical meristem (SAM), the mechanism behind the differential freezing response is not fully understood. Cooling cold-acclimated crowns to -10 °C resulted in an absence of VTZ tetrazolium chloride staining, whereas the temperatures at which 50% of the SAM stained positive and 50% of plants recovered (LT50) were similar after cold acclimation for 21 (-16 °C) and 42 d (-20 °C) at 4 °C...
January 24, 2018: Journal of Experimental Botany
Mingzhu Hu, Xianhui Lian, Han Liu, Xiangyu Guo, Yueguang Lü, Hua Bai, Hongyu Xue, Qiang Ma
A comprehensive analytical method was developed for the determination of six allergenic coumarin compounds (coumarin, 7-methyl coumarin, 7-methoxycoumarin, 7-ethoxy-4-methyl coumarin, 4,6-dimethyl-8-tert-butyl coumarin and hexahydrocoumarin) in children's toys based on hollow-fiber liquid-phase microextraction (HF-LPME) followed by ultra-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS). HF-LPME was employed in sample pretreatment with the following parameters:extraction solvent of n-octanol, stirring rate of 700 r/min, extraction time of 50 min and amount of sodium chloride of 0...
November 8, 2017: Se Pu, Chinese Journal of Chromatography
Puyou Jia, Meng Zhang, Lihong Hu, Fei Song, Guodong Feng, Yonghong Zhou
The waste cooking oil (WCO) production from the catering industry and food processing industry causes serious environmental, economic and social problems. However, WCO can be used for the preparation of fine chemicals such as internal plasticizer. With this aim, this work is focused on preparing internal plasticizer by using WCO and determining technical viability of non-migration poly (vinyl chloride) (PVC) materials. The mannich base of waste cooking oil methyl ester (WCOME) was synthesized from WCO via esterification, interesterification and mannich reaction, which was used to produce self-plasticization PVC materials as an internal plasticizer...
January 25, 2018: Scientific Reports
Tsuyoshi Yoshizawa, Yukio Hayashi, Akira Yoshida, Shohei Yoshida, Yoshihiko Ito, Kenya Yamaguchi, Shizuo Yamada, Satoru Takahashi
OBJECTIVES: To investigate time course of bladder dysfunction and concurrent changes in number and affinity of the muscarinic and P2X receptor in the early stage of streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Diabetic rats were prepared by the intraperitoneal injection of 50 mg/kg of STZ to 7-week-old female Wistar rats. We performed recording of 24-h voiding behavior and cystometry at 1, 4, 8, and 12 weeks after the induction of diabetes...
January 24, 2018: International Urology and Nephrology
Flemming Heinen, Elric Engelage, Alexander Dreger, Robert Weiss, Stefan Matthias Huber
Hypervalent iodine(III) derivatives are known as versatile reagents in organic synthesis, but there is only one previous report on their use as Lewis acidic organocatalysts. Herein, we present first strong indications on the crucial role of halogen bonding in this kind of catalyses. To this end, the solvolysis of benzhydryl chloride and the Diels-Alder reaction of cyclopentadiene with methyl vinyl ketone serve as benchmark reactions for halide abstraction and the activation of neutral compounds. Iodolium compounds (cyclic diaryliodonium species) were used as activators or catalysts, and their activity could be markedly reduced or completely switched off by sterically blocking one or two of their electrophilic axes...
January 24, 2018: Angewandte Chemie
Mallika Singla, Morten Lund Rasmussen, Hamid Hashemi, Hao Wu, Peter Glarborg, Matteo Pelucchi, Tiziano Faravelli, Paul Marshall
Limitations in current hot gas cleaning methods for chlorine species from biomass gasification may be a challenge for end use such as gas turbines, engines, and fuel cells, all requiring very low levels of chlorine. During devolatilization of biomass, chlorine is released partly as methyl chloride. In the present work, the thermal conversion of CH3Cl under gasification conditions was investigated. A detailed chemical kinetic model for pyrolysis and oxidation of methyl chloride was developed and validated against selected experimental data from the literature...
January 24, 2018: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
Anna Empel, Ewa Kisiel, Robert D Wojtyczka, Małgorzata Kępa, Danuta Idzik, Aleksander Sochanik, Tomasz J Wąsik, Andrzej Zięba
A novel method for cleavage of the dithiine ring in 5,12-(dimethyl)-thioqinantrenium bis-chloride 1 "via" reaction with sodium hydrosulfide leads to 1-methyl-3-mercaptoquinoline-4(1H)-thione 2. Further transformation of thiol and thione functions of compound 2 leads to a series of sulfide and disulfide derivatives of quinolinium salts 4 and 6. 1-Methyl-4-chloro-3-benzylthioquinoline chloride 8 was obtained by N-alkylating 4-chloro-3-benzylthioquinoline using dimethyl sulfate. Antimicrobial activity of the obtained compounds was investigated using six Gram-positive and six Gram-negative bacterial strains, as well as Candida albicans yeast...
January 20, 2018: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
Xiaoyu Hu, Jinghua Yang, Yaling Sun, Xiang Gao, Lijin Zhang, Yingqi Li, Miao Yu, Shiyu Liu, Xiaobo Lu, Cuihong Jin, Shengwen Wu, Yuan Cai
Studies have reported that lanthanum chloride (LaCl3) can across the blood-brain barrier, accumulate in the brain and affect the spatial learning and memory abilities. However, the potential mechanism that LaCl3-induced neurotoxic effects has not yet been defined. Glutamate (Glu) is a vital excitatory neurotransmitter, and the excessive Glu accumulation in extracellular space can induce excitatory neurotoxicity. This study was designed to research the influence of LaCl3 on the spatial learning and memory abilities of rats and to discuss the possible mechanism underlying this effect regarding the extracellular Glu concentration, the Glu-glutamine (Gln) cycle and the N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors...
January 15, 2018: Food and Chemical Toxicology
Flavien Labre, Sophie Mathieu, Patricia Chaud, Pierre-Yves Morvan, Romuald Vallée, William Helbert, Sébastien Fort
Alginate oligosaccharides (AOS) with a weight average molecular weight of 5 kDa were efficiently amidated with amino acids and carbohydrates in aqueous media in the presence of 4-(4,6-dimethoxy-1,3,5-triazin-2-yl)-4-methylmorpholinium chloride (DMTMM). Here, alanine, leucine, serine, as well as mannose and rhamnose, were amidated at high yields with a good control of the degree of substitution (DS). Amino acid- and carbohydrate-grafted AOS showed improved stability against degradation by alginate lyases having different specificities...
March 15, 2018: Carbohydrate Polymers
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