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Insulin Type 2 Diabetes

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27933575/-fast-acting-insulin-new-developments-towards-more-flexibility-for-the-patient
#1
Gerhard W Schmeisl, Yasmin Kretzschmar
BACKGROUND: Post-prandial insulin secretion occurs under physiological conditions very fast and in adequate concentrations. This mechanism is impaired in patients with type 2 diabetes and severe increases of postprandial glucose levels may occur. In order to achieve physiological conditions and to avoid postprandial hyperglycemia, exogenous insulin and insulin analogues should be absorbed very fast and appropriate maximum concentrations should be reached very quickly. METHOD: Overview RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS: The development of new bolus insulins is focused on improved pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic properties...
December 2016: MMW Fortschritte der Medizin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27933516/costs-of-diabetes-medication-among-male-former-elite-athletes-in-later-life
#2
M K Laine, R Kujala, J G Eriksson, H Kautiainen, S Sarna, U M Kujala
AIMS: Regular physical activity plays a major role, in both prevention and treatment of type 2 diabetes. Less is known whether vigorous physical activity during young adulthood is associated with costs of diabetes medication in later life. The aim of this study is to evaluate this question. METHODS: The study population consisted of 1314 former elite-class athletes and 860 matched controls. The former athletes were divided into three groups based on their active career sport: endurance, mixed and power sports...
December 8, 2016: Acta Diabetologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27933336/shp-1-activation-inhibits-vascular-smooth-muscle-cell-proliferation-and-intimal-hyperplasia-in-a-rodent-model-of-insulin-resistance-and-diabetes
#3
Weier Qi, Qian Li, Chong Wee Liew, Christian Rask-Madsen, Samuel M Lockhart, Lars Melholt Rasmussen, Yu Xia, Xuanchun Wang, Mogher Khamaisi, Kevin Croce, George L King
AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: Accelerated migration and proliferation of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) enhances arterial restenosis after angioplasty in insulin resistance and diabetes. Elevation of Src homology 2-containing protein tyrosine phosphatase 1 (SHP-1) induces apoptosis in the microvasculature. However, the role of SHP-1 in intimal hyperplasia and restenosis has not been clarified in insulin resistance and diabetes. METHODS: We used a femoral artery wire injury mouse model, rodent models with insulin resistance and diabetes, and patients with type 2 diabetes...
December 9, 2016: Diabetologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27933334/improved-glycaemia-in-high-fat-fed-neprilysin-deficient-mice-is-associated-with-reduced-dpp-4-activity-and-increased-active-glp-1-levels
#4
Joshua R Willard, Breanne M Barrow, Sakeneh Zraika
AIM/HYPOTHESIS: Neprilysin, a widely expressed peptidase, is upregulated in metabolically altered states such as obesity and type 2 diabetes. Like dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4), neprilysin can degrade and inactivate the insulinotropic peptide glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1). Thus, we investigated whether neprilysin deficiency enhances active GLP-1 levels and improves glycaemia in a mouse model of high fat feeding. METHODS: Nep (+/+) and Nep (-/-) mice were fed a 60% fat diet for 16 weeks, after which active GLP-1 and DPP-4 activity levels were measured, as were glucose, insulin and C-peptide levels during an OGTT...
December 8, 2016: Diabetologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27933333/discriminatory-ability-of-simple-ogtt-based-beta-cell-function-indices-for-prediction-of-prediabetes-and-type-2-diabetes-the-codam-study
#5
Louise J C J den Biggelaar, Simone J S Sep, Simone J P M Eussen, Andrea Mari, Ele Ferrannini, Marleen M J van Greevenbroek, Carla J H van der Kallen, Casper G Schalkwijk, Coen D A Stehouwer, Pieter C Dagnelie
AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: The hyperglycaemic clamp technique and the frequently sampled IVGTT are unsuitable techniques to assess beta cell function (BCF) in large cohorts. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate the discriminatory ability of simple OGTT-based BCF indices for prediction of prediabetes (meaning impaired fasting glucose and/or impaired glucose tolerance) and type 2 diabetes. METHODS: Glucose metabolism status was assessed by 2 h 75 g OGTT at baseline (n = 476, mean age 59...
December 8, 2016: Diabetologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27933189/insulin-resistance-of-protein-anabolism-accompanies-that-of-glucose-metabolism-in-lean-glucose-tolerant-offspring-of-persons-with-type-2-diabetes
#6
Sergio A Burgos, Vikram Chandurkar, Michael A Tsoukas, Stéphanie Chevalier, José A Morais, Marie Lamarche, Errol B Marliss
OBJECTIVE: To test whether protein anabolic resistance is an early defect in type 2 diabetes (T2D). RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: Seven lean, normoglycemic T2D offspring (T2D-O) and eight matched participants without family history (controls; C) underwent a 3-hour hyperinsulinemic (40 mU/m(2)/min), euglycemic (5.5 mmol/L) and isoaminoacidemic clamp. Whole-body glucose and protein kinetics were measured with d-[3-(3)H]glucose and l-[l-(13)C]leucine, respectively...
2016: BMJ Open Diabetes Research & Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27933186/effect-of-type-and-amount-of-dietary-carbohydrate-on-biomarkers-of-glucose-homeostasis-and-c-reactive-protein-in-overweight-or-obese-adults-results-from-the-omnicarb-trial
#7
Stephen P Juraschek, Edgar R Miller, Elizabeth Selvin, Vincent J Carey, Lawrence J Appel, Robert H Christenson, Frank M Sacks
OBJECTIVE: The glycemic index (GI) of dietary carbohydrate is thought to affect glucose homeostasis. Recently, the Effect of Amount and Type of Dietary Carbohydrates on Risk for Cardiovascular Heart Disease and Diabetes Study (OmniCarb) trial reported that a low-GI diet did not improve insulin sensitivity. We conducted this ancillary study of the OmniCarb trial to determine the effects of GI and carbohydrate content on glucose homeostasis and inflammation. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: OmniCarb was a randomized cross-over feeding study conducted in overweight or obese adults without diabetes (N=163)...
2016: BMJ Open Diabetes Research & Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27933185/circulating-serpinb1-levels-and-clinical-features-in-patients-with-type-2-diabetes
#8
Kohzo Takebayashi, Kenji Hara, Tomoko Terasawa, Rika Naruse, Mariko Suetsugu, Takafumi Tsuchiya, Toshihiko Inukai
OBJECTIVE: The main purpose of this study was to investigate the association of serum SerpinB1 levels and various parameters in patients with type 2 diabetes. The effect of canagliflozin (a sodium glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitor), which can decrease circulating insulin levels, on serum SerpinB1 levels was also investigated. A recent study suggests that the serum levels of SerpinB1, also known as monocyte neutrophil elastase inhibitor, increase with insulin resistance, may have a protective effect for pancreatic β cells, and may decrease insulin resistance...
2016: BMJ Open Diabetes Research & Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27932386/aberrant-expression-of-fbxo2-disrupts-glucose-homeostasis-through-ubiquitin-mediated-degradation-of-insulin-receptor-in-obese-mice
#9
Bin Liu, Han Lu, Duanzhuo Li, Xuelian Xiong, Lu Gao, Zhixiang Wu, Yan Lu
Insulin resistance is a critical factor in the development of metabolic disorders, including type 2 diabetes (T2DM). However, its molecular mechanisms remain incompletely understood. In the present study, we found that F-box only protein 2 (FBXO2), a substrate recognition component of SKP1-Cullin1-F-box protein (SCF) E3 ubiquitin ligase complex, were up-regulated in livers of obese mice. Furthermore, using a protein purification approach combined with high performance liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC/MS/MS), we carried out a system-wide screening of FBXO2 substrates, in which insulin receptor (IR) was identified as a substrate for FBXO2...
December 8, 2016: Diabetes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27932304/vitamin-d-and-type-2-diabetes
#10
REVIEW
Paul Lips, Marelise Eekhoff, Natasja Vzn Schoor, Mirjam Oosterwerff, Renate de Jongh, Yvonne Krul-Poel, Suat Simsek
Vitamin D deficiency is associated with a decreased insulin release, insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes in experimental and epidemiological studies. Animal studies show that 1α,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (1,25(OH)2D3) stimulates the pancreatic β-cell to secrete insulin. The relationship between vitamin D deficiency and insulin resistance could develop through inflammation, as vitamin D deficiency is associated with increased inflammatory markers. In addition, genetic polymorphisms of vitamin D -related genes may predispose to impaired glycemic control and type 2 diabetes...
December 5, 2016: Journal of Steroid Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27932063/toward-connecting-metabolism-to-the-exocytotic-site
#11
REVIEW
Mourad Ferdaoussi, Patrick E MacDonald
Within cells the regulated exocytosis of secretory granules controls multiple physiological functions, including endocrine hormone secretion. Release of the glucose-regulating hormone insulin from pancreatic islet β cells is critical for whole-body metabolic homeostasis. Impaired insulin secretion appears early in the progression to type 2 diabetes (T2D). Key mechanisms that control the β-cell exocytotic response, mediating the long-known but little understood metabolic amplification of insulin secretion, are becoming clearer...
December 5, 2016: Trends in Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27931088/sglt2-inhibitors-a-systematic-review-of-diabetic-ketoacidosis-and-related-risk-factors-in-the-primary-literature
#12
Kelly R Burke, Christine A Schumacher, Spencer E Harpe
STUDY OBJECTIVE: There is currently minimal information regarding risk factors for the development of sodium-glucose cotransporter-2 inhibitor (SGLT2i)-related diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA). We aim to identify individual patient characteristics associated with cases of SGLT2i-related DKA to better describe potential risk factors. DESIGN: Systematic review of primary literature. PATIENTS: 34 case reports of patients with Type 1 and Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus who developed DKA while receiving an SGLT2i...
December 8, 2016: Pharmacotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27930980/vitamin-d3-intake-as-regulator-of-insulin-degrading-enzyme-and-insulin-receptor-phosphorylation-in-diabetic-rats
#13
Mohamed Mahmoud Elseweidy, Rawia Sarhan Amin, Hebatallah Husseini Atteia, Maha Abdo Ali
Insulin-degrading enzyme (IDE, insulysin) is a rate-limiting enzyme in the insulin degradation process. It is an intracellular 110-kDa thiol zinc-metalloendopeptidase located in the cytosol, peroxisomes, endosomes and cell surface. IDE catalyzes degradation of several small proteins including insulin, amylin and β-amyloid protein. In addition, insulin clearance was expressed as a target in the treatment of type 2 diabetes given the role of hyperinsulinemia in the pathogenesis of insulin resistance. In this study, fourtyadult male Wistar albino rats were used, thirty rats received 20% fructose in drinking water (HFW) for six weeks to induce diabetes...
December 5, 2016: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27930869/efficacy-and-safety-of-premixed-insulin-analogs-in-asian-patients-with-type-2-diabetes-a-systematic-review
#14
Wayne H-H Sheu, Linong Ji, Woo Je Lee, Abdul Jabbar, Jeong Hee Han, Thomas Lew
AIMS/INTRODUCTION: The primary aim of this systematic review was to provide an overview of the efficacy and safety of premixed insulin analogs in Asians, specifically East Asians, with type 2 diabetes. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The MEDLINE, Embase, Cochrane Library, and ClinicalTrials. gov databases were searched from 01 January 1995 to 26 November 2015. Randomized controlled trials involving East Asians with type 2 diabetes treated with any premixed insulin analog were included...
December 8, 2016: Journal of Diabetes Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27930697/early-antenatal-prediction-of-gestational-diabetes-in-obese-women-development-of-prediction-tools-for-targeted-intervention
#15
Sara L White, Debbie A Lawlor, Annette L Briley, Keith M Godfrey, Scott M Nelson, Eugene Oteng-Ntim, Stephen C Robson, Naveed Sattar, Paul T Seed, Matias C Vieira, Paul Welsh, Melissa Whitworth, Lucilla Poston, Dharmintra Pasupathy
All obese women are categorised as being of equally high risk of gestational diabetes (GDM) whereas the majority do not develop the disorder. Lifestyle and pharmacological interventions in unselected obese pregnant women have been unsuccessful in preventing GDM. Our aim was to develop a prediction tool for early identification of obese women at high risk of GDM to facilitate targeted interventions in those most likely to benefit. Clinical and anthropometric data and non-fasting blood samples were obtained at 15+0-18+6 weeks' gestation in 1303 obese pregnant women from UPBEAT, a randomised controlled trial of a behavioural intervention...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27929674/glucose-exposure-and-variability-with-empagliflozin-as-adjunct-to-insulin-in-patients-with-type-1-diabetes-continuous-glucose-monitoring-data-from-a-4-week-randomized-placebo-controlled-trial-ease-1
#16
Susanne Famulla, Thomas R Pieber, Jens Eilbracht, Dietmar Neubacher, Nima Soleymanlou, Hans J Woerle, Uli C Broedl, Stefan Kaspers
BACKGROUND: We evaluated the effect of empagliflozin as adjunct to insulin on 24-h glucose exposure and variability in patients with type 1 diabetes. METHODS: Patients (N = 75) with HbA1c ≥7.5% to ≤10.5% were randomized to receive empagliflozin 2.5 mg, empagliflozin 10 mg, empagliflozin 25 mg, or placebo once daily as adjunct to insulin for 4 weeks. Insulin dose was to be kept as stable as possible during week 1 of treatment and was freely adjustable thereafter...
December 8, 2016: Diabetes Technology & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27929393/xylobiose-an-alternative-sweetener-ameliorates-diabetes-related-metabolic-changes-by-regulating-hepatic-lipogenesis-and-mir-122a-33a-in-db-db-mice
#17
Eunjin Lim, Ji Ye Lim, Eunju Kim, Yoo-Sun Kim, Jae-Ho Shin, Pu Reum Seok, Sangwon Jung, Sang-Ho Yoo, Yuri Kim
Type 2 diabetes is a major public health concern worldwide. Xylobiose (XB) consists of two molecules of d-xylose and is a major disaccharide in xylooligosaccharides that are used as prebiotics. We hypothesized that XB could regulate diabetes-related metabolic and genetic changes via microRNA expression in db/db mice. For six weeks, C57BL/KsJ-db/db mice received 5% XB as part of the total sucrose content of their diet. XB supplementation improved glucose tolerance with reduced levels of OGTT AUC, fasting blood glucose, HbA1c, insulin, and HOMA-IR...
December 5, 2016: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27928958/short-and-long-term-effects-of-a-dpp-4-inhibitor-versus-bedtime-nph-insulin-as-add-on-therapy-in-patients-with-type-2-diabetes
#18
Giordana Maluf da Silva, Katia Camarano Nogueira, Rosa Tsuneshiro Fukui, Marcia Regina Soares Correia, Rosa Ferreira Dos Santos, Maria Elizabeth Rossi da Silva
BACKGROUND: We conducted a comparison between the dipeptidyl-peptidase-4(DPP-4) inhibitor sitagliptin versus NPH insulin as an add-on therapies in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2D) failing oral medications. The objective was to ascertain the better indication in long-duration diabetes. METHODS: thirty-five T2D patients inadequately controlled with metformin plus glyburide were randomized to receive sitagliptin (n=18) or bedtime NPH insulin (n=17) for 12 months...
December 8, 2016: Current Pharmaceutical Design
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27928704/antioxidant-effects-of-curcuminoids-in-patients-with-type-2-diabetes-mellitus-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#19
Yunes Panahi, Nahid Khalili, Ebrahim Sahebi, Soha Namazi, Maryam Saberi Karimian, Muhammed Majeed, Amirhossein Sahebkar
BACKGROUND: Oxidative stress has a key role in the pathogenesis of type II diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and its vascular complications. Antioxidant therapy has been suggested as a potential approach to blunt T2DM development and progression. The aim of this study was to assess the effects of supplementation with curcuminoids, which are natural polyphenolics from turmeric, on oxidative indices in diabetic individuals. METHODS: In this randomized double-blind placebo-controlled trial, 118 subjects with T2DM were randomized to curcuminoids (1000 mg/day co-administered with piperine 10 mg/day) or matching placebo for a period of 8 weeks...
December 7, 2016: Inflammopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27928162/role-of-mirnas-in-the-pathogenesis-and-susceptibility-of-diabetes-mellitus
#20
REVIEW
Naoko Hashimoto, Tomoaki Tanaka
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are noncoding RNAs of ~22 nucleotides that regulate gene expression post-transcriptionally by binding to the 3' untranslated region of messenger RNA (mRNAs), resulting in inhibition of translation or mRNA degradation. miRNAs have a key role in fine-tuning cellular functions such as proliferation, differentiation and apoptosis, and they are involved in carcinogenesis, glucose homeostasis, inflammation and other biological processes. In this review, we focus on the role of miRNAs in the pathophysiology of the metabolic disease and diabetes mellitus, the hallmark of which is hyperglycemia caused by defective insulin secretion and/or action...
December 8, 2016: Journal of Human Genetics
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