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Edilson do Vale-Júnior, Djalma R da Silva, Ana S Fajardo, Carlos A Martínez-Huitle
Peroxi-coagulation (PC) is an interesting new process that has not been widely studied in the literature. This work presents the application of this technology to treat an azo dye synthetic effluent, studying the effect of different parameters including initial pH, current density (j), initial dye concentration and supporting electrolyte. The two former variables significantly affected the colour removal of the wastewater, followed by the initial dye concentration and the kind of electrolyte, in a lesser extent...
April 5, 2018: Chemosphere
Hayam I A Elsawy, Ahmad Mohammad M Mekawy, Mahmoud A Elhity, Sherif M Abdel-Dayem, Maha Nagy Abdelaziz, Dekoum V M Assaha, Akihiro Ueda, Hirofumi Saneoka
Although barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) is considered a salt tolerant crop species, productivity of barley is affected differently by ionic, osmotic, and oxidative stresses resulting from a salty rhizosphere. The current study was conducted to elucidate the mechanism of salt tolerance in two barley cultivars, Giza128 and Giza126. The two cultivars were exposed to 200 mM NaCl hydroponically for 12 days. Although both cultivars accumulated a large amount of Na+ in their leaves with similar concentrations, the growth of Giza128 was much better than that of Giza126, as measured by maintaining a higher dry weight, relative growth rate, leaf area, and plant height...
April 12, 2018: Plant Physiology and Biochemistry: PPB
Chang-Yu Hou, Ling Feng, Nikita Seleznev, Denise E Freed
In this work, we establish an effective medium model to describe the low-frequency complex dielectric (conductivity) dispersion of dilute clay suspensions. We use previously obtained low-frequency polarization coefficients for a charged oblate spheroidal particle immersed in an electrolyte as the building block for the Maxwell Garnett mixing formula to model the dilute clay suspension. The complex conductivity phase dispersion exhibits a near-resonance peak when the clay grains have a narrow size distribution...
April 11, 2018: Journal of Colloid and Interface Science
Changsheng Shan, Kaifeng Wu, Hung-Ju Yen, Claudia Narvaez Villarrubia, Tom Nakotte, Xiangjie Bo, Ming Zhou, Gang Wu, Hsing-Lin Wang
For first time, we report that graphene oxide (GO) can be used as a new "dual-role" binder for Si nanoparticles (SiNPs) -based lithium ion batteries (LIBs). GO not only provides a graphene-like porous 3D framework for accommodating the volume changes of SiNPs during charging/discharging cycles, but also acts as a polymer-like binder that forms strong chemical bonds with SiNPs through its Si-OH functional groups to trap and stabilize SiNPs inside the electrode. Leveraging this unique dual-role of GO binder, we fabricated GO/SiNPs electrodes with remarkably improved performances as compared to using the conventional polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) binder...
April 23, 2018: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Laila Moreno Ostertag, Xiao Ling, Katrin F Domke, Sapun H Parekh, Markus Valtiner
The surface density of charged sulfonic acid head groups in a perfluorosulfonic acid (PFSA) proton exchange membrane determines the hydrophilicity of the ionic channels and is thus critical for the structuring and transport of water and protons. The mechanism through which the head group density affects the structuring of water and ions is unknown, largely due to experimental challenges in systematically varying the density in an appropriate model system resembling the ionic channels. Here, we present a model system for PFSA membrane ionic channels using self-assembled monolayers with a tunable surface density of sulfonic acid and methyl groups to tune surface hydrophilicity...
April 23, 2018: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
Kai Jiang, Shu Gao, Ruxing Wang, Mao Jiang, Jing Han, Tiantian Gu, Mengyun Liu, Shijie Cheng, Kangli Wang
The monolayer poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA)-based separator with pendant sulfonate/carboxylate groups and compact morphology is synthesized to suppress the essential lithium polysulfide permeation in lithium sulfur batteries (LSBs). The Li+ transference number is significantly increased to 0.8 much higher than commercial separator (0.43). The polysulfide retention is verified by idle test in polysulfide-rich electrolyte under internal electric field of cell. The LSB with additive-free electrolyte attains a coulombic efficiency around 98%, a delivered capacity 804 mAh g-1 at 2...
April 23, 2018: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Peng Tan, Bin Chen, Haoran Xu, Weizi Cai, Wei He, Meilin Liu, Zongping Shao, Meng Ni
The rapid development of electric vehicles and modern personal electronic devices is severely hindered by the limited energy and power density of the existing power sources. Here a novel hybrid Zn battery is reported which is composed of a nanostructured transition metal oxide-based positive electrode (i.e., Co3 O4 nanosheets grown on carbon cloth) and a Zn foil negative electrode in an aqueous alkaline electrolyte. The hybrid battery configuration successfully combines the unique advantages of a Zn-Co3 O4 battery and a Zn-air battery, achieving a high voltage of 1...
April 22, 2018: Small
Hanyu Li, Zhengping Zhang, Meiling Dou, Feng Wang
A rational and effective strategy for the synthesis of high-performance non-precious metal electrocatalyst for oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) was developed by inducing reconstruction of Fe-Nx site on pig-bone-derived nitrogen-doped hierarchically porous carbon. The resultant Fe/N-doped carbon electrocatalyst possessed abundant atomically dispersed nonplanar Fe-N4 ORR active sites with absolute presence of active D1 (FeII-N4) and D3 (N-FeII-N2+2) sites, as well as large specific surface area and three-dimensional porous structure with hierarchical micro-/meso-/macro-pore distribution, which increased the utilization of active sites and promoted mass transport of ORR reactants, resulting in a remarkably superior ORR activity with half-wave potential of 0...
April 22, 2018: Chemistry: a European Journal
Marcus Quinkler, Bertil Ekman, Pinggao Zhang, Andrea M Isidori, Robert D Murray
OBJECTIVE: Mortality from primary and secondary adrenal insufficiency (AI; PAI and SAI, respectively) is 2-3-fold higher than in the general population. Mortality relates to cardiovascular disease, acute adrenal crisis (AC), cancer and infections; however, there has been little further characterization of patients who have died. DESIGN/METHODS: We analysed real-world data from 2034 patients (801 PAI, 1233 SAI) in the European Adrenal Insufficiency Registry (EU-AIR; NCT01661387)...
April 22, 2018: Clinical Endocrinology
Ying Zhao, Wengeng Zhang
Microfluidic impedance pulse sensor has emerged as easy-handling and low-cost platform in the electrical analysis of biological cells. In the conventional method, impedance sensor demanded expensively patterning metal electrodes on the substrate, which are directly in touch with electrolytes in order to measure the microfluidic channel impedance change. In this letter, a cost-effective microfluidic impedance sensor building upon a dielectric film coated printed circuit board is introduced. Impedance electrodes are protected by a dielectric film layer from electrochemical erosion between electrodes and electrolyte...
April 22, 2018: Electrophoresis
Tibor Fülöp, Mihály B Tapolyai, Lajos Zsom, Miklos Z Molnar, Sohail Abdul Salim, László Újhelyi, Gergely Becs, József Balla, Mehrdad Hamrahian
Hemodiafiltration (HDF) during chronic renal replacement therapy (RRT) is a relatively new practice phenomenon, emerging over the last two decades. While the technological platforms utilized during chronic RRT are in many cases similar or effectively identical to conventional hemodialysis (HD), significant differences may emerge in daily practice. Several authors of this review moved practice site between the United States and the European Union and transitioned from an HD-based practice to predominantly HDF-practicing networks...
April 22, 2018: Artificial Organs
Sahin Buyukdagli
The optimal functioning of nanopore-based biosensing tools necessitates rapid polymer capture from the ion reservoir. We identify an ionic correlation-induced transport mechanism that provides this condition without the chemical modification of the polymer or the pore surface. In the typical experimental configuration where a negatively charged silicon-based pore confines a 1 : 1 electrolyte solution, anionic polymer capture is limited by electrostatic polymer-membrane repulsion and the electroosmotic (EO) flow...
April 23, 2018: Soft Matter
Hu Qiu, Minmin Xue, Chun Shen, Wanlin Guo
The diffusive dynamics of aqueous electrolyte solutions in nanoconfined spaces has attracted considerable attention due to their potential applications in desalination, biosensors and supercapacitors. Here we show by molecular dynamics simulations that lithium and sodium ions diffuse at a rate at least an order of magnitude higher than that of water molecules when the ions are trapped in an ice bilayer confined between two parallel plates. This novel picture is in sharp contrast to the prevailing view that the diffusion rate of ions is comparable to or even lower than that of water in both bulk and confined solutions...
April 23, 2018: Nanoscale
Ahmet Mor, Yildirim Kayacan, Gokhan Ipekoglu, Erkal Arslanoglu
OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to examine the effect of CHO-E consumption after high-intensity exercise on insulin, cortisol hormones and blood glucose responses, which is important for performance and recovery in athletes. METHODS: Sixteen volunteers, male athletes, participated into this study. Athletes were divided into two groups as experiment (CHO-E) and placebo (PLA). Blood was taken from the athletes three times as basal, post-exercise (PE) and 2 h after ingestion of supplement (PS)...
April 21, 2018: Archives of Physiology and Biochemistry
Osman Sinan Ozsezen, Ismail Meral
OBJECTIVE: Type I diabetes is a disease characterised by an extreme reduction in serum insulin levels. Diet and exercise have gained considerable attention in the treatment of diabetes. Therefore, this study was carried out to investigate the effect of diet with carbohydrate but without daily energy restriction on various metabolites (glucose, triglycerides, cholesterol, lactate), some electrolytes (Ca, Mg, Na, K, P, Cl) and essential metals (Mn, Co, Cu, Se, Zn, Fe) in the blood of rats with streptozotocin-induced diabetes...
April 21, 2018: Archives of Physiology and Biochemistry
Dennis Gibson, Anne Drabkin, Mori J Krantz, Margherita Mascolo, Elissa Rosen, Katherine Sachs, Christine Welles, Philip S Mehler
Eating disorders are unique in that they inherently have much medical comorbidity both as a part of restricting-type eating disorders and those characterized by purging behaviors. Over the last three decades, remarkable progress has been made in the understanding and treatment of the medical complications of eating disorders. Yet, unfortunately, there is much research that is sorely needed to bridge the gap between current medical knowledge and more effective and evidence-based medical treatment knowledge. These gaps exist in many different clinical areas including cardiology, electrolytes, gastrointestinal and bone disease...
April 21, 2018: Eating and Weight Disorders: EWD
T Hua, R J Haynes, Y-F Zhou
The potential to use water treatment sludge and bauxite as active filter media in constructed wetlands to remove As, V and Mo from alkaline drainage originating from seawater-neutralized bauxite processing residue was evaluated in laboratory batch and column studies. Batch adsorption studies showed that increasing the electrolyte concentration from 0.01 to 0.30 M NaCl (the typical electrolyte strength of the drainage) increased adsorption of all three oxyanions onto both media while increasing initial pH from 6...
April 19, 2018: Journal of Environmental Management
Seyed Hadi Shahcheraghi, Mahin Schaffie, Mohammad Ranjbar
The main objective of this study was the development of a simple, clean, and industrial applicable electrochemical process for production of high pure nano-copper oxides from mining and industrial resources (e.g., ore, spent, slag and wastewater). To conduct the proposed process, a special set up containing an electrochemical cell in an ultrasonic system (28 kHz and 160 W) was proposed. Accordingly, using this set up and applying appropriate voltage (≈ 5 V) at 25 °C, in the presence of N2 gas, the simultaneous anode dissolution and nano-copper oxides formation (≈ 24 nm) can be occurred, rapidly (less than 45 min)...
June 2018: Ultrasonics Sonochemistry
A López, J J Varela, M M Cid, M Couñago, N Gago
OBJECTIVE: Parenteral nutrition consists of the intravenous administration of macronutrients, micronutrients and electrolytes. Our objectives were to evaluate the biochemical alterations during the first ten days of initiation and to quantify the bacteremia related to the central venous catheter during the administration of parenteral nutrition. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Retrospective study of incidence and prevalence. We included 51 patients who started intravenous nutritional support therapy at Critical Care...
April 18, 2018: Revista Española de Anestesiología y Reanimación
Carmen Lucía Moraila-Martínez, Guillermo Iván Guerrero-García, Martín Chávez-Páez, Enrique González-Tovar
The capacitive compactness has been introduced very recently [G. I. Guerrero-García et al., Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 20, 262-275 (2018)] as a robust and accurate measure to quantify the thickness, or spatial extension, of the electrical double layer next to either an infinite charged electrode or a spherical macroion. We propose here an experimental/theoretical scheme to determine the capacitive compactness of a spherical electrical double layer that relies on the calculation of the electrokinetic charge and the associated mean electrostatic potential at the macroparticle's surface...
April 21, 2018: Journal of Chemical Physics
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