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Methyl chloride

Nuria A Illán-Cabeza, Sonia B Jiménez-Pulido, Francisco Hueso-Ureña, Tomás Peña-Ruiz, Miguel Quirós-Olozábal, Miguel N Moreno-Carretero
2,4-Bis(1,3,7-trimethyl-pteridine-2,4(1H,3H)-dione-6-yl)-2,3-dihydro-2-methyl-1H-1,5-benzodiazepine (DLMBZD) has been prepared and its molecular and crystal structures have been determined from spectral and XRD data. The benzodiazepine ligand was reacted with zinc(ii), cadmium(ii) and mercury(ii) chloride, bromide and iodide to give complexes with general formula [M(DLMBZD)X2]. The complexes have been synthesized and characterized by IR, NMR and elemental analysis. The structure of seven complexes has been obtained by single crystal X-ray diffraction...
October 24, 2016: Dalton Transactions: An International Journal of Inorganic Chemistry
Christe Sonia Mary, Sasikumar Swamiappan
Purpose: Floating drug delivery system reduces the quantity of drug intake and the risk of overloading the organs with excess drug. Methods: In the present study, we prepared the blends of sodium alginate with polyethylene glycol (PEG) and polyethylene oxide (PEO) as a matrix, sodium hydrogen carbonate as a pore forming agent, methyl cellulose as a binder and barium chloride containing 10% acetic acid as a hardening agent. Different ratios of pore forming agent to the polymer blend was used to prepare the floating beads with different porosity and morphology...
September 2016: Advanced Pharmaceutical Bulletin
John J Guardiola, Juliane I Beier, K Cameron Falkner, Benjamin Wheeler, Craig James McClain, Matt Cave
BACKGROUND: Occupational vinyl chloride (VC) exposures have been associated with toxicant-associated steatohepatitis and liver cancer. Metabolomics has been used to clarify mode of action in drug-induced liver injury but has not been performed following VC exposures. METHODS: Plasma samples from 17 highly exposed VC workers without liver cancer and 27 unexposed healthy volunteers were obtained for metabolite extraction and GC/MS and LC/MS(2) analysis. Following ion identification/quantification, Ingenuity pathway analysis was performed...
October 17, 2016: Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology
D Spasiano, A Siciliano, M Race, R Marotta, M Guida, R Andreozzi, F Pirozzi
Imidazole-based compounds are used as reagents for the manufacturing of other compounds including imidazolium-based ionic liquids, which have been recently proposed as a green alternative to conventional solvents. Since some imidazole-based compounds have been demonstrated to be harmful to aquatic organisms, the removal of imidazole, 1-methylimidazole, 1-ethyl-3-methyl-imidazolium chloride and 1-butyl-3-methyl-imidazolium chloride from aqueous solutions was attempted by biological oxidation, direct UV254 photolysis, and UV254/H2O2 process at pH 5...
October 11, 2016: Water Research
Brenda Gomes Fanchiotti, Marcella Piffer Zamprogno Machado, Letícia Camilato de Paula, Mahmut Durmuş, Tebello Nyokong, Arlan da Silva Gonçalves, André Romero da Silva
The photobleaching of an unsubstituted phthalocyanine (gallium(III) phthalocyanine chloride (GaPc)) and a substituted phthalocyanine (1,4-(tetrakis[4-(benzyloxy)phenoxy]phthalocyaninato) indium(III) chloride (InTBPPc)) was monitored for the free photosensitizers and for the phthalocyanines encapsulated into nanoparticles of PEGylated poly(D,L-lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA-PEG). Phosphate-buffered solutions (PBS) and organic solutions of the free GaPc or the free InTBPPc, and suspensions of each encapsulated photosensitizer (2-15μmol/L) were irradiated using a laser diode of 665nm with a power of 1-104mW and a light dose of 7...
October 11, 2016: Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology. B, Biology
Takuya Kanemitsu, Miho Sato, Miyuki Yoshida, Eisuke Ozasa, Michiko Miyazaki, Yuki Odanaka, Kazuhiro Nagata, Takashi Itoh
A highly enantioselective α-benzoyloxylation of malonic diester has been achieved by phase-transfer catalysis. The reaction of α-monosubstituted tert-butyl methyl malonate with benzoyl peroxide in the presence of aqueous KOH and N-(9-anthracenylmethyl)cinchoninium chloride afforded the corresponding α,α-disubstituted products in generally excellent chemical yields (up to 99% yield) with high enantioselectivities (up to 96% ee). In addition, the utility of this methodology was exhibited by the synthesis of a mineralocorticoid receptor antagonist...
October 18, 2016: Organic Letters
Tamiris B Grimaldi, Guilherme Lutz, Davi F Back, Gilson Zeni
In this paper, we report our results on the cyclization of (biphenyl-2-alkyne) derivatives to give two different types of phenanthrene derivatives, 9-iodo-10-organochalcogen-phenanthrenes and 9-organochalcogen-phenanthrenes. The strategy for the synthesis was based on the use of electrophilic cyclization for the preparation of 9-iodo-10-organochalcogen-phenanthrenes and iron(iii) chloride/diorganyl diselenide-mediated intramolecular cyclization to prepare 9-organochalcogen-phenanthrenes. The effects of solvent, temperature, reaction time and stoichiometry on the efficiency of cyclization reactions were investigated...
October 18, 2016: Organic & Biomolecular Chemistry
Vincent Rampazzi, Julien Roger, Régine Amardeil, Marie-José Penouilh, Philippe Richard, Paul Fleurat-Lessard, Jean-Cyrille Hierso
A smart steric control of the metallocene backbone in bis- and poly(phosphino)ferrocene ligands favors intramolecular aurophilic interactions between [AuCl] fragments in polynuclear gold(I) complexes. We synthesized and characterized by multinuclear NMR and X-ray diffraction analysis mono-, di-, and polynuclear gold complexes of constrained ferrocenyl diphosphines, which bear either bulky tert-butyl groups or more flexible siloxane substituents at the cyclopentadienyl rings. The complexes meso-1,1'-bis(diphenylphosphino)-3,3'-di-tert-butylferrocene (4-m), rac-1,1'-bis[bis(5-methyl-2-furyl)phosphino]-3,3'-di-tert-butylferrocene (5-r), and rac-1,1'-bis(diphenylphosphino)-3,3'-bis[(tri-iso-propylsilyl)oxy]ferrocene (6-r) were used to form dinuclear gold complexes...
October 17, 2016: Inorganic Chemistry
Felix Otte, Stephan G Koller, Christopher Golz, Carsten Strohmann
The title compounds, [Sn3(CH3)9(OH)2(H2O)2][Sn(CH3)3(CHO2)2] (1) and [Sn3(CH3)9(OH)2]Cl·H2O (2), are partially condensed products of hydrolysed tri-methyl-tin chloride. In the structures of 1 and 2, short cationic tris-tannatoxanes (C9H29O2Sn3) are bridged by a diformatotri-methyl-tin anion or a chloride anion, respectively. Hydrogen bridges are present and supposedly stabilize these structures against further polymerization to the known polymeric tri-methyl-tin hydroxide. Especially noteworthy is that the formate present in this structure was formed from atmospheric CO2...
October 1, 2016: Acta Crystallographica. Section E, Crystallographic Communications
Yang Liu, Hai-Hui Liu
In the polymeric title compound, [CdCl2(C6H6N4)] n , the central Cd(II) atom is coordinated by four chloride ligands and two N atoms from a chelating 2,2'-bi-1H-imidazole mol-ecule, leading to a distorted octa-hedral Cl4N2 coordination set. As a result of the μ2-bridging character of the Cl ligands, chains parallel to the c axis are formed, with the chelating 2,2'-bi-1H-imidazole ligands decorated on both sides of the chain. The luminescence properties of the complex dispersed in di-methyl-formamide shows that the emission intensities are significantly quenched by nitro-benzene...
October 1, 2016: Acta Crystallographica. Section E, Crystallographic Communications
Jong Won Shin, Dong Won Lee, Dae-Woong Kim, Dohyun Moon
The title compound, [CuCl2(C10H16N2O)], has been synthesized and characterized by synchrotron single-crystal X-ray diffraction and FT-IR spectroscopy. The 2-methyl-2-[(pyridin-2-ylmeth-yl)amino]-propan-1-ol (mpmapOH) ligand, including pyridine, amine and hy-droxy groups, was synthesized by the reaction of 2-amino-2-methyl-propan-1-ol with pyridine-2-carbaldehyde and was characterized by NMR spectroscopy. In its Cu(II) complex, the metal ion has a distorted square-pyramidal coordination geometry with two N and one O atom of the mpmapOH ligand and one chloride anion in the equatorial plane, and the second chloride in an axial position...
October 1, 2016: Acta Crystallographica. Section E, Crystallographic Communications
Huiqiao Wang, Sheng Zhang, Zhiqiang Wang, Minghui He, Kun Xu
A simple triphenylphosphine-ligated cobalt catalyst is reported for the direct ortho-C-H methylation and ethylation of aromatic, heteroaromatic, alkenyl, and even aliphatic carboxamides with inexpensive organoaluminum reagents in the presence of a cheap alkyl chloride as oxidant. This reaction shows monoselectivity in contrast with previously established C-H methylation methodologies.
October 14, 2016: Organic Letters
William Lorne McClennan, Stephanie Alyssa Rufh, Justin Alexander MacDonald Lummiss, Deryn Elizabeth Fogg
Sterically accessible Lewis donors are shown to accelerate decomposition during catalysis, for a broad range of Grubbs-class metathesis catalysts. These include benzylidene derivatives RuCl2(NHC)(PCy3)(=CHPh) (Ru-2: NHC = H2IMes, a; IMes, b; H2IPr, c; IPr, d; H2ITol, e) and indenylidene complexes RuCl2(NHC)(PCy3)(=C15H10) (NHC = H2IMes, Ru-2f; IMes, Ru-2g). All of these precatalysts form methylidene complex RuCl2(NHC)(=CH2) Ru-3 as the active species in metathesis of terminal olefins, and generate RuCl2(NHC)(PCy3)(=CH2) Ru-4 as the catalyst resting state...
October 13, 2016: Journal of the American Chemical Society
Alexander E Hess, Paul D Beer
Four halogen and hydrogen bonding rotaxane host systems featuring pyridinium bis-amide-iodotriazole/prototriazole and pyridinium bis-amide-iodotriazolium/prototriazolium axle components have been synthesized by CuAAC-mediated mono-stoppering chloride anion templation and post-rotaxanation methylation reactions. In competitive 45 : 45 : 10 CDCl3-CD3OD-D2O aqueous solvent media, the dicationic halogen bonding rotaxane displayed a notable enhanced binding affinity and marked selectivity for Br(-) over other halides and nitrate and dihydrogen phosphate oxoanions in contrast to an all hydrogen bonding counterpart which is attributed to chelated charge assisted halogen bonding interactions...
October 11, 2016: Organic & Biomolecular Chemistry
Sheila Ruiz-Botella, Pietro Vidossich, Gregori Ujaque, Eduardo Peris
Two tetrabenzoimidazolium-resorcinarene cavitands were prepared and used for the recognition of chloride, bromide, iodide, cyanide, nitrate, perchlorate, hexanoate, benzenesulfonate, and p-toluenesulfonate. Binding affinities of the two cavitands were determined by (1) H NMR titration and computational analysis. The observed spectral changes were related to specific interaction sites, which were supported by the computational studies. In the case of the C2-H tetrabenzoimidazolium-resorcinarene, the recognition region of the inorganic anions and hexanoate was located at the rim of the cavitand, although chloride and bromide also interacted with the aromatic C-H bonds located between adjacent arms of the cavitand...
September 22, 2016: Chemistry: a European Journal
Gayatri C Patel, Megha Kasarwala
BACKGROUND: The purpose of this study was to investigate the application of a controlled porosity osmotic tablet (CPOT) utilizing solid dispersion (SD) of poorly soluble drug. The patents on Cyclobenzaprine HCl (US4968507 A) and Venlafaxine salts (EP 2085078 A1) helped in selection of drug and polymers. METHOD: The SDs having different ratio of drug to carrier (PVP K 30) were prepared by kneading method and optimized. Effect of three independent variables, total amount of osmogen (mannitol& potassium chloride), total amount of polymer (polyethylene oxide WSR 301, hydroxy propyl methyl cellulose K100 M), and polymer1: polymer 2 ratio was investigated using Box Behnken design...
October 4, 2016: Recent Patents on Drug Delivery & Formulation
Gagandeep Singh, Gurbir Singh, Tejwant Singh Kang
The complexation behaviour of an imidazolium based ionic liquid surfactant (ILS) 3-methyl-1-dodecylimidazolium chloride, [C12mim][Cl], and its amide and ester functionalized counterparts 3-(2-(dodecylamino)-2-oxoethyl)-1-methyl-1H-imidazol-3-ium chloride, [C12Amim][Cl], and 3-methyl-1-dodecyloxycarbonylmethylimidazolium chloride, [C12Emim][Cl], with a model protein gelatin (G) in aqueous solution has been investigated. Complexation of G with ILSs at the air-solution interface has been monitored by tensiometry, whereas complexation and ILS mediated self-assembly of G-ILS complexes in the bulk have been followed by dynamic light scattering (DLS), zeta-potential measurements, conductivity, and fluorescence techniques...
September 21, 2016: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
Yulong Chen, Hongmei Zhang, Huanhuan Liu, Ailan Cao
Independent of its lipid-lowering properties, simvastatin (Sim) induces vasorelaxation; however, the underlying mechanisms have remained elusive. The aim of the present study was to investigate the vasorelaxant effects of Sim on rat superior mesenteric arteries and the mechanisms involved. The isometric tension of rat superior mesenteric arterial rings was recorded in vitro on a myograph. The results showed that Sim concentration-dependently relaxed the superior mesenteric artery rings with endothelium pre-contracted by phenylephrine hydrochloride [maximum relaxation (Emax)=51...
October 2016: Biomedical Reports
Yulong Chen, Cangbao Xu, Yahui Wei, Yaping Zhang, Ailan Cao
Resveratrol (Res) is a specific agonist of sirtuin 1, and has many cardioprotective effects. Although Res is able to relax various vascular beds, its pharmacological properties in rat superior mesenteric arteries and the underlying mechanism are not well clarified. The aim of present study was to investigate the vasorelaxant effects of Res on rat superior mesenteric arteries and the mechanisms involved. The isometric tension of rat superior mesenteric arterial rings was recorded in vitro using myography. It was found that Res concentration-dependently relaxed endothelium-intact superior mesenteric artery rings pre-contracted by phenylephrine hydrochloride (Emax, 97...
October 2016: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
Balekari Umamahesh, Ciddi Veeresham
AIM: Abrus precatorius leaves methanolic extract (APME) was evaluated for in vivo antihyperglycemic activity and in vitro insulinotropic effect. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In vivo antihyperglycemic and insulin secretagogue activities were assessed in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats by oral administration of APME (200 mg/kg body weight [bw]) for 28 days. In vitro insulin secretion mechanisms were studied using mouse insulinoma beta cells (MIN6-β). In vivo body weight and blood glucose and in vivo and in vitro insulin levels were estimated...
October 2016: Pharmacognosy Research
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