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Insulin type diabetes

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29793180/insulin-is-a-potential-antioxidant-for-diabetes-associated-cognitive-decline-via-regulating-nrf2-dependent-antioxidant-enzymes
#1
Ying Song, Wei Ding, Yun Bei, Yan Xiao, Hai-Da Tong, Li-Bo Wang, Li-Yao Ai
PURPOSE: To investigate the neuroprotective effects of insulin on diabetic encephalopathy and its mechanism. EXPERIMENTAL AND APPROACH: The diabetic model was established by injection of streptozotocin. Behavior examinations were conducted by the Morris water maze. Histopathological alterations were detected by HE staining. ROS, CAT levels and SOD activity were measured using a microplate reader. In vitro, the viability of wild type and knock-down PC12 cells was detected by MTT assay, the morphology of cells was monitored under a microscope...
May 21, 2018: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29792143/recent-updates-on-novel-approaches-in-insulin-drug-delivery-a-review-of-challenges-and-pharmaceutical-implications
#2
Manisha Pandey, Hira Choudhury, Cheah Xiao Yi, Chen Wei Mun, Goh Khang Ping, Guee Xin Rou, Bhalqish Jeet Kaur A/P Ambar Jeet Singh, Angel Ng Ann Jhee, Lee Kai Chin, Prashant Kesharwani, Bapi Gorain, Zahid Hussain
Diabetes mellitus, a metabolic disorder of glucose metabolism, is mainly associated with insulin resistance to the body cells, or impaired production of insulin by the pancreatic β-cells. Insulin is mainly required to regulate glucose metabolism in type 1 diabetes mellitus patients; however, many patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus also require insulin, especially when their condition cannot be controlled solely by oral hypoglycemic agents. Hence, major researches are ongoing attempting to improve the delivery of insulin in order to make it more convenient to patients who experience side effects from the conventional treatment procedure or non-adherence to insulin regimen due to multiple comorbid conditions...
May 22, 2018: Current Drug Targets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29792023/fern-9-11-ene-2%C3%AE-3%C3%AE-diol-action-on-insulin-secretion-in-hyperglycemic-conditions
#3
Allisson Jhonatan Gomes Castro, Luisa Helena Cazarolli, Gabrielle Da Luz, Delsi Altenhofen, Hemily Batista Da Silva, Francieli Kanumfre Carvalho, Moacir Geraldo Pizzolatti, Fátima Rmb Silva
The objective of this study was to investigate the effect and the mechanism of action of fernenediol as insulin secretagogue. Wistar rats were treated with 0.1; 1 and 10 mg/kg fernenediol and then induced hyperglycemia by oral glucose. The glycaemia, insulin, LDH, calcium and hepatic glycogen were analyzed. Considering the intestine and pancreas as targets for the triterpene action, the duodenum was used to verify the influence of fernenediol on intestinal glycosidases. Additionally, pancreatic islets were used for studies of 14 C-deoxyglucose uptake and influx of 45 Ca2+ in hyperglycemic medium with/without fernenediol in the presence/absence of an inhibitor/activator of KATP channels, glibenclamide, diazoxide, nifedipine, calcium chelator (BAPTA- AM) and H-89 and ST the inhibitors of the PKA and PKC enzymes...
May 24, 2018: Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29791782/obesity-leads-to-impairments-in-the-morphology-and-organization-of-human-skeletal-muscle-lipid-droplets-and-mitochondrial-networks-which-are-resolved-with-gastric-bypass-surgery-induced-improvements-in-insulin-sensitivity
#4
Marianne D Kristensen, Signe M Petersen, Kjestine E Møller, Michael T Lund, Merethe Hansen, Christina N Hansen, Julie Courraud, Jørn W Helge, Flemming Dela, Clara Prats
AIMS: Skeletal muscle lipid stores and mitochondrial function have been appointed as key players in obesity-induced insulin resistance. However, there are conflicting reports in the literature based on in vitro quantitative measurements. Here we test the hypothesis that it is not the quantity but the quality that matters. METHODS: The present study combines quantitative and qualitative structural measurements of lipid stores and mitochondrial dynamics in skeletal muscle from lean subjects, and subjects with morbid obesity, with and without type 2 diabetes, before and after gastric bypass surgery...
May 23, 2018: Acta Physiologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29791774/serotonergic-regulation-of-insulin-secretion
#5
REVIEW
Luis Rodrigo Cataldo Bascuñan, Claire Lyons, Hedvig Bennet, Isabella Artner, Malin Fex
The exact physiological role for the monoamine serotonin (5-HT) in modulation of insulin secretion is yet to be fully understood. Although the presence of this monoamine in islets of Langerhans is well established, it is only with recent advances that the complex signaling network in islets involving 5-HT is being unraveled. With more than fourteen different 5-HT receptors expressed in human islets, and receptor independent mechanisms in insulin producing β-cells, our understanding of 5-HT's regulation of insulin secretion is increasing...
May 23, 2018: Acta Physiologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29791677/multifactorial-intervention-for-diabetes-control-among-older-users-of-insulin
#6
Rafael Vaz Machry, Henrique Umpierre Pedroso, Luthiele Silva Vasconcellos, Rafaela Ramos Nunes, Cibelle de Abreu Evaldt, Eduardo Bardou Yunes Filho, Ticiana da Costa Rodrigues
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate if the closer follow-up with the supply of insulin pens and the measurement of capillary blood glucose improve the management of older patients with type 2 diabetes without adequate glycemic control despite extensive therapy. METHODS: This is a prospective, non-randomized, quasi-experimental study. We have included 45 patients over 60 years old, from both sexes, with glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) > 8.5% using oral hypoglycemic agents and insulin...
2018: Revista de Saúde Pública
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29791512/cpr-ir-is-an-insulin-resistance-index-that-is-minimally-affected-by-hepatic-insulin-clearance-a-preliminary-research
#7
Tsuyoshi Okura, Risa Nakamura, Yohei Fujioka, Sonoko Kawamoto-Kitao, Yuichi Ito, Kazuhisa Matsumoto, Kyoko Shoji, Keisuke Sumi, Kazuhiko Matsuzawa, Shoichiro Izawa, Etsuko Ueta, Masahiko Kato, Takeshi Imamura, Shin-Ichi Taniguchi, Kazuhiro Yamamoto
BACKGROUND: Increased hepatic insulin clearance (HIC) is important in the pathophysiology of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). The aim of this study is to analyze an effective insulin resistance (IR) index that is minimally affected by HIC. METHODS: Our study involved 20 participants with T2DM and 21 healthy participants without diabetes (Non-DM). Participants underwent a meal tolerance test from which plasma glucose, insulin and serum C-peptide immunoreactivity (CPR) were measured, and HOMA-IR and HIC were calculated...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29791176/-a-consensual-therapeutic-recommendation-for-type-2-diabetes-mellitus-by-the-slovak-diabetes-society-2018
#8
Emil Martinka, Vladimír Uličiansky, Marián Mokáň, Ivan Tkáč, Peter Galajda, Silvia Dókušová, Zbynek Schroner
Type 2 diabetes mellitus is a heterogeneous medical condition involving multiple pathophysiological mechanisms. Its successful treatment requires an individualized approach and frequently combined therapy with utilizing its effect on multiple levels. Current possibilities enable the employment of such procedures to an incomparably greater extent than before. The effects of different classes of oral antidiabetic drugs on the reduction of glycemia and HbA1c is mutually comparable. However differences are observed in the proportions of patients who met the required criteria, regarding the increase in weight, incidence of hypoglycemia as well as the effect on cardiovascular, renal or oncologic morbidity and mortality, and severity of specific adverse effects, potential risks and contraindications...
2018: Vnitr̆ní Lékar̆ství
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29790415/a-gene-variant-near-atm-affects-the-response-to-metformin-and-metformin-plasma-levels-a-post-hoc-analysis-of-an-rct
#9
Mattijs Out, Matthijs L Becker, Ron H van Schaik, Philippe Lehert, Coen D Stehouwer, Adriaan Kooy
AIM: To determine the influence of polymorphisms on the effects of metformin on HbA1c, daily dose of insulin and metformin plasma concentration. Methods: In a post hoc analysis of a 4.3 year placebo-controlled randomized trial with 390 patients with Type 2 diabetes already on insulin, we analyzed the influence of polymorphisms in genes coding for ATM and the transporters OCT1 and MATE1. Outcome measures were a combined HbA1c + daily dose of insulin Z score and metformin plasma concentrations...
June 1, 2018: Pharmacogenomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29790274/polymer-scafffolds-for-pancreatic-islet-transplantion-progress-and-challenges
#10
Alexandra M Smink, Bart J de Haan, Jonathan R T Lakey, Paul de Vos
Pancreatic-islet transplantation is a safe and non-invasive therapy for Type 1 diabetes. However, the currently applied site for transplantation, i.e. the liver, is not the most optimal site for islet survival. Since the human body has shortcomings in providing an optimal site, artificial transplantation sites have been proposed. Such an artificial site could consist of a polymeric scaffold that mimics the pancreatic microenvironment and supports islet function. Recently, remarkable progress has been made in the technology of engineering scaffolds...
May 22, 2018: American Journal of Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29789539/proteasomal-degradation-of-the-histone-acetyl-transferase-p300-contributes-to-beta-cell-injury-in-a-diabetes-environment
#11
Lucie Ruiz, Tatyana Gurlo, Magalie A Ravier, Anne Wojtusciszyn, Julia Mathieu, Matthew R Brown, Christophe Broca, Gyslaine Bertrand, Peter C Butler, Aleksey V Matveyenko, Stéphane Dalle, Safia Costes
In type 2 diabetes, amyloid oligomers, chronic hyperglycemia, lipotoxicity, and pro-inflammatory cytokines are detrimental to beta-cells, causing apoptosis and impaired insulin secretion. The histone acetyl transferase p300, involved in remodeling of chromatin structure by epigenetic mechanisms, is a key ubiquitous activator of the transcriptional machinery. In this study, we report that loss of p300 acetyl transferase activity and expression leads to beta-cell apoptosis, and most importantly, that stress situations known to be associated with diabetes alter p300 levels and functional integrity...
May 22, 2018: Cell Death & Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29789397/the-wnt-antagonist-and-secreted-frizzled-related-protein-5-implications-on-lipid-metabolism-inflammation-and-type-2-diabetes-mellitus
#12
Ling-Bin Liu, Xiao-Dong Chen, Xiang-Yu Zhou, Qing Zhu
Various reports have suggested that secreted frizzled-related protein 5 (SFRP5) plays a regulatory role in the processes of cellular proliferation and differentiation, by means of inactivating the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway. Recently, SFRP5 has been identified as an anti-inflammatory adipokine, which may be induced during preadipocyte proliferation, differentiation, and maturation. This review aims to identify the recent progress in the research and development of SFRP5 that can play a role in influencing lipid metabolism, inflammation and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM)...
May 22, 2018: Bioscience Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29789365/structural-alteration-of-gut-microbiota-during-the-amelioration-of-human-type-2-diabetes-with-hyperlipidemia-by-metformin-and-a-traditional-chinese-herbal-formula-a-multicenter-randomized-open-label-clinical-trial
#13
Xiaolin Tong, Jia Xu, Fengmei Lian, Xiaotong Yu, Yufeng Zhao, Lipeng Xu, Menghui Zhang, Xiyan Zhao, Jian Shen, Shengping Wu, Xiaoyan Pang, Jiaxing Tian, Chenhong Zhang, Qiang Zhou, Linhua Wang, Bing Pang, Feng Chen, Zhiping Peng, Jing Wang, Zhong Zhen, Chao Fang, Min Li, Limei Chen, Liping Zhao
Accumulating evidence implicates gut microbiota as promising targets for the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). With a randomized clinical trial, we tested the hypothesis that alteration of gut microbiota may be involved in the alleviation of T2DM with hyperlipidemia by metformin and a specifically designed herbal formula (AMC). Four hundred fifty patients with T2DM and hyperlipidemia were randomly assigned to either the metformin- or AMC-treated group. After 12 weeks of treatment, 100 patients were randomly selected from each group and assessed for clinical improvement...
May 22, 2018: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29789227/cost-effectiveness-analysis-of-sensor-augmented-pump-therapy-with-low-glucose-suspend-in-patients-with-type-1-diabetes-mellitus-and-high-risk-of-hypoglycemia-in-spain
#14
Ignacio Conget, Pilar Martín-Vaquero, Stéphane Roze, Isabel Elías, Cristina Pineda, María Álvarez, Alexis Delbaere, Francisco Javier Ampudia-Blasco
OBJECTIVE: To compare the cost-effectiveness of sensor-augmented pump therapy (SAP) [continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion (CSII) plus real-time continuous glucose monitoring (RT-CGM)] with low glucose suspend (MiniMed™ Veo™) and CSII alone in patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) at high risk of hypoglycemia in Spain. METHODS: The IQVIA CORE Diabetes Model was used to estimate healthcare outcomes as life-years gained (LYGs) and quality-adjusted life years (QALYs), and to project lifetime costs...
May 19, 2018: Endocrinología, Diabetes y Nutrición
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29789130/the-effects-of-alcohol-on-plasma-lipid-mediators-of-inflammation-resolution-in-patients-with-type-2-diabetes-mellitus
#15
Anne Barden, Sujata Shinde, Michael Phillips, Lawrence Beilin, Emilie Mas, Jonathan M Hodgson, Ian Puddey, Trevor A Mori
BACKGROUND: Type 2 diabetes mellitus is characterized by peripheral insulin resistance and low-grade systemic inflammation. Inflammation resolution is recognised as an important process driven by specialised pro-resolving mediators of inflammation (SPMs) and has the potential to moderate chronic inflammation. Alcohol has the potential to affect synthesis of SPMs by altering key enzymes involved in SPM synthesis and may influence ongoing inflammation associated with Type 2 diabetes mellitus...
June 2018: Prostaglandins, Leukotrienes, and Essential Fatty Acids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29788974/eicosapentaenoic-acid-ethyl-ester-improves-endothelial-dysfunction-in-type-2-diabetic-mice
#16
Yasuhiro Takenouchi, Kazuo Ohtake, Koji Nobe, Keizo Kasono
BACKGROUND: Eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) is thought to have many beneficial effects, such as anti-atherosclerogenic and anti-inflammatory properties. However, few studies have reported its effects of endothelial dysfunction in diabetes and its direct effects on the aorta. Here, we investigated the effects of EPA treatment on impaired endothelium-dependent relaxation of the aorta in KKAy mice, a model of type 2 diabetes. METHODS: Male KKAy mice were fed a high-fat (HF) diet for 8 weeks to induce diabetes, after which they were divided into two groups...
May 22, 2018: Lipids in Health and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29788908/perceptions-of-insulin-use-in-type-2-diabetes-in-primary-care-a-thematic-synthesis
#17
Kathy Ellis, Henrietta Mulnier, Angus Forbes
BACKGROUND: Increasing numbers of patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus are progressing to insulin therapy, and despite its potency many such individuals still have suboptimal glycaemic control. Insulin initiation and intensification is now often conducted by Practice Nurses and General Practitioners in many parts of the UK. Therefore, gaining insight into perspectives of patients and primary care clinicians is important in determining self-management and engagement with insulin. A thematic synthesis of studies was conducted exploring the views and experiences of people with type 2 diabetes and of healthcare professionals on insulin use and management in the context of primary care...
May 22, 2018: BMC Family Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29788884/progress-of-oral-insulin-and-related-drug-delivery-systems-and-their-pharmacokinetics
#18
Jingjing Chen, Rui Liu, Changxiao Liu, Xin Jin, Qinghua Zhang, Jialu Wang, Fang Zhao, Ze Wang, Haiyan Qiu, Yazhuo Li, Xiulin Yi
BACKGROUND: As society has developed and living standards have improved, diabetes has become a severe public health issue. Insulin plays a crucial role in managing hyperglycemia caused by type I diabetes and particular type II diabetes. Many researchers are seeking alternative, more acceptable methods of insulin delivery, such as oral insulin. An oral formulation has become a new goal for insulin delivery in recent years. METHODS: The PubMed and CNKI databases were searched for "oral insulin, " "drug delivery systems, " and "pharmacokinetics, " and 85 relevant articles were selected from the results as material for this review...
May 22, 2018: Current Drug Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29788220/obstructive-sleep-apnea-syndrome-and-metabolic-diseases
#19
Min Li, Xiaoying Li, Yan Lu
With the rapid changes of lifestyle in modern society, including high nutritional intake and reduced physical activity, the incidence of metabolic diseases is increasing year by year. Obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) is a sleep disorder, usually characterized by sudden pauses of breathing during sleep with interrupted sleep rhythm. Although the pathological mechanism remains poorly understood, it is strongly associated with metabolic diseases, including obesity, insulin resistance, type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD)...
May 18, 2018: Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29788121/targeted-metabolomics-shows-low-plasma-lysophosphatidylcholine-18-2-predicts-greater-decline-of-gait-speed-in-older-adults-the-baltimore-longitudinal-study-of-aging
#20
Marta Gonzalez-Freire, Ruin Moaddel, Kai Sun, Elisa Fabbri, Pingbo Zhang, Mohammed Khadeer, Norman Salem, Luigi Ferrucci, Richard D Semba
Background: Gait speed is an important measure of lower extremity physical performance in older adults and is predictive of disability and mortality. The biological pathways involved in the decline of lower extremity physical performance are not well understood. We used a targeted metabolomics approach to identify plasma metabolites predictive of change in gait speed over time. Methods: Gait speed was measured at baseline and over median follow-up of 50.5 months in 504 adults, aged ≥50 years, who had two or more study visits in the Baltimore Longitudinal Study of Aging (BLSA)...
May 17, 2018: Journals of Gerontology. Series A, Biological Sciences and Medical Sciences
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