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Neema Negi, Bimal K Das
The cardinal dogma of central nervous system (CNS) immunology believed brain is an immune privileged site, but scientific evidences gathered so far have overturned this notion proving that CNS is no longer an immune privileged site, but rather an actively regulated site of immune surveillance. Landmark discovery of lymphatic system surrounding the duramater of the brain, made possible by high resolution live imaging technology has given new dimension to neuro-immunology. Here, we discuss the immune privilege status of CNS in light of the previous and current findings, taking into account the differences between a healthy state and changes that occur during an inflammatory response...
January 2, 2018: International Reviews of Immunology
Akila Chandrasekar, Florian Olde Heuvel, Annette Palmer, Birgit Linkus, Albert C Ludolph, Tobias M Boeckers, Borna Relja, Markus Huber-Lang, Francesco Roselli
Ethanol intoxication is a common comorbidity in traumatic brain injury. To date, the effect of ethanol on TBI pathogenic cascades and resulting outcomes remains debated. A closed blunt weight-drop murine TBI model has been implemented to investigate behavioral (by sensorimotor and neurological tests), and neuro-immunological (by tissue cytokine arrays and immuno-histology) effects of ethanol intoxication on TBI. The effect of the occurrence of traumatic intracerebral hemorrhage was also studied. The results indicate that ethanol pretreatment results in a faster and better recovery after TBI with reduced infiltration of leukocytes and reduced microglia activation...
August 11, 2017: International Immunopharmacology
Mark A Hardy, Allen Furr, Juan P Barret, John H Barker
The idea of head transplantation appears at first as unrealistic, unethical, and futile. Here we discuss immunological considerations in human head transplantation. In a separate accompanying article we discuss surgical, ethical, and psychosocial issues concerned in body-to-head transplantation (BHT) [1]. The success of such an unusual allograft, where the donor and the recipient can reject each other, depends on prevention of complex immunologic reactions, especially rejection of the head by the body (graft-vs-host) or probably less likely, the possibility of the head rejecting the total body allograft (host-vs-graft)...
May 2017: International Journal of Surgery
Jo Nijs, Laurence Leysen, Roselien Pas, Nele Adriaenssens, Mira Meeus, Wouter Hoelen, Kelly Ickmans, Niamh Moloney
AIM: Pain is the second most frequent persistent symptom following cancer treatment. This article aims at explaining how the implementation of contemporary pain neuroscience can benefit rehabilitation for adults following cancer treatment within an evidence-based perspective. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Narrative review. RESULTS: First, pain education is an effective but underused strategy for treating cancer related pain. Second, our neuro-immunological understanding of how stress can influence pain highlights the importance of integrating stress management into the rehabilitation approach for patients having cancer-related pain...
March 2018: Disability and Rehabilitation
Anindya Bhattacharya, Wayne C Drevets
Mood disorders are associated with persistently high rates of morbidity and mortality, despite the widespread availability of antidepressant treatments. One limitation to extant therapeutic options has been that nearly all approved antidepressant pharmacotherapies exert a similar primary action of blocking monoamine transporters, and few options exist for transitioning treatment resistant patients to alternatives with distinct mechanisms. An emerging area of science that promises novel pathways to antidepressant and mood-stabilizing therapies has followed from evidence that immunological factors play major roles in the pathophysiology of at least some mood disorder subtypes...
2017: Current Topics in Behavioral Neurosciences
Colin Reardon
Communication between the nervous and immune systems can significantly alter immune cell function in a number of inflammatory diseases. Elegant studies have defined a basic functional circuit in a "cholinergic anti-inflammatory pathway" that highlights a unique role for the vagus nerve, and has brought about a resurgence in the field of neuro-immunology. This research has further identified that in addition to tonic signals that can restrain immune cell activation; the anti-inflammatory reflex arc is amiable to targeted stimulation as a therapeutic modality...
October 2016: Immunology Letters
João Dias Ferreira, Ana Castro Caldas, João Correia de Sá, Ruth Geraldes
Nervous system involvement in Hepatitis C virus infection (HCV) has been associated to neuro-immunological deregulation, particularly in interferon-alpha treated patients. We present a case of optic and brainstem demyelinating disorder associated with aquaporin-4 (AQP4) antibodies. A 48 year-old woman, with previous diagnosis of non-treated hepatitis C, presented with a 10-year history of long-standing gait disturbance. Neurological examination disclosed a grade 4 spastic paraparesis, lower limb hyperreflexia, right positive Hoffmann sign, bilateral Babinski sign and spastic gait only possible with bilateral support...
July 2016: Multiple Sclerosis and related Disorders
Anindya Bhattacharya, Noel C Derecki, Timothy W Lovenberg, Wayne C Drevets
Mood disorders, despite the widespread availability of monoamine-based antidepressant treatments, are associated with persistently high rates of disability, together with elevated rates of mortality due to suicide, cardiovascular disease, and other causes. The development of more effective treatments has been hindered by the lack of knowledge about the etiology and pathogenesis of mood disorders. An emerging area of science that promises novel pathways to antidepressant and mood stabilizing therapies surrounds evidence that immune cells and their signaling play a major role in the pathophysiology of major depressive disorder (MDD) and bipolar disorder (BD)...
May 2016: Psychopharmacology
Mary M Robertson
After having examined the definition, clinical phenomenology, comorbidity, psychopathology, and phenotypes in the first paper of this Series, here I discuss the assessment, including neuropsychology, and the effects of Gilles de la Tourette syndrome with studies showing that the quality of life of patients with Tourette's syndrome is reduced and that there is a substantial burden on the family. In this paper, I review my local and collaborative studies investigating causal factors (including genetic vulnerability, prenatal and perinatal difficulties, and neuro-immunological factors)...
January 2015: Lancet Psychiatry
R Anand, J Shankar, B N Tiwary, A P Singh
Aspergillus flavus is one of the leading Aspergillus spp. resulting in invasive aspergillosis of central nervous system (CNS) in human beings. Immunological status in aspergillosis of central nervous system remains elusive in case of both immunocompetent and immunocompromised patients. Since cytokines are the major mediators of host response, evaluation of disease pathology along with cytokine profile in brain may provide snapshots of neuro-immunological response. An intravenous model of A. flavus infection was utilized to determine the pathogenicity of infection and cytokine profile in the brain of male BALB/c mice...
April 2015: Cytokine
András Guseo, Annamária Hertelendi
INTRODUCTION: Several studies have shown that healthcare service is a dangerous workplace, but the reasons have been remained unexplained. AIM: The aim of the authors was to obtain data on the health condition of health care professionals and identify the underlying risk factors for the increased morbidity. METHOD: Health care data obtained from 276 bedside nurses in 2004 and 1250 hospital employees in 2009 were analysed. In addition, the fate of department directors of Szent György University Hospital in Székesfehérvár between 1979 and 2010 was recorded and the data were compared to those obtained from a smaller hospital in Budapest during the same time period...
December 28, 2014: Orvosi Hetilap
Rémy C Martin-Du-Pan
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 15, 2014: Revue Médicale Suisse
Johannes Niebling, Annette E Rünker, Sonja Schallenberg, Karsten Kretschmer, Gerd Kempermann
CD4 + T cells provide a neuro-immunological link in the regulation of adult hippocampal neurogenesis, but the exact mechanisms underlying enhanced neural precursor cell proliferation and the relative contribution of different T helper (Th) cell subsets have remained unclear. Here, we explored the pro-proliferative potential of interleukin 17-producing T helper (Th17) cells, a developmentally and functionally distinct Th cell subset that is a key mediator of autoimmune neurodegeneration. We found that base-line proliferation of hippocampal precursor cells in a T cell-deficient mouse model of impaired hippocampal neurogenesis can be restored upon adoptive transfer with homogeneous Th17 populations enriched for myelin-reactive T cell receptors (TCR)...
2014: F1000Research
Abbot Laptook
Therapeutic hypothermia is the only treatment that has been shown to be of benefit to infant's ≥ 36 weeks of gestation with hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy. The evidence for the benefit is based on multiple, well-designed randomized clinical trials. Based on this data, the use of therapeutic hypothermia has been widely disseminated throughout the neonatal community. An important concept in hypoxic-ischemic brain injury is the functioning of the neurovascular unit which links neurons, non-neuronal cellular elements and the capillary endothelial cells to promote optimal barrier maintenance between the brain and systemic circulation, regulation of blood flow and neuro-immunologic functioning...
October 2014: Early Human Development
S Missault, K Van den Eynde, W Vanden Berghe, E Fransen, A Weeren, J P Timmermans, S Kumar-Singh, S Dedeurwaerdere
BACKGROUND: Schizophrenia is a highly disabling psychiatric disorder with a proposed neurodevelopmental basis. One mechanism through which genetic and environmental risk factors might act is by triggering persistent brain inflammation, as evidenced by long-lasting neuro-immunological disturbances in patients. Our goal was to investigate whether microglia activation is a neurobiological correlate to the altered behaviour in the maternal immune activation (MIA) model, a well-validated animal model with relevance to schizophrenia...
November 2014: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity
Michal Schwartz, Kuti Baruch
Inflammation is an integral part of the body's physiological repair mechanism, unless it remains unresolved and becomes pathological, as evident in the progressive nature of neurodegeneration. Based on studies from outside the central nervous system (CNS), it is now understood that the resolution of inflammation is an active process, which is dependent on well-orchestrated innate and adaptive immune responses. Due to the immunologically privileged status of the CNS, such resolution mechanism has been mostly ignored...
January 7, 2014: EMBO Journal
M A Hellmann, R Mosberg-Galili, I Lotan, I Steiner
OBJECTIVES: There is insufficient data on the efficacy of intravenous immunoglobulins (IVIg) as maintenance treatment in myasthenia gravis (MG). We therefore examined response to maintenance IVIg therapy in a cohort of MG patients. METHODS: We reviewed all MG patient files treated with IVIg in our neuro-immunology clinic from 1/1995 to 9/2012. Patients treated with maintenance IVIg for a minimum of one year were separately analyzed. Disease severity was evaluated according to the Myasthenia Gravis Foundation of America clinical classification...
March 15, 2014: Journal of the Neurological Sciences
Amritanshu Ram, Nagarathna Raghuram, Raghavendra M Rao, Hemant Bhargav, Prasad S Koka, Satyam Tripathi, Raghuram V Nelamangala, Gopinath S Kodaganur, Nagendra Hongasandra Ramarao
CONTEXT AND AIM: Complementary and alternative therapies (CAM) are gaining popularity amongst patients as add on to conventional medicine. Yoga stands third amongst all CAM that is being used by cancer patients today. Different schools of yoga use different sets of practices, with some using a more physical approach and many using meditation and/or breathing. All these modules are developed based on the needs of the patient. This paper is an attempt to provide the basis for a comprehensive need based integrative yoga module for cancer patients at different stages of treatment and follow up...
2012: Journal of Stem Cells
Vasilios Papaioannou, Ioannis Pneumatikos, Nikos Maglaveras
Many experimental and clinical studies have confirmed a continuous cross-talk between both sympathetic and parasympathetic branches of autonomic nervous system and inflammatory response, in different clinical scenarios. In cardiovascular diseases, inflammation has been proven to play a pivotal role in disease progression, pathogenesis and resolution. A few clinical studies have assessed the possible inter-relation between neuro-autonomic output, estimated with heart rate variability analysis, which is the variability of R-R in the electrocardiogram, and different inflammatory biomarkers, in patients suffering from stable or unstable coronary artery disease (CAD) and heart failure...
2013: Frontiers in Physiology
Kuti Baruch, Michal Schwartz
Adaptive immunity was repeatedly shown to play a role in maintaining lifelong brain function. Under physiological conditions, this activity was associated with CD4+ T cells specific for brain self-antigens. Nevertheless, direct interactions of T cells with the healthy neuronal parenchyma are hardly detectable. Recent studies have identified the brain's choroid plexus (CP) as an active neuro-immunological interface, enriched with CNS-specific CD4+ T cells. Strategically positioned for receiving signals from both the central nervous system (CNS) through the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), and from the circulation through epithelium-immune cell interactions, the CP has recently been recognized as an important immunological compartment in maintaining and restoring brain homeostasis/allostasis...
November 2013: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity
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