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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29052181/probiotic-strains-and-mechanistic-insights-for-the-treatment-of-type-2-diabetes
#1
REVIEW
Christiane S Hampe, Christian L Roth
INTRODUCTION: The intestinal microbial composition appears to differ between healthy controls and individuals with Type 2 diabetes (T2D). This observation has led to the hypothesis that perturbations of the intestinal microbiota may contribute to the development of T2D. Manipulations of the intestinal microbiota may therefore provide a novel approach in the prevention and treatment of T2D. Indeed, fecal transplants have shown promising results in both animal models for obesity and T2D and in human clinical trials...
October 19, 2017: Endocrine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29039071/potential-applications-of-gliclazide-in-treating-type-1-diabetes-mellitus-formulation-with-bile-acids-and-probiotics
#2
Momir Mikov, Maja Đanić, Nebojša Pavlović, Bojan Stanimirov, Svetlana Goločorbin-Kon, Karmen Stankov, Hani Al-Salami
A major advancement in therapy of type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) is the discovery of new treatment which avoids and even replaces the absolute requirement for injected insulin. The need for multiple drug therapy of comorbidities associated with T1DM increases demand for developing novel therapeutic alternatives with new mechanisms of actions. Compared to other sulphonylurea drugs used in the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus, gliclazide exhibits a pleiotropic action outside pancreatic β cells, the so-called extrapancreatic effects, such as antiinflammatory and cellular protective effects, which might be beneficial in the treatment of T1DM...
October 16, 2017: European Journal of Drug Metabolism and Pharmacokinetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29037268/probiotics-prebiotics-synbiotics-and-insulin-sensitivity
#3
Y A Kim, J B Keogh, P M Clifton
Animal studies indicate that the composition of gut microbiota may be involved in the progression of insulin resistance to type 2 diabetes. Probiotics and/or prebiotics could be a promising approach to improve insulin sensitivity by favourably modifying the composition of the gut microbial community, reducing intestinal endotoxin concentrations and decreasing energy harvest. The aim of the present review was to investigate the effects of probiotics, prebiotics and synbiotics (a combination of probiotics and prebiotics) on insulin resistance in human clinical trials and to discuss the potential mechanisms whereby probiotics and prebiotics improve glucose metabolism...
October 17, 2017: Nutrition Research Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29035308/gut-microbiota-and-nonalcoholic-fatty-liver-disease-insights-on-mechanisms-and-therapy
#4
REVIEW
Junli Ma, Qihang Zhou, Houkai Li
The gut microbiota plays critical roles in development of obese-related metabolic diseases such as nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), type 2 diabetes(T2D), and insulin resistance(IR), highlighting the potential of gut microbiota-targeted therapies in these diseases. There are various ways that gut microbiota can be manipulated, including through use of probiotics, prebiotics, synbiotics, antibiotics, and some active components from herbal medicines. In this review, we review the main roles of gut microbiota in mediating the development of NAFLD, and the advances in gut microbiota-targeted therapies for NAFLD in both the experimental and clinical studies, as well as the conclusions on the prospect of gut microbiota-targeted therapies in the future...
October 16, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29022388/our-gut-microbiota-a-long-walk-to-homeostasis
#5
L M T Dicks, J Geldenhuys, L S Mikkelsen, E Brandsborg, H Marcotte
The microbiome of the human gastrointestinal tract (GIT) consists of billions of bacteria, fungi and viruses, of which bacteria play the most important role in nutrition, immune development, production of vitamins and maintaining a well-balanced (homeostatic) microbial population. Many papers have been published on the microbiota in the human GIT, but little is known about the first group of bacteria that colonises an infant. The intestinal tract of an unborn is, despite general belief, not sterile, but contains bacteria that have been transferred from the mother...
October 12, 2017: Beneficial Microbes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28990516/gut-microbiota-as-a-therapeutic-target-for-metabolic-disorders
#6
Hirofumi Okubo, Yusuke Nakatsu, Akifumi Kushiyama, Takeshi Yamamotoya, Yasuka Matsunaga, Masa-Ki Inoue, Midori Fujishiro, Hideaki Sakoda, Haruya Ohno, Masayasu Yoneda, Hiraku Ono, Tomoichiro Asano
The prevalence of metabolic disorders has been rising worldwide, making the identification of factors affecting metabolic control more important than ever. Gut microbiota play a vital role not only in the digestion and absorption of nutrients, but also in homeostatic maintenance of host immunity, metabolism and the gut barrier. It was recently suggested that gut microbiota alterations contribute to the pathogenesis of metabolic disorders such as obesity, diabetes mellitus and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease...
October 9, 2017: Current Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28976454/the-gut-and-its-microbiome-as-related-to-central-nervous-system-functioning-and-psychological-well-being-introduction-to-the-special-issue-of-psychosomatic-medicine
#7
Emeran A Mayer, Elaine Y Hsiao
Accumulating evidence indicates bidirectional associations between the brain and the gut microbiome with both top-down and bottom-up processes. This article describes new developments in brain-gut interactions as an introduction to a special issue of Psychosomatic Medicine, based on a joint symposium of the American Psychosomatic Society and the American Gastroenterological Association. Literature review articles indicate that several psychiatric disorders are associated with altered gut microbiota, whereas evidence linking functional gastrointestinal disorders and dysbiosis has not been firmly established...
October 2017: Psychosomatic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28970836/fructose-a-dietary-sugar-in-crosstalk-with-microbiota-contributing-to-the-development-and-progression-of-non-alcoholic-liver-disease
#8
REVIEW
Jessica Lambertz, Sabine Weiskirchen, Silvano Landert, Ralf Weiskirchen
Fructose is one of the key dietary catalysts in the development of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). NAFLD comprises a complex disease spectrum, including steatosis (fatty liver), non-alcoholic steatohepatitis, hepatocyte injury, inflammation, and fibrosis. It is also the hepatic manifestation of the metabolic syndrome, which covers abdominal obesity, insulin resistance, dyslipidemia, glucose intolerance, or type 2 diabetes mellitus. Commensal bacteria modulate the host immune system, protect against exogenous pathogens, and are gatekeepers in intestinal barrier function and maturation...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28968517/probiotics-modulate-gut-microbiota-and-improve-insulin-sensitivity-in-dio-mice
#9
Renata A Bagarolli, Natália Tobar, Alexandre G Oliveira, Tiago G Araújo, Bruno M Carvalho, Guilherme Z Rocha, Juliana F Vecina, Kelly Calisto, Dioze Guadagnini, Patrícia O Prada, Andrey Santos, Sara T O Saad, Mario J A Saad
Obesity and type 2 diabetes are characterized by subclinical inflammatory process. Changes in composition or modulation of the gut microbiota may play an important role in the obesity-associated inflammatory process. In the current study, we evaluated the effects of probiotics (Lactobacillus rhamnosus, L. acidophilus and Bifidobacterium bifidumi) on gut microbiota, changes in permeability, and insulin sensitivity and signaling in high-fat diet and control animals. More importantly, we investigated the effects of these gut modulations on hypothalamic control of food intake, and insulin and leptin signaling...
August 26, 2017: Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28943765/lactobacillus-acidophilus-ns1-reduces-phosphoenolpyruvate-carboxylase-expression-by-regulating-hnf4%C3%AE-transcriptional-activity
#10
Sung-Soo Park, Garam Yang, Eungseok Kim
Probiotics have been known to reduce high-fat diet (HFD)-induced metabolic diseases, such as obesity, insulin resistance, and type 2 diabetes. We recently observed that Lactobacillus acidophilus NS1 (LNS1), distinctly suppresses increase of blood glucose levels and insulin resistance in HFD-fed mice. In the present study, we demonstrated that oral administration of LNS1 with HFD feeding to mice significantly reduces hepatic expression of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK), a key enzyme in gluconeogenesis which is highly increased by HFD feeding...
2017: Korean Journal for Food Science of Animal Resources
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28942491/modulation-of-type-1-diabetes-risk-by-the-intestinal-microbiome
#11
REVIEW
Mikael Knip, Jarno Honkanen
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The purpose of this review is to summarize potential modulations of the intestinal microbiome aimed at preventing or delaying progression to overt type 1 diabetes in the light of recently identified perturbations of the gut microbiota associated with the development of type 1 diabetes. RECENT FINDINGS: Accumulated data suggest that the gut microbiota is involved at two different steps in the evolution of type 1 diabetes. At the first step, the intestinal tract is colonized by a microbial community unable to provide an adequate education of the immune system...
September 23, 2017: Current Diabetes Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28935921/probiotic-reduces-bacterial-translocation-in-type-2-diabetes-mellitus-a-randomised-controlled-study
#12
Junko Sato, Akio Kanazawa, Kosuke Azuma, Fuki Ikeda, Hiromasa Goto, Koji Komiya, Rei Kanno, Yoshifumi Tamura, Takashi Asahara, Takuya Takahashi, Koji Nomoto, Yuichiro Yamashiro, Hirotaka Watada
Gut bacterial translocation to the blood may play an important role in the development of insulin resistance in type 2 diabetes. Here, we performed an interventional randomised control study to investigate whether probiotics could reduce bacterial translocation and cause changes in the gut microbiota. Seventy Japanese patients with type 2 diabetes were randomised to two groups: the probiotic group drank Lactobacillus casei strain Shirota-fermented milk, while the control group ingested no probiotics. The trial was conducted for 16 weeks...
September 21, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28927313/efficacy-of-probiotic-supplement-for-gestational-diabetes-mellitus-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#13
Jiajia Pan, Qiangwei Pan, Yumei Chen, Hongping Zhang, Xiaodong Zheng
BACKGROUND: Probiotic supplement might be beneficial for gestational diabetes mellitus. However, the results remained controversial. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to explore the efficacy of probiotic supplement in gestational diabetes mellitus. METHODS: PubMed, Embase, Web of science, EBSCO, and Cochrane Library databases were systematically searched. Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) assessing the effect of probiotic supplement in gestational diabetes mellitus were included...
September 19, 2017: Journal of Maternal-fetal & Neonatal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28903972/lactobacillus-the-not-so-friendly-bacteria
#14
Abirami Pararajasingam, Juliet Uwagwu
We present a 65-year-old diabetic patient with a complex liver abscess and bacteraemia from Lactobacillus paracasei The abscess resulted in a prolonged hospital stay due to ongoing sepsis despite ultrasound-guided drainage and broad-spectrum antibiotics. Furthermore, the patient developed several secondary complications including a right-sided pleural effusion, an inferior vena cava thrombus and septic lung emboli. The abscess was eventually managed successfully with a prolonged course of antibiotics and multiple ultrasound-guided drainage procedures...
September 13, 2017: BMJ Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28901336/vitamin-d-and-probiotics-supplement-use-in-young-children-with-genetic-risk-for-type-1-diabetes
#15
J Yang, R N Tamura, U M Uusitalo, C A Aronsson, K Silvis, A Riikonen, N Frank, G Joslowski, C Winkler, J M Norris, S M Virtanen
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Vitamin D and probiotics are nutrients of interest in the context of type 1 diabetes (T1D). We assessed the prevalence of and factors associated with vitamin D and probiotic supplementations among young children with genetic risk of T1D. SUBJECTS/METHODS: Use of supplements during the first 2 years of life was collected prospectively from 8674 children in The Environmental Determinants of Diabetes in the Young (TEDDY) study. RESULTS: Single and/or multivitamin/mineral (MVM) supplements were reported by 81% of the children...
September 13, 2017: European Journal of Clinical Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28884306/probiotic-soy-milk-consumption-and-renal-function-among-type-2-diabetic-patients-with-nephropathy-a-randomized-controlled-clinical-trial
#16
Maryam Miraghajani, Nafiseh Zaghian, Abolfazl Dehkohneh, Maryam Mirlohi, Reza Ghiasvand
Diabetic nephropathy (DN) is one the most important complications of diabetes leading to end-stage renal disease. Dietary approaches have been considered to control of the kidney function deterioration among these patients. The aim of the present study was to determine the effects of fortified soy milk with Lactobacillus plantarum A7 on renal function biomarkers in type 2 DN patients. Forty-eight DN subjects were attended to this parallel randomized trial study. Participants were randomly assigned to consume a diet containing 200 mL/day probiotic soy milk in intervention group or soy milk in the control condition for 8 weeks...
September 8, 2017: Probiotics and Antimicrobial Proteins
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28860611/impact-of-immunosuppression-on-the-metagenomic-composition-of-the-intestinal-microbiome-a-systems-biology-approach-to-post-transplant-diabetes
#17
M Bhat, E Pasini, J Copeland, M Angeli, S Husain, D Kumar, E Renner, A Teterina, J Allard, D S Guttman, A Humar
Solid organ transplantation (SOT) outcomes have continued to improve, although long-term use of immunosuppressants can lead to complications such as diabetes, compromising post-transplant outcomes. In this study, we have characterized the intestinal microbiome (IM) composition at the metagenomic level in the context of hyperglycemia induced by immunosuppressants. Sprague-Dawley rats were subjected to doses of tacrolimus and sirolimus that reliably induce hyperglycemia and an insulin-resistant state. Subsequent exposure to probiotics resulted in reversal of hyperglycemia...
August 31, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28832229/effects-of-polysaccharide-from-physalis-alkekengi-var-francheti-on-liver-injury-and-intestinal-microflora-in-type-2-diabetic-mice
#18
Xin Zhao, Ziyang Chen, Yuling Yin, Xinli Li
CONTEXT: Diabetic liver injury is a serious diabetic complication. The alterations of intestinal microbiota play an important role in induction and promotion of liver injury progression. Physalis alkekengi L. var. francheti (Mast.) Makino (Solanaceae) has been used as a water decoction for treating diabetes. OBJECTIVE: To study the effects of a polysaccharide (PPSB) from Physalis alkekengi var. francheti on liver injury and intestinal microflora in type-2 diabetic mice...
December 2017: Pharmaceutical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28818268/-metformin-resistant-folic-acid-producing-probiotics-or-folic-acid-against-metformin-s-adverse-effects-like-diarrhea
#19
Abdullah Olgun
Metformin, first line medication in the treatment of type2 diabetes by millions of patients worldwide, causes gastrointestinal adverse effects (i.e. diarrhea) in approximately 30% of patients, frequently leading to discontinuation. Interestingly, metformin was reported to increase life span in a microscopic worm, Caenorhabditis elegans, by decreasing folate and methionine production of bacteria that this worm uses as a food source. Metformin can be expected to have a similar effect on some microorganisms of human gut microbiota...
September 2017: Medical Hypotheses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28818264/the-potential-management-of-oral-candidiasis-using-anti-biofilm-therapies
#20
Warren Chanda, Thomson P Joseph, Wendong Wang, Arshad A Padhiar, Mintao Zhong
Candida albicans is a minor component of the oral microbiota and an opportunistic pathogen that takes advantage of the immunocompromised host and causes oral mucositis and oral candidiasis. This organism is able to undergo phenotypic modification from a yeast to hyphae growth phase, one of the key arsenals for immune cell evasion, tissue invasion and biofilm formation. The latter property coupled with overgrowth and immune compromising factors such as HIV/AIDS, cancer treatments, organ transplantation, diabetes, corticosteroid use, dentures, and broad-spectrum antibiotic use have modified the fungus from a normal component of the microflora to a foe of an oral cavity and resulting in reduced sensitivity towards commonly utilised antifungal agents...
September 2017: Medical Hypotheses
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