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Insulin Type 2 Diabetes

Debbie C Yen, Mara H Watson, Lindsey D Burgess, Maragatha Kuchibhatla, Chetan B Patel, Kristen B Campbell, Alyssa K Vora
STUDY OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the impact of continuous-flow left ventricular assist device (LVAD) implantation on glycemic control in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus and advanced chronic systolic heart failure. DESIGN: Retrospective medical record review. SETTING: Large, academic, tertiary and quaternary care hospital. PATIENTS: Eighty-three adults with type 2 diabetes mellitus and advanced chronic systolic heart failure who underwent implantation of a continuous-flow LVAD between July 1, 2008, and June 30, 2013...
October 25, 2016: Pharmacotherapy
Mei-Chuan Huang, Chich-Hsiu Hung, Ching-Yun Yu, Diane C Berry, Shyi-Jang Shin, Yu-Yun Hsu
AIMS: To explore the effectiveness of two types of health education on improving knowledge concerning diabetes and insulin injection, insulin injection skills and self-efficacy, satisfaction with health education and glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) and creatinine levels among patients with type 2 diabetes who began insulin therapy using a pen injector. BACKGROUND: Insulin therapy is recommended to facilitate the regulation of plasma glucose; however, patient's acceptance of insulin therapy is generally low...
October 25, 2016: Journal of Advanced Nursing
I Iwan-Zietek, B Ruszkowska-Ciastek, M Michalska, E Overskaug, K Goralczyk, S Dabrowiecki, D Rosc
Adipokines regulate glucose homeostasis, insulin sensitivity, lipids metabolism, reproduction, as well as endothelial and platelets function. The study compares the plasma and adipose tissue concentrations of total adiponectin, leptin, leptin receptor and leptin-to-adiponectin ratio (LAR) in morbidly obese patients. Additionally it evaluates selected adipokines (leptin, adiponectin), endothelial markers and LAR depending on the gender in morbidly obese and non-obese subjects. The study involved 51 patients (31 women aged 21 - 60 (mean age of 39) and 20 men aged 24 to 60 (mean age of 41))...
August 2016: Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology: An Official Journal of the Polish Physiological Society
Nayely Garibay-Nieto, Gloria Queipo-Garcia, Flor Alvarez-Huerta, Mayra Bustos-Esquivel, Erendira Villanueva-Ortega, Fernando Ramirez, Mireya Leon, Estibalitz Laresgoiti-Servitje, Ravindranath Duggirala, Teresa Macias, Sergio Cuevas, Abel Jalife, Miguel Fonseca-Sanchez, Fabiola Serratos, Juan Carlos Lopez-Alvarenga
CONTEXT: Insulin resistance precedes metabolic syndrome abnormalities and may promote cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes in children with obesity. Results of lifestyle modification programs have been discouraging, and the use of adjuvant strategies has been necessary. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to evaluate the effects of metformin and conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) on insulin sensitivity, measured via euglycemic-hyperinsulinemic clamp technique and insulin pathway expression molecules in muscle biopsies of children with obesity...
October 25, 2016: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
Salma A Khattab, Dina M Abo-Elmatty, Maivel H Ghattas, Noha M Mesbah, Eman T Mehanna
BACKGROUND: The intestinal fatty acid binding protein (FABP-2) is expressed in enterocytes and binds saturated and unsaturated long-chain fatty acids. FABP-2 Ala54Thr polymorphism was reported to have an influence on lipid metabolism. This study aimed to assess the relation of this polymorphism with peripheral atherosclerosis combined with type 2 diabetes mellitus in an Egyptian population. METHODS: The study included 100 diabetic patients with peripheral atherosclerosis and 100 control subjects...
October 25, 2016: Journal of Diabetes
Sharon Grundfest-Broniatowski, JingLiang Yan, Matthew Kroh, Holly Kilim, Andrew Stephenson
Familial partial lipodystrophy type 2 (FPLD2) is a rare disorder associated with LMNA gene mutations. It is usually marked by loss of subcutaneous fat on the limbs and trunk and severe insulin resistance. Scattered reports have indicated that Roux-en-Y bypass helps to control the diabetes mellitus in these patients. We present here a very unusual patient with FPLD2 who had life-threatening retroperitoneal and renal fat accumulation accompanied by bilateral renal cancers. Following cryotherapy of one renal cancer and a contralateral nephrectomy with debulking of the retroperitoneal fat, Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) has successfully controlled the disease for 3 years...
October 24, 2016: Journal of Gastrointestinal Surgery: Official Journal of the Society for Surgery of the Alimentary Tract
Ditte Søgaard, Torben Østergård, Agnieszka U Blachnio-Zabielska, Marcin Baranowski, Andreas Hansen Vigelsø, Jesper Løvind Andersen, Flemming Dela, Jørn Wulff Helge
Ceramide and diacylglycerol (DAG) may be involved in the early phase of insulin resistance but data are inconsistent in man. We evaluated if an increase in insulin sensitivity after endurance training was accompanied by changes in these lipids in skeletal muscle. Nineteen first-degree type 2 diabetes Offsprings (Offsprings) (age: 33.1 ± 1.4 yrs; BMI: 26.4 ± 0.4 kg/m(2)) and sixteen matched Controls (age: 31.3 ± 1.5 yrs; BMI: 25.3 ± 0.7 kg/m(2)) performed 10 weeks of endurance training three times a week at 70% of VO2max on a bicycle ergometer...
2016: Journal of Diabetes Research
Claudia Boucher-Berry, Elaine A Parton, Ramin Alemzadeh
BACKGROUND: While higher total daily dose (TDD) of insulin has been associated with excess weight gain on insulin pump therapy, the role of higher total basal dose (TBD) of insulin on weight gain has not been studied. We evaluated the impact of higher TBD on weight gain in relationship to glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c), hypoglycemic episodes, and change in body mass index (BMI) z score in a group of pediatric patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM). METHODS: One-year data from 91 (54 Female/37 Male) patients (2...
2016: Journal of Diabetes and Metabolic Disorders
Leonid E Fridlyand, Natalia A Tamarina, Andrew V Schally, Louis H Philipson
Growth hormone-releasing hormone (GHRH) is produced by the hypothalamus and stimulates growth hormone synthesis and release in the anterior pituitary gland. In addition, GHRH is an important regulator of cellular functions in many cells and organs. Expression of GHRH G-Protein Coupled Receptor (GHRHR) has been demonstrated in different peripheral tissues and cell types, including pancreatic islets. Among the peripheral activities, recent studies demonstrate a novel ability of GHRH analogs to increase and preserve insulin secretion by beta-cells in isolated pancreatic islets, which makes them potentially useful for diabetes treatment...
2016: Frontiers in Endocrinology
Julia Nicolau, Thierry Lequerré, Hélène Bacquet, Olivier Vittecoq
Recent progress in the management of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is turning attention toward comorbidities, such as diabetes. The objectives of this review are to clarify the links between RA and diabetes and to assess potential effects of disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs (DMARDs) on diabetes. The increased insulin resistance seen in RA is closely linked to the systemic inflammation induced by certain proinflammatory cytokines such as tumor necrosis factor α (TNFα) and interleukin-6. The prevalence of type 2 diabetes is increased in patients with RA...
October 21, 2016: Joint, Bone, Spine: Revue du Rhumatisme
Hong-Yan Cai, Zhao-Jun Wang, Christian Hölscher, Li Yuan, Jun Zhang, Peng Sun, Jing Li, Wei Yang, Mei-Na Wu, Jin-Shun Qi
Type 2 diabetes mellitus(T2DM) is a risk factor of Alzheimer's disease (AD), which is most likely linked to impairments of insulin signaling in the brain. Hence, drugs enhancing insulin signaling may have therapeutic potential for AD. Lixisenatide, a novel long-lasting glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) analogue, facilitates insulin signaling and has neuroprotective properties. We previously reported the protective effects of lixisenatide on memory formation and synaptic plasticity. Here, we describe additional key neuroprotective properties of lixisenatide and its possible molecular and cellular mechanisms against AD-related impairments in rats...
October 21, 2016: Behavioural Brain Research
T Schmitz
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate short- and long-term benefits and risks associated with antenatal administration of a single course of corticosteroids and the related strategies: multiple and rescue courses. METHODS: The PubMed database, the Cochrane Library and the recommendations from the French and foreign obstetrical societies or colleges have been consulted. RESULTS: Antenatal administration of a single course of corticosteroids before 34 weeks of gestation is associated in the neonatal period with a significant reduction of respiratory distress syndrome (RDS), intraventricular hemorrhage (IVH), necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) and death (LE1), and in possibly childhood with a reduction of cerebral palsy and increased psychomotor development index and intact survival (LE3)...
October 21, 2016: Journal de Gynécologie, Obstétrique et Biologie de la Reproduction
Markolf Hanefeld, Denis Raccah, Louis Monnier
Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is a chronic metabolic disease associated with hyperglycemia, which can lead to serious vascular complications. Current treatment guidelines place particular emphasis on personalization of therapy. Within this guidance, the use of various second-line therapies, including glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonists (GLP-1 RAs), is recommended under certain circumstances. Areas covered: Factors influencing glucose homeostasis, including gastric emptying and the associated cardiovascular (CV) risk when homeostasis is not maintained, are reviewed...
October 25, 2016: Expert Opinion on Drug Metabolism & Toxicology
Christina Cimenti, Axel Schlagenhauf, Bettina Leschnik, Elke Fröhlich-Reiterer, Hildegard Jasser-Nitsche, Harald Haidl, Elisabeth Suppan, Gudrun Weinhandl, Maximilian Leberl, Martin Borkenstein, Wolfgang E Muntean
BACKGROUND: Micro- and macrovascular diseases are frequent complications in patients with diabetes. Hypercoagulability may contribute to microvascular alterations. OBJECTIVE: In this study, we investigated whether type 1 diabetes in children is associated with a hypercoagulable state by performing a global function test of coagulation - the thrombin generation assay. SUBJECTS: 75 patients with type 1 diabetes aged between 2 and 19years were compared to an age-matched healthy control group...
October 17, 2016: Thrombosis Research
Silvia Beatriz Gorban de Lapertosa, Gustavo Frechtel, Elise Hardy, Leobardo Sauque-Reyna
AIMS: Socioeconomic changes in Latin American countries have led to an increased prevalence of type 2 diabetes (T2D). We examined the effects of exenatide twice daily (BID) or insulin lispro, each added to insulin glargine, in Latin American patients with T2D. METHODS: This was a subgroup analysis of patients from Argentina and Mexico in the 4B study (N=114). Patients with glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) of 7.0-10.0% (53-86mmol/mol) after 12weeks of intensive basal insulin optimization were randomized to exenatide BID or thrice-daily insulin lispro added to insulin glargine and metformin...
October 8, 2016: Diabetes Research and Clinical Practice
Bruna Bellincanta Nicoletto, Thaiana Cirino Krolikowski, Daisy Crispim, Luis Henrique Canani
Progranulin has been recognized as an adipokine related to obesity, insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). There are scarce data regarding progranulin and kidney disease, but there are some data linking diabetic kidney disease (DKD) and increased progranulin levels. We aimed to better describe the relationship between serum and urinary progranulin levels and DKD in T2DM. This is a case-control study including four groups of subjects: 1) Advanced DKD cases: T2DM patients with estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) <60 mL/min/1...
2016: PloS One
Sayantan Nath, Sankar Kumar Ghosh, Yashmin Choudhury
INTRODUCTION: A murine model of type 2 diabetes mellitus was used to compare the antidiabetic effects of the dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP4) inhibitor vildagliptin and biguanide, metformin. METHODS: Swiss albino mice (n=20 males; n=25 females) were given high fat diet (HFD) ad libitum for 3weeks followed by low dose (40mgkg(-1) body weight, bw daily) of streptozotocin (STZ) intraperitoneally five times from the 22nd day of treatment onwards, with HFD continued up to 26th day...
October 20, 2016: Journal of Pharmacological and Toxicological Methods
Elisa Corrêa Marson, Rodrigo Sudatti Delevatti, Alexandre Konig Garcia Prado, Nathalie Netto, Luiz Fernando Martins Kruel
OBJECTIVE: To assess the associations of aerobic, resistance, and combined exercise with changes in insulin resistance, fasting glucose, and fasting insulin in children and adolescents who are overweight or obese. DATA SEARCHES: MEDLINE via Pubmed, Cochrane-CENTRAL, SPORTDiscus, and LILACS. STUDY SELECTION: Randomized clinical trials of at least six weeks of duration that evaluated the ability of exercise training to lower at least one of the following outcomes: insulin resistance-HOMA, fasting glucose, and fasting insulin in children and/or adolescents classified as obese or overweight...
October 20, 2016: Preventive Medicine
F Samuel van Nierop, W Kulik, Erik Endert, Frank G Schaap, Steven W Olde Damink, Johannes A Romijn, Maarten R Soeters
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Bile acids (BA) are pleiotropic hormones affecting glucose and lipid metabolism. The physiochemical properties of different BA species affect their enterohepatic dynamics and their affinity for bile acid receptors. The BA pool composition is altered in patients with type 2 diabetes and obesity. In this study we used a 2-week very-low-calorie diet (VLCD) to investigate the effects of weight loss on BA pool composition and postprandial dynamics. METHODS: We performed mixed meal tests in obese, insulin resistant subjects before and after the VLCD...
October 13, 2016: Clinical Nutrition: Official Journal of the European Society of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition
Laura Ozer Kettner, Niels Bjerregaard Matthiesen, Cecilia Høst Ramlau-Hansen, Ulrik Schiøler Kesmodel, Bjørn Bay, Tine Brink Henriksen
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the association between specific types of fertility treatment and childhood type 1 diabetes mellitus. DESIGN: Nationwide birth cohort study. SETTING: Not applicable. PATIENT(S): All pregnancies resulting in a live-born singleton child in Denmark from 1995 to 2003. INTERVENTION(S): Not applicable. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE(S): Childhood type 1 diabetes mellitus identified from redeemed prescriptions for insulin until 2013...
October 20, 2016: Fertility and Sterility
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