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Yahya Alzahrani, Alpaslan Kuşvuran, Hesham F Alharby, Sebnem Kuşvuran, Mostafa M Rady
In the crust of earth, silicon (Si) is one of the two major elements. For plant growth and development, importance of Si remains controversial due to the widely differences in ability of plants to take up this element. In this paper, pot experiments were done to study Si roles in improving salt, drought or cadmium (Cd) stress tolerance in wheat. Up to full emergence, all pots were watered at 100% field capacity (FC) every other day with nutrient solution without any treatments. Fifteen days after sowing, pots were divided into four plots, each with 40 pots for no stress (control) and three stress treatments; drought (50% FC), salinity (200 mM NaCl) and cadmium (2 mM Cd)...
February 20, 2018: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
Sheng Yang, Ke Zhang, Antonio Gaetano Ricciardulli, Panpan Zhang, Zhongquan Liao, Martin Lohe, Ehrenfried Zschech, Paul Blom, Wojciech Pisula, Klaus Müllen, Xinliang Feng
The extraordinary electronic and photonic features render black phosphorus (BP) an important material for the development of novel electronics and optoelectronics. Despite the recent progress in the preparation of few-layered BP flakes, scalable synthesis of large-size, pristine BP flakes represents one of the main challenges. Here we demonstrate an electrochemical delamination strategy, based on the intercalation of diverse cations in non-aqueous electrolytes, to peel off bulk BP crystals into few-layer, defect-free flakes...
February 23, 2018: Angewandte Chemie
Krister Bamberg, Ulrika Johansson, Karl Edman, Lena William-Olsson, Susanna Myhre, Anders Gunnarsson, Stefan Geschwindner, Anna Aagaard, Anna Björnson Granqvist, Frédéric Jaisser, Yufeng Huang, Kenneth L Granberg, Rasmus Jansson-Löfmark, Judith Hartleib-Geschwindner
Excess mineralocorticoid receptor (MR) activation promotes target organ dysfunction, vascular injury and fibrosis. MR antagonists like eplerenone are used for treating heart failure, but their use is limited due to the compound class-inherent hyperkalemia risk. Here we present evidence that AZD9977, a first-in-class MR modulator shows cardio-renal protection despite a mechanism-based reduced liability to cause hyperkalemia. AZD9977 in vitro potency and binding mode to MR were characterized using reporter gene, binding, cofactor recruitment assays and X-ray crystallopgraphy...
2018: PloS One
Emmanuelle Magny, Hélène Le Petitcorps, Maria Pociumban, Zineb Bouksani-Kacher, Éric Pautas, Joël Belmin, Sylvie Bastuji-Garin, Carmelo Lafuente-Lafuente
BACKGROUND: Factors associated with delirium among community-dwelling older adults have been poorly studied. Our aim was to describe the prevalence of predisposing and precipitating factors for delirium among patients admitted for delirium and to assess whether these factors were appropriately recognized at the first patient assessment at hospital. METHODS: Consecutive community-dwelling individuals admitted to three geriatric acute care units with a confirmed initial diagnosis of delirium were prospectively included...
2018: PloS One
Yibo Zhang, Rujun Chen, Ting Liu, Bingqing Xu, Xue Zhang, Liangliang Li, Yuanhua Lin, Ce-Wen Nan, Yang Shen
By using highly Li-ion conductive 78Li2S-22P2S5 glass-ceramic (7822gc) as both electrolyte and active material in the composite cathode obtained via ball-milling the 7822gc with multiple carbons, a kind of monolithic all-solid-state batteries were prepared with lithium-indium foil as the anode. Such 7822gc-based monolithic batteries present stable discharge capacity of 480.3 mAh.g-1 at 0.176 after 60 cycles, which is three times of the previous work with the highest capacity so far among all attempts of using sulfide electrolytes as the active materials...
February 23, 2018: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Melaine A Kuenemann, Denis Fourches
The With-No-Lysine (WNK) serine/threonine kinase family constitutes a unique and distinctive branch of the kinome. The four proteins of this family (WNK1/2/3/4) are involved in blood pressure regulation, body fluid, and electrolyte homeostasis. Herein, we modeled and analyzed the binding modes of all publicly-available small orthosteric and allosteric binders (including WNK463 and WNK467) experimentally tested towards any of the WNK family member. To do so, we relied on state-of-the-art cheminformatics approaches including structure-based molecular docking and molecular dynamics simulations...
February 23, 2018: Molecular Informatics
Po Chung Cheng, Shang Ren Hsu, Shih Te Tu, Yun Chung Cheng, Yu Hsiu Liu
Background: Hypoglycemia occurs in an appreciable number of individuals with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) who are receiving glycemic therapy. Iatrogenic hypoglycemia induces not only complications but also a substantial medical expense. Intervention for relevant risk factors may help avert severe hypoglycemia and enhance quality of life in at-risk individuals. This study investigates the relationship between body mass index (BMI) and plasma glucose concentration during iatrogenic hypoglycemia in people with T2DM...
2018: PeerJ
Lei Zhang, Zhenxing Zhang, Junting Hong, Jian Yu, Jianning Zhang, Fanyang Mo
An anodic oxidation/cyclization of 2-arylbenzoic acids for dibenzopyranones synthesis has been developed. The reaction proceeds at room temperature with no oxidant or electrolyte required, and exhibits high atom-economy as H2 being the only by-product. A series of dibenzopyranones were obtained in good to excellent yields. Urolithin A, B and C are formally synthesized by adopting this method as a key step to demonstrate its synthetic utility.
February 23, 2018: Journal of Organic Chemistry
Elena T Iakimova, Ernst J Woltering
In this work, the involvement of programmed cell death (PCD) in the wound-induced postharvest browning disorder and senescence in butterhead lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) fresh-cuts was studied. At the wounded (cut, bruised) sites, rapid browning, loss of chlorophyll and massive cell death, accompanied with accumulation of reactive oxygen species and increased electrolyte leakage occurred in a narrow strip of tissue adjacent the injury. The dead cell morphology (protoplast and nuclei shrinkage) together with the biochemical and physiological changes resembled necrotic PCD type...
February 22, 2018: Protoplasma
Guangxing Zhang, Han Wang, Jinlong Yang, Qinghe Zhao, Luyi Yang, Hanting Tang, Chaokun Liu, Haibiao Chen, Yuan Lin, Feng Pan
Oxygen evolution reaction (OER), as the critical step in splitting water, is a thermodynamically "up-hill" process and requires highly efficient catalysts to run. Arrhenius' law suggests that the higher temperature, the faster the reaction rate, so that a larger OER current density can be achieved at a lower η. Herein, we report an abnormal temperature effect on the performance of Co-based catalysts, e.g., Co3 O4 , Li2 CoSiO4 , and Fe-doped Co(OH)x , in OER in alkaline electrolytes. The OER performance reached a maximum when the temperature increased to 65 °C, and the OER performance declined when the temperature became higher...
February 22, 2018: Inorganic Chemistry
Tian Chen, Songzhan Li, Pengbin Gui, Jian Wen, Xuemei Fu, Guojia Fang
Bifunctional bamboo-like CoSe2 arrays are synthesized by thermal annealing of Co(CO3)0.5OH grown on carbon cloth in Se atmosphere. The obtained CoSe2 arrays have excellent electrical conductivity, larger electrochemical active surface areas and can directly serve as a binder-free electrode for supercapacitor and oxygen evolution reaction (OER). When tested as an electrode for supercapacitor, the CoSe2 delivers a higher specific capacitance (544.6 F g-1 at current density of 1 mA cm-2) compared with CoO (308...
February 22, 2018: Nanotechnology
Yanfei Zhu, Aiping Hu, Qunli Tang, Shiying Zhang, Weina Deng, Yanhua Li, Zheng Liu, Binbin Fan, Kuikui Xiao, Jilei Liu, Xiaohua Chen
A novel strategy is proposed to construct a compact-nanobox (CNB) structure composed of irregular nanograins (average diameter ≈ 10 nm), aiming to confine electrode-electrolyte contact area and enhance initial Coulombic efficiency (ICE) of transition metal oxide (TMO) anodes. To demonstrate the validity of this attempt, CoO-CNB is taken as an example which is synthesized via a carbothermic reduction method. Benefiting from the compact configuration, electrolyte can only contact the outer surface of nanobox, keeping the inner CoO nanograins untouched...
February 22, 2018: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Masashi Okubo, Akira Sugahara, Satoshi Kajiyama, Atsuo Yamada
The development of efficient electrochemical energy storage (EES) devices is an important sustainability issue to realize green electrical grids. Charge storage mechanisms in present EES devices, such as ion (de)intercalation in lithium-ion batteries and electric double layer formation in capacitors, provide insufficient efficiency and performance for grid use. Intercalation pseudocapacitance (or redox capacitance) has emerged as an alternative chemistry for advanced EES devices. Intercalation pseudocapacitance occurs through bulk redox reactions with ultrafast ion diffusion...
February 22, 2018: Accounts of Chemical Research
Ye-Zheng Zhang, Ze Zhang, Sheng Liu, Guoran Li, Xue-Ping Gao
Low sulfur utilization and poor cycle life of the sulfur cathode with high sulfur loadings remain a great challenge for lithium-sulfur (Li-S) battery. Herein, the free-standing carbon film consisting of porous carbon nanofibers (PCNFs) and carbon nanotubes (CNTs) is successfully fabricated by electrospinning technology. The PCNF/CNT film with three-dimensional (3D) and interconnected structure is promising for the uniformity of the high-loading sulfur, good penetration of electrolyte and reliable accommodation of volumetric expansion of the sulfur cathode...
February 22, 2018: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Zhanyu Li, Bangbang Niu, Jian Liu, Jianling Li, Feiyu Kang
In recent years, a rechargeable aluminum-ion battery based on ionic liquid electrolyte is being extensively explored due to three electron electrochemical reactions, rich resources, and safety. Herein, a rechargeable Al-ion battery comprised of MoS2 microsphere cathode, aluminum anode and ionic liquid electrolyte has been fabricated for the first time. It can be found that Al3+ intercalates into the MoS2 during the electrochemical reaction, but aluminum storage mechanism is different at the electrode material interface and internal...
February 22, 2018: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Deepak P Dubal, Daniel Rueda-Garcia, Carlos Marchante, Raul Benages, Pedro Gomez-Romero
Solid Hybrid materials abound. But flowing versions of them are new actors in the materials science landscape and in particular for energy applications. This paper presents a new way to deliver nanostructured hybrid materials for energy storage, namely, in the form of nanofluids. We present here the first example of a hybrid electroactive nanofluid (HENFs) combining capacitive and faradaic energy storage mechanisms in a single fluid material. This liquid electrode is composed of reduced graphene oxide and polyoxometalates (rGO-POMs) forming a stable nanocomposite for electrochemical energy storage in novel Nanofluid Flow Cells...
February 22, 2018: Chemical Record: An Official Publication of the Chemical Society of Japan ... [et Al.]
Fen Ran, Yage Wu, Minghuan Jiang, Yongtao Tan, Ying Liu, Lingbin Kong, Long Kang, Shaowei Chen
In this study, a hybrid electrode material for supercapacitors based on hierarchical porous carbon fiber@vanadium nitride nanoparticles is fabricated using the method of phase-separation mediated by the PAA-b-PAN-b-PAA tri-block copolymer. In the phase-separation procedure, the ionic block copolymer self-assembled on the surface of carbon nanofibers, and is used to adsorb NH4 VO3 . Thermal treatment at controlled temperatures under an NH3  : N2 atmosphere led to the formation of vanadium nitride nanoparticles that are distributed uniformly on the nanofiber surface...
February 22, 2018: Dalton Transactions: An International Journal of Inorganic Chemistry
Jaemok Koo, Jee Hye Yang, Boeun Cho, Hyunwoo Jo, Keun Hyung Lee, Moon Sung Kang
We present non-volatile transistor memory devices that rely on the formation of electric double layer (EDL) at the semiconductor electrolyte interface. The two critical functional components of the device are ion gel electrolyte and gold nanoparticles (NPs). The ion gel electrolyte contains ionic species for EDL formation that allow inducing charges in the semiconductor/electrolyte interface. The gold NPs inserted between the ion gel and the channel layer serve as trapping sites to the induced charges to store the electrical input signals...
February 22, 2018: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Zhenye Xu, Yu Liu, Wei Zhou, Moses O Tade, Zongping Shao
Perovskite oxides are highly promising electrodes for oxygen-ion-intercalation-type supercapacitors owing to their high oxygen vacancy concentration, oxygen diffusion rate and tap density. Based on the anion intercalation mechanism, the capacitance is contributed by surface redox reactions and oxygen ion intercalation in the bulk materials. A high concentration of oxygen vacancies is needed because it is the main charge carrier. In this study, we propose B-site cation-ordered Ba2Bi0.1Sc0.2Co1.7O6-δ as an electrode material with an extremely high oxygen vacancy concentration and oxygen diffusion rate...
February 22, 2018: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Wei Bian, Yichao Huang, Xiaobin Xu, Muhammad Aizaz Ud Din, Gang Xie, Xun Wang
Developing efficient electrocatalysts for the oxygen evolution reaction (OER) is of great significance for the future renewable energy applications. Herein, efficient OER electrocatalysts based on iron hydroxide-modified nickel hydroxylphosphate (NiPO/Fe(OH)x) single-wall nanotubes (SWNTs) have been prepared by a facile stepwise surfactant-free solvothermal strategy, which possess diameters of about 6 nanometers and lengths of about several micrometers. Benefitting from the synergistic effect between iron hydroxides and NiPO SWNTs, the as-prepared NiPO/Fe(OH)x SWNTs exhibit higher OER activity than primary NiPO SWNTs...
February 22, 2018: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
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