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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29224081/electrochemical-applications-in-metal-bioleaching
#1
Christoph Kurt Tanne, Axel Schippers
Biohydrometallurgy comprises the recovery of metals by biologically catalyzed metal dissolution from solids in an aqueous solution. The application of this kind of bioprocessing is described as "biomining," referring to either bioleaching or biooxidation of sulfide metal ores. Acidophilic iron- and sulfur-oxidizing microorganisms are the key to successful biomining. However, minerals such as primary copper sulfides are recalcitrant to dissolution, which is probably due to their semiconductivity or passivation effects, resulting in low reaction rates...
December 10, 2017: Advances in Biochemical Engineering/biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29223781/enhanced-sludge-solubilization-and-dewaterability-by-synergistic-effects-of-nitrite-and-freezing
#2
Faqian Sun, KeKe Xiao, Wenyu Zhu, Nipuna Withanage, Yan Zhou
In this study, nitrite was added into sludge during freezing process to evaluate its role in waste activated sludge (WAS) solubilization and effect on sludge dewatering characteristics. The results showed that the introduction of 100 mg L-1 of nitrite could increase dissolved organic carbon (DOC) concentration from 29.5 to 48.8 mg DOC g-1 VSS under freezing conditions. More DOC was released with the increase of nitrite concentration. Freezing temperature, or freezing speed, also played a role in sludge solubilization...
November 30, 2017: Water Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29223649/novel-liposome-based-and-in-situ-gelling-artificial-tear-formulation-for-dry-eye-disease-treatment
#3
Duygu Acar, Irene Teresa Molina-Martínez, Miguel Gómez-Ballesteros, Manuel Guzmán-Navarro, José Manuel Benítez-Del-Castillo, Rocío Herrero-Vanrell
PURPOSE: Artificial tears are widely used in the treatment of dry eye disease, although current formulations do not closely resemble natural tears. The purpose of this study was the design and characterization of a novel in situ gelling artificial tear formulation, containing both lipid and aqueous components, in order to resemble natural tears and replenish the tear film. METHODS: Liposomes, containing phosphatidylcholine, cholesterol, vitamins A and E, were prepared by the thin-film hydration method...
December 6, 2017: Contact Lens & Anterior Eye: the Journal of the British Contact Lens Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222979/hierarchical-nico2o4-nanosheets-grown-on-hollow-carbon-microspheres-composites-for-advanced-lithium-ion-half-and-full-batteries
#4
Beibei Wang, Shaobo Cai, Gang Wang, Xiaojie Liu, Hui Wang, Jintao Bai
Hierarchical ultrathin NiCo2O4 nanosheeets grown on uniform hollow carbon microspheres (HC@NiCo2O4) are designed and fabricated by a solvothermal reaction followed with an annealing process. When evaluated as an anode for lithium ion batteries, the as-prepared HC@NiCo2O4 microspheres exhibit excellent electrochemical performance (a high reversible capacity of 1015 mA h g-1 after 100 cycles at a current density of 0.1 A g-1 and a high capacity of 805 mA h g-1 even at a high current density of 0...
November 23, 2017: Journal of Colloid and Interface Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222873/calcineurin-inhibitor-associated-electrolyte-disturbances-after-pediatric-renal-transplantation-could-fludrocortisone-therapy-have-a-role
#5
EDITORIAL
Juuso Tainio
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 9, 2017: Pediatric Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29221420/influence-of-solvent-polarization-and-non-uniform-ion-size-on-electrostatic-properties-between-charged-surfaces-in-an-electrolyte-solution
#6
Jun-Sik Sin
In this paper, we study electrostatic properties between two similar or oppositely charged surfaces immersed in an electrolyte solution by using the mean-field approach accounting for solvent polarization and non-uniform size effects. Applying a free energy formalism accounting for unequal ion sizes and orientational ordering of water dipoles, we derive coupled and self-consistent equations to calculate electrostatic properties between charged surfaces. Electrostatic properties for similarly charged surfaces depend on the counterion size but not on the coion size...
December 7, 2017: Journal of Chemical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29221419/ionic-solvation-and-solvent-solvent-interaction-effects-on-the-charge-and-potential-distributions-in-electric-double-layers
#7
R Vangara, F van Swol, D N Petsev
Electric double layers are complex systems that involve a wide variety of interactions between the different components of the electrolyte solutions and with the charged interface. While the role of all Coulombic types of interactions is clear, that of the non-Coulombic forces is less obvious. The focus in the present study is on the effect of bulk solvation interactions on the properties of the electric double layer. The analysis is based on classical density functional theory. This approach allows us to account for the correlations between all charged (ionic) and uncharged (solvent) species in the solution...
December 7, 2017: Journal of Chemical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29221415/water-water-correlations-in-electrolyte-solutions-probed-by-hyper-rayleigh-scattering
#8
David P Shelton
Long-range ion-induced correlations between water molecules have been observed by second-harmonic or hyper-Rayleigh scattering experiments with conflicting results. The most recent work observed a large difference between the results for H2O and D2O, and large discrepancies with the previously proposed theory. However, the present observations are in quantitative agreement with the model where the ion electric field induces second harmonic generation by the water molecules, and ion-ion correlations given by the Debye-Huckel theory account for intensity saturation at high ion concentration...
December 7, 2017: Journal of Chemical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29220577/from-solvent-free-to-dilute-electrolytes-essential-components-for-a-continuum-theory
#9
Nir Gavish, Doron Elad, Arik Yochelis
The increasing number of experimental observations on highly concentrated electrolytes and ionic liquids show qualitative features that are distinct from dilute or moderately concentrated electrolytes, such as self-assembly, multiple-time relaxation, and under-screening, which all impact the emergence of fluid/solid interfaces, and transport in these systems. Since these phenomena are not captured by existing mean field models of electrolytes, there is a paramount need for a continuum framework for highly concentrated electrolytes and ionic liquids...
December 8, 2017: Journal of Physical Chemistry Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29220364/an-attempt-to-interpret-a-biochemical-mechanism-of-c4-photosynthetic-thermo-tolerance-under-sudden-heat-shock-on-detached-leaf-in-elevated-co2-grown-maize
#10
Mingnan Qu, James A Bunce, Richard C Sicher, Xiaocen Zhu, Bo Gao, Genyun Chen
Detached leaves at top canopy structures always experience higher solar irradiance and leaf temperature under natural conditions. The ability of tolerance to high temperature represents thermotolerance potential of whole-plants, but was less of concern. In this study, we used a heat-tolerant (B76) and a heat-susceptible (B106) maize inbred line to assess the possible mitigation of sudden heat shock (SHS) effects on photosynthesis (PN) and C4 assimilation pathway by elevated [CO2]. Two maize lines were grown in field-based open top chambers (OTCs) at ambient and elevated (+180 ppm) [CO2]...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29220186/detection-of-co2%C3%A2-in-the-electrochemical-reduction-of-carbon-dioxide-in-dmf-by-scanning-electrochemical-microscopy
#11
Tianhan Kai, Min Zhou, Zhiyao Duan, Graeme A Henkelman, Allen J Bard
The electrocatalytic reduction of CO2 has been studied extensively and produces a number of products. The initial reaction in the CO2 reduction is often taken to be the 1e formation of the radical anion, CO2·. However, the electrochemical detection and characterization of CO2· is challenging because of the short lifetime of CO2·, which can dimerize and react with proton donors and even mild oxidants. Here, we report the generation and quantitative determination of CO2· in N,N-dimethyl formamide (DMF) with the tip generation/substrate collection (TG/SC) mode of scanning electrochemical microscopy (SECM)...
December 8, 2017: Journal of the American Chemical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29219802/in-situ-high-resolution-transmission-electron-microscopy-tem-observation-of-sn-nanoparticles-on-sno2-nanotubes-under-lithiation
#12
Jun Young Cheong, Joon Ha Chang, Sung Joo Kim, Chanhoon Kim, Hyeon Kook Seo, Jae Won Shin, Jong Min Yuk, Jeong Yong Lee, Il-Doo Kim
We trace Sn nanoparticles (NPs) produced from SnO2 nanotubes (NTs) during lithiation initialized by high energy e-beam irradiation. The growth dynamics of Sn NPs is visualized in liquid electrolytes by graphene liquid cell transmission electron microscopy. The observation reveals that Sn NPs grow on the surface of SnO2 NTs via coalescence and the final shape of agglomerated NPs is governed by surface energy of the Sn NPs and the interfacial energy between Sn NPs and SnO2 NTs. Our result will likely benefit more rational material design of the ideal interface for facile ion insertion...
December 8, 2017: Microscopy and Microanalysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29219442/electrokinetic-control-of-viscous-fingering
#13
Mohammad Mirzadeh, Martin Z Bazant
We present a theory of the interfacial stability of two immiscible electrolytes under the coupled action of pressure gradients and electric fields in a Hele-Shaw cell or porous medium. Mathematically, our theory describes a phenomenon of "vector Laplacian growth," in which the interface moves in response to the gradient of a vector-valued potential function through a generalized mobility tensor. Physically, we extend the classical Saffman-Taylor problem to electrolytes by incorporating electrokinetic (EK) phenomena...
October 27, 2017: Physical Review Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29219326/boosting-the-efficiency-of-quantum-dot-sensitized-solar-cells-through-formation-of-cation-exchanged-hole-transporting-layer
#14
Sourav Maiti, Farazuddin Azlan, Pranav Anand, Yogesh Jadhav, Jayanta Dana, Santosh K Haram, Hirendra N Ghosh
In search of a viable way to enhance the power conversion efficiency (PCE) of quantum dot sensitized solar cells (QDSSC) we have designed a method by introducing a hole transporting layer (HTL) of p-type CuS through partial cation exchange process in post synthetic ligand assisted assembly of nanocrystals (NCs). High quality CdSe and CdSSe gradient alloy NCs were synthesized through colloidal method and the charge carrier dynamics was monitored through ultrafast transient absorption (TA) measurements. Notable increase in the short circuit current concomitant with the increase in open circuit voltage and fill factor lead to 45% increment in PCE for CdSe based solar cell upon formation of the CuS HTL...
December 8, 2017: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29219291/atomic-layer-deposition-of-lithium-niobium-oxides-as-potential-solid-state-electrolytes-for-lithium-ion-batteries
#15
Biqiong Wang, Yang Zhao, Mohammad Norouzi Banis, Qian Sun, Keegan Adair, Ruying Li, Tsun-Kong Sham, Xueliang Sun
The development of solid-state electrolytes by atomic layer deposition (ALD) holds unparalleled advantages towards the fabrication of next-generation solid-state batteries. Lithium niobium oxide (LNO) thin films with well-controlled film thickness and composition were successfully deposited by ALD at a deposition temperature of 235 °C using lithium tert-butoxide and niobium ethoxide as Li and Nb sources, respectively. Furthermore, incorporation of higher Li content was achieved by increasing the Li to Nb subcycle ratio...
December 8, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29219204/textile-inspired-lithium-oxygen-battery-cathode-with-decoupled-oxygen-and-electrolyte-pathways
#16
Shaomao Xu, Yonggang Yao, Yuanyuan Guo, Xiaoqiao Zeng, Steven D Lacey, Huiyu Song, Chaoji Chen, Yiju Li, Jiaqi Dai, Yanbin Wang, Yanan Chen, Boyang Liu, Kun Fu, Khalil Amine, Jun Lu, Liangbing Hu
The lithium-air (Li-O2 ) battery has been deemed one of the most promising next-generation energy-storage devices due to its ultrahigh energy density. However, in conventional porous carbon-air cathodes, the oxygen gas and electrolyte often compete for transport pathways, which limit battery performance. Here, a novel textile-based air cathode is developed with a triple-phase structure to improve overall battery performance. The hierarchical structure of the conductive textile network leads to decoupled pathways for oxygen gas and electrolyte: oxygen flows through the woven mesh while the electrolyte diffuses along the textile fibers...
December 8, 2017: Advanced Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29218981/extraordinary-porous-few-layer-carbon-of-high-capacitance-from-pechini-combustion-of-magnesium-nitrate-gel
#17
Meng Qian, Yuan Wang, Feng Xu, Wei Zhao, Tianquan Lin, Fuqiang Huang
Highly capacitive carbons are viewed as promising commercial materials for supercapacitors, but few species satisfy the requirements of high capacitance and low cost. Here we demonstrate an extraordinary porous few-layer carbon by facile Pechini combustion of magnesium nitrate gel, which combined salicylic acid as a complexing agent with magnesium nitrate as inorganic metal salt. As synthesized carbon material delivers a capacitance of 415 F g-1, mostly stemming from large specific surface area (∼1312 m2 g-1), fluent channel for transport of electrolyte, as well as electrochemical redox reactions at O, N-associated active sites...
December 8, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29218736/a-high-performing-direct-carbon-fuel-cell-with-a-3d-architectured-anode-operated-below-600-%C3%A2-c
#18
Wei Wu, Yunya Zhang, Dong Ding, Ting He
Direct carbon fuel cells (DCFCs) are highly efficient power generators fueled by abundant and cheap solid carbons. However, the limited triple-phase boundaries (TPBs) in the fuel electrode, due to the lack of direct contact among carbon, electrode, and electrolyte, inhibit the performance and result in poor fuel utilization. To address the challenges of low carbon oxidation activity and low carbon utilization, a highly efficient, 3D solid-state architected anode is developed to enhance the performance of DCFCs below 600 °C...
December 8, 2017: Advanced Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29218355/the-next-generation-vanadium-flow-batteries-with-high-power-density-a-perspective
#19
Wenjing Lu, Xianfeng Li, Huamin Zhang
Vanadium flow batteries (VFBs) have received increasing attention due to their attractive features for large-scale energy storage applications. However, the relatively high cost and severe polarization of VFB energy storage systems at high current densities restrict their utilization in practical industrial applications. Optimization of the performance of key VFB materials, including electrodes, electrolytes and membranes, can realize simultaneous minimization of polarization and capacity decay. The power density and energy density of VFBs are thus simultaneously enhanced...
December 8, 2017: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29218342/self-assembled-n-graphene-nanohollows-enabling-ultrahigh-energy-density-cathode-for-li-s-batteries
#20
Hanting Tang, Jinlong Yang, Guangxing Zhang, Chaokun Liu, Han Wang, Qinghe Zhao, Jiangtao Hu, Yandong Duan, Feng Pan
Functional porous carbon materials are widely used to solve the low conductivity and shuttle effect of Li-S batteries; however, the common carbon/sulfur composite electrodes based on traditional technology (with conducting agents and binders) make it difficult for a battery to work stably at an ultra-high sulfur loading of 10 mg cm-2. Herein, an appropriate content of sulfur was injected into a pomegranate-like structure self-assembled with nanohollows (PSSN) of N-graphene. The Li-PSSN/S battery based on traditional technology displays a large-capacity, high-rate and long-life at an ultra-high areal-sulfur loading of 10...
December 8, 2017: Nanoscale
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