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Insulin type diabetes

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27915042/non-coding-rnas-and-berberine-a-new-mechanism-of-its-anti-diabetic-activities
#1
REVIEW
Wenguang Chang
Type 2 Diabetes (T2D) is a metabolic disease with high mortality and morbidity. Non-coding RNAs, including small and long non-coding RNAs, are a novel class of functional RNA molecules that regulate multiple biological functions through diverse mechanisms. Studies in the last decade have demonstrated that non-coding RNAs may represent compelling therapeutic targets and play important roles in regulating the course of insulin resistance and T2D. Berberine, a plant-based alkaloid, has shown promise as an anti-hyperglycaemic, anti-hyperlipidaemic agent against T2D...
November 30, 2016: European Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914905/relationship-between-the-finnish-diabetes-risk-score-findrisc-vitamin-d-levels-and-insulin-resistance-in-obese-subjects
#2
Marcos M Lima-Martínez, Carlos Arrau, Saimar Jerez, Mariela Paoli, Juan P González-Rivas, Ramfis Nieto-Martínez, Gianluca Iacobellis
AIM: To assess the relationship between 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] blood concentrations in subjects with obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2D) risk according to the Finnish Diabetes Risk Score (FINDRISC) modified for Latin America (LA-FINDRISC). METHODS: This study was conducted in Ciudad Bolívar, Venezuela. Eighty two women and 20 men (53 obese and 49 nonobese), with an average age of 42.6±12.30 years were enrolled. Weight, height, body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), fasting glucose, basal insulin, plasma lipids, Homeostasis Model Assessment-Insulin Resistance (HOMA-IR), and 25(OH)D levels were measured...
November 30, 2016: Primary Care Diabetes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914881/continuous-positive-airway-pressure-and-diabetes-risk-in-sleep-apnea-patients-a-systemic-review-and-meta-analysis
#3
Liang Chen, Jian Kuang, Jian-Hao Pei, Hong-Mei Chen, Zhong Chen, Zhong-Wen Li, Hua-Zhang Yang, Xiao-Ying Fu, Long Wang, Zhi-Jiang Chen, Shui-Qing Lai, Shu-Ting Zhang
BACKGROUND: The study assessed the effect of continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) therapy on the risk of developing type 2 diabetes by evaluating change in the homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) fasting blood glucose (FBG) and fasting insulin following CPAP treatment in non-diabetic patients and pre-diabetic with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). METHODS: Medline, PubMed, Cochrane, and EMBASE databases were searched until August 24, 2015...
November 30, 2016: European Journal of Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914795/insulin-use-adipokine-profiles-and-breast-cancer-prognosis
#4
Zachary A P Wintrob, Jeffrey P Hammel, Thaer Khoury, George K Nimako, Hsin-Wei Fu, Zahra S Fayazi, Dan P Gaile, Alan Forrest, Alice C Ceacareanu
BACKGROUND: Type-2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and breast cancer (BC) share common cytokine signaling changes resultant from adipose tissue dysfunction. This modified adipokine signaling was shown to be directly associated with changes in the body mass index (BMI) and diet and it is expected to also be influenced by T2DM pharmacotherapy. We evaluated the relationship between pre-existing diabetes treatment, circulating adipokine levels at cancer diagnosis, and long-term outcomes. METHODS: All incident BC cases were reviewed (01/01/2003-12/31/2009, N=2194)...
November 30, 2016: Cytokine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914732/interaction-of-sex-steroid-hormones-and-obesity-on-insulin-resistance-and-type-2-diabetes-in-men-the-third-national-health-and-nutrition-examination-survey
#5
Ji Li, Hong Lai, Shaoguang Chen, Hong Zhu, Shenghan Lai
AIMS: We examined interaction of sex steroid hormones and obesity with regard to insulin resistance (IR) and type 2 diabetes (T2D) by using nationally representative data from the US. METHODS: Data of 1461 men aged ≥20years who participated in the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey were analyzed. Multiplicative interaction was calculated by cross-product interaction terms in multivariable logistic regression models. Additive interaction was assessed by the relative excess risk due to interaction (RERI)...
October 22, 2016: Journal of Diabetes and its Complications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914538/adaptive-response-of-rat-pancreatic-%C3%AE-cells-to-insulin-resistance-induced-by-monocrotophos-biochemical-evidence
#6
Raju Nagaraju, Padmanabhan Sharda Rajini
Our previous findings clearly suggested the role of duration of exposure to monocrotophos (MCP) in the development of insulin resistance. Rats exposed chronically to MCP developed insulin resistance with hyperinsulinemia without overt diabetes. In continuation of this vital observation, we sought to delineate the biochemical mechanisms that mediate heightened pancreatic β-cell response in the wake of MCP-induced insulin resistance in rats. Adult rats were orally administered (0.9 and 1.8mg/kgb.w/d) MCP for 180days...
November 2016: Pesticide Biochemistry and Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914526/jiawei-erzhiwan-improves-menopausal-metabolic-syndrome-by-enhancing-insulin-secretion-in-pancreatic-%C3%AE-cells
#7
Xiao-Meng Wan, Mu Zhang, Pei Zhang, Zhi-Shen Xie, Feng-Guo Xu, Ping Zhou, Shi-Ping Ma, Xiao-Jun Xu
Menopausal metabolic syndrome (MMS) is a series of syndrome caused by ovarian function decline and hormone insufficiency, and is a high risk factor for cardiovascular diseases (CVD) and type II diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Erzhiwan (EZW), composed of Herba Ecliptae and Fructus Ligustri Lucidi, is a traditional Chinese herbal formula that has been used to treat menopausal syndrome for many years. We added Herba Epimedii, Radix Rehmanniae, and Fructus Corni into EZW, to prepare a new formula, termed Jiawei Erzhiwan (JE)...
November 2016: Chinese Journal of Natural Medicines
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914514/protective-effects-of-fish-oil-and-pioglitazone-on-pancreatic-tissue-in-obese-kk-mice-with-type-2-diabetes
#8
Yuzuru Iizuka, Hyounju Kim, Takuya Izawa, Koji Sakurai, Satoshi Hirako, Masahiro Wada, Akiyo Matsumoto
n-3 Polyunsaturated fatty acids, such as eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), have protective effects against the pancreatic β-cell dysfunction through several mechanisms. Thiazolidines are insulin sensitizers and are used in treating patients with type 2 diabetes. Our previous study demonstrated that a combination of fish oil, which is rich with EPA and DHA, and pioglitazone exerts beneficial effects on obesity and diabetes through their actions on the liver and adipose tissue. However, it remains largely unknown whether such combination therapy affects the pancreas...
December 2016: Prostaglandins, Leukotrienes, and Essential Fatty Acids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914297/long-term-efficacy-and-safety-of-vildagliptin-add-on-therapy-in-type-2-diabetes-mellitus-with-insulin-treatment
#9
Ippei Kanazawa, Ken-Ichiro Tanaka, Masakazu Notsu, Sayuri Tanaka, Nobuaki Kiyohara, Sayo Koike, Yuko Yamane, Yuko Tada, Motofumi Sasaki, Mika Yamauchi, Toshitsugu Sugimoto
BACKGROUND: The use of dipeptidyl peptidase (DPP)-4 inhibitors in patients with type 2 diabetes treated with insulin may be beneficial. However, the long-term efficacy and safety of vildagliptin add-on therapy in these patients remains unclear. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: A total of 73 patients with type 2 diabetes treated with insulin were randomly assigned to receive either add-on therapy of vildagliptin (n=37) or conventional therapy without DPP-4 inhibitors (n=36) for glucose control...
November 20, 2016: Diabetes Research and Clinical Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914157/-prevalence-of-dental-caries-in-type-1-diabetic-patients-treated-with-insulin-pump
#10
Rosana Garcia, Ana Coelho, Anabela Paula, Manuel Marques Ferreira, Francisco Caramelo, Luísa Barros, Carla Batista, Miguel Melo, Mário Jorge Silva, Eunice Carrilho
INTRODUCTION: Type 1 diabetes mellitus and oral health are strictly related on a reciprocal basis, and an increased susceptibility to a wide variety of oral diseases is recognised in these patients. The aim of the present study was to establish a relationship between the prevalence of dental caries in Type 1 diabetic patients treated with insulin pump and that of non-diabetic patients. MATERIAL AND METHODS: An observational clinical study of analytical and cross-sectional nature was conducted...
August 2016: Acta Médica Portuguesa
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913984/basal-insulin-persistence-associated-factors-and-outcomes-after-treatment-initiation-a-retrospective-database-study-among-people-with-type-2-diabetes-mellitus-in-japan
#11
Irene Hadjiyianni, Urvi Desai, Shuichi Suzuki, Jasmina I Ivanova, Dachuang Cao, Noam Y Kirson, Dai Chida, Caroline Enloe, Howard G Birnbaum, Magaly Perez-Nieves
INTRODUCTION: The objective of this study was to assess basal insulin persistence, associated factors, and economic outcomes for insulin-naïve people with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) in Japan. METHODS: People aged at least 18 years with T2DM with first claim for basal insulin between May 2006 and April 2013 (index date), no insulin use before index date, and continuous insurance coverage for 6 months before (baseline) and 12 months after index date were selected from the Japan Medical Center Database...
December 2, 2016: Diabetes Therapy: Research, Treatment and Education of Diabetes and related Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913872/treatment-for-6%C3%A2-months-with-fish-oil-derived-n-3-polyunsaturated-fatty-acids-has-neutral-effects-on-glycemic-control-but-improves-dyslipidemia-in-type-2-diabetic-patients-with-abdominal-obesity-a-randomized-double-blind-placebo-controlled-trial
#12
Feng Wang, Yanyan Wang, Yan Zhu, Xiaosong Liu, Hui Xia, Xian Yang, Guiju Sun
PURPOSE: This study aimed to determine the effects of fish oil-derived n-3 PUFA on glycemic control and lipid profiles in type 2 diabetic patients with abdominal obesity. METHODS: In a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial, 100 type 2 diabetic patients with abdominal obesity were randomized into two groups including 4 g/day of fish oil (2.4 g n-3 PUFA) or placebo (corn oil) for 6 months. Serum fatty acid, body composition, as well as markers of glucose regulation and lipid parameters were measured before and after intervention...
December 2, 2016: European Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913612/mechanisms-in-endocrinology-skeletal-muscle-lipotoxicity-in-insulin-resistance-and-type-2-diabetes-a-causal-mechanism-or-an-innocent-bystander
#13
REVIEW
Charlotte Brøns, Louise Groth Grunnet
Dysfunctional adipose tissue is associated with an increased risk of developing type 2 diabetes (T2D). One characteristic of a dysfunctional adipose tissue is the reduced expandability of the subcutaneous adipose tissue leading to ectopic storage of fat in organs and/or tissues involved in the pathogenesis of T2D that can cause lipotoxicity. Accumulation of lipids in the skeletal muscle is associated with insulin resistance, but the majority of previous studies do not prove any causality. Most studies agree that it is not the intramuscular lipids per se that causes insulin resistance, but rather lipid intermediates such as diacylglycerols, fatty acyl-CoAs and ceramides and that it is the localization, composition and turnover of these intermediates that play an important role in the development of insulin resistance and T2D...
February 2017: European Journal of Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913577/metabolite-profiling-of-lada-challenges-the-view-of-a-metabolically-distinct-subtype
#14
Mahmoud Al-Majdoub, Arslan Ali, Petter Storm, Anders Rosengren, Leif Groop, Peter Spégel
Latent autoimmune diabetes in adults (LADA) usually refers to GADAb positive diabetes with onset after 35 years of age and no insulin treatment within the first 6 months after diagnosis. However, it is not always easy to distinguish LADA from type 1 or type 2 diabetes.In this study we examined whether metabolite profiling could help to distinguish LADA (N=50) from type 1 (N=50) and type 2 diabetes (N=50).Out of 123 identified metabolites, 99 differed between the diabetes types. However, no unique metabolite profile could be identified for any of the types...
December 2, 2016: Diabetes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913575/lowest-glucose-variability-and-hypoglycemia-are-observed-with-the-combination-of-a-glp-1-receptor-agonist-and-basal-insulin-variation-study
#15
Harpreet S Bajaj, Karri Venn, Chenglin Ye, Avril Patrick, Shivani Kalra, Hasnain Khandwala, Nadeem Aslam, David Twum-Barima, Ronnie Aronson
OBJECTIVE: There is a dearth of published literature comparing glucose variability (GV) between different insulin regimens in type 2 diabetes. This cohort study compares GV using continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) in patients with well-controlled type 2 diabetes using four common insulin regimens: basal insulin + oral drugs (BO), basal insulin + glucagon-like peptide 1 receptor agonist (GLP-1 RA) (BGLP), premixed insulin (PM), and basal-bolus insulin (BB). RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: Consecutive patients from three endocrinology clinics who met study criteria-type 2 diabetes, age 18 to 80 years, BMI ≤ 45 kg/m(2), stable insulin regimen for a minimum of 6 months, and stable A1C value ≤7...
December 2, 2016: Diabetes Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913104/d-ala2-gip-glu-pal-is-neuroprotective-in-a-chronic-parkinson-s-disease-mouse-model-and-increases-bndf-expression-while-reducing-neuroinflammation-and-lipid-peroxidation
#16
Yanwei Li, WeiZhen Liu, Lin Li, Christian Hölscher
Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is a risk factor for Parkinson's disease (PD). Therefore, treatment to improve insulin resistance in T2DM may be useful for PD patients. Glucose dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP) is a member of the incretin hormone family that can promote insulin release and improve insulin resistance. Several GIP analogues have been developed as potential treatments for T2DM. We had shown previously that D-Ala2-GIP-glu-PAL, a novel long-acting GIP analogue, can play a neuroprotective role in the PD mouse model induced by acute MPTP injection...
November 29, 2016: European Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913012/hyperglycemic-high-anion-gap-metabolic-acidosis-in-patients-receiving-sglt-2-inhibitors-for-diabetes-management
#17
Juliette Sandifer Kum-Nji, Aidar R Gosmanov, Helmut Steinberg, Samuel Dagogo-Jack
Sodium-glucose cotransporter-2 inhibitors (SGLT-2i) are a class of antidiabetic medications that improve glycemic control via inhibiting the reabsorption of filtered glucose and are approved for use in type 2 diabetes (T2DM). These drugs have recently been associated with euglycemic diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA). An increasing number of cases of SGLT-2i-associated DKA have occurred in patients with T2DM. Herein, we describe five episodes of hyperglycemic DKA in four type 2 diabetes patients receiving SGLT-2i therapy...
November 9, 2016: Journal of Diabetes and its Complications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27912756/mechanisms-of-inflammatory-responses-and-development-of-insulin-resistance-how-are-they-interlinked
#18
Kanwal Rehman, Muhammad Sajid Hamid Akash
BACKGROUND: Insulin resistance (IR) is one of the major hallmark for pathogenesis and etiology of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). IR is directly interlinked with various inflammatory responses which play crucial role in the development of IR. Inflammatory responses play a crucial role in the pathogenesis and development of IR which is one of the main causative factor for the etiology of T2DM. METHODS: A comprehensive online English literature was searched using various electronic search databases...
December 3, 2016: Journal of Biomedical Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27912129/incidence-of-complications-in-young-onset-diabetes-comparing-type-2-with-type-1-the-young-diab-study
#19
Anandakumar Amutha, Ranjit Mohan Anjana, Ulagamathesan Venkatesan, Harish Ranjani, Ranjit Unnikrishnan, K M Venkat Narayan, Viswanathan Mohan, Mohammed K Ali
BACKGROUND: There is little data on the incidence of diabetes complications in young onset type 1 diabetes (T1DM) and type 2 diabetes (T2DM) in non European populations. METHODS: From a tertiary diabetes centre, Chennai, India, we recruited 108 T1DM (defined by abrupt onset of symptoms or diabetic ketoacidosis, absent insulin reserve requiring insulin treatment) and 90 T2DM participants (defined by absence of ketosis, good beta-cell reserve, and good response to oral agents) who were diagnosed between the ages of 10 and 25years, and without any evidence of diabetes complications at diagnosis...
November 17, 2016: Diabetes Research and Clinical Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911357/characterization-of-metabolic-status-in-nonhuman-primates-with-the-intravenous-glucose-tolerance-test
#20
Michael Staup, George Aoyagi, TeQuana Bayless, Yixin Wang, Keefe Chng
The intravenous glucose tolerance test (IVGTT) plays a key role in the characterization of glucose homeostasis. When taken together with serum biochemical profiles, inclusive of blood glucose levels in both the fed and fasted state, HbA1c, insulin levels, clinical history of diet, body composition, and body weight status, an assessment of normal and abnormal glycemic control can be made. Interpretation of an IVGTT is done through measurement of changes in glucose and insulin levels over time in relation to the dextrose challenge...
November 13, 2016: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
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