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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28735484/microsphere-based-assessment-of-dna-methylation-for-aml-prognosis
#1
Gerald B W Wertheim, Marlise R Luskin, Martin Carroll, Stephen R Master
Epigenetic dysregulation, including aberrant methylation of cytosine residues in DNA, is a hallmark of cancer and clearly results in oncogenic cellular alterations such as transcriptional attenuation of tumor suppressors and genomic instability. A number of studies have examined DNA methylation alterations in patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) and have shown that analysis of multilocus methylation patterns can identify biologically distinct AML subclasses and can predict patient prognosis. In order to utilize the prognostic capability of methylation analysis in a clinical setting, we have developed a microsphere-based HpaII tiny fragment enrichment by ligation-mediated PCR (xMELP) assay to interrogate the methylation state of genomic multiple loci along with a random forest-based classification algorithm that correlates DNA methylation status with patient prognosis...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28735230/granulometry-microbial-composition-and-biological-activity-of-dusts-collected-in-french-dairy-farms
#2
Hugo Pfister, Claudie Morzadec, Pierre Le Cann, Laurent Madec, Valérie Lecureur, Martine Chouvet, Stéphane Jouneau, Laurent Vernhet
BACKGROUND: Dairy working increases the prevalence of lower airway respiratory diseases, especially COPD and asthma. Epidemiological studies have reported that chronic inhalation of organic dusts released during specific daily tasks could represent a major risk factor for development of these pathologies in dairy workers. Knowledge on size, nature and biological activity of such organic dusts remain however limited. OBJECTIVE: To compare size distribution, microbial composition and cellular effects of dusts liberated by the spreading of straw bedding in five French dairy farms located in Brittany...
July 20, 2017: Environmental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28735097/protecting-the-heart-through-mk2-modulation-toward-a-role-in-diabetic-cardiomyopathy-and-lipid-metabolism
#3
REVIEW
Matthieu Ruiz, Lise Coderre, Bruce Gordon Allen, Christine Des Rosiers
Various signaling pathways have been identified in the heart as important players during development, physiological adaptation or pathological processes. This includes the MAPK families, particularly p38MAPK, which is involved in several key cellular processes, including differentiation, proliferation, apoptosis, inflammation, metabolism and survival. Disrupted p38MAPK signaling has been associated with several diseases, including cardiovascular diseases (CVD) as well as diabetes and its related complications...
July 19, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28733642/gap-junction-mediated-regulation-of-endothelial-cellular-stiffness
#4
Takayuki Okamoto, Eiji Kawamoto, Yoshimi Takagi, Nobuyuki Akita, Tatsuya Hayashi, Eun Jeong Park, Koji Suzuki, Motomu Shimaoka
Endothelial monolayers have shown the ability to signal each other through gap junctions. Gap junction-mediated cell-cell interactions have been implicated in the modulation of endothelial cell functions during vascular inflammation. Inflammatory mediators alter the mechanical properties of endothelial cells, although the exact role of gap junctions in this process remains unclear. Here, we sought to study the role of gap junctions in the regulation of endothelial stiffness, an important physical feature that is associated with many vascular pathologies...
July 21, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28733588/neurogenesis-from-sox2-expressing-cells-in-the-adult-cerebellar-cortex
#5
Julia Ahlfeld, Severin Filser, Felix Schmidt, Annika K Wefers, Daniel J Merk, Rainer Glaß, Jochen Herms, Ulrich Schüller
We identified a rare undifferentiated cell population that is intermingled with the Bergmann glia of the adult murine cerebellar cortex, expresses the stem cell markers Sox2 and Nestin, and lacks markers of glial or neuronal differentiation. Interestingly, such Sox2(+) S100(-) cells of the adult cerebellum expanded after adequate physiological stimuli in mice (exercise), and Sox2(+) precursors acquired positivity for the neuronal marker NeuN over time and integrated into cellular networks. In human patients, SOX2(+) S100(-) cells similarly increased in number after relevant pathological insults (infarcts), suggesting a similar expansion of cells that lack terminal glial differentiation...
July 21, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28731131/assessment-of-the-antioxidant-activity-of-an-olive-oil-total-polyphenolic-fraction-and-hydroxytyrosol-from-a-greek-olea%C3%A2-europea-variety-in-endothelial-cells-and-myoblasts
#6
Paraskevi Kouka, Alexandros Priftis, Dimitrios Stagos, Apostolis Angelis, Panagiotis Stathopoulos, Nikos Xinos, Alexios-Léandros Skaltsounis, Charalampos Mamoulakis, Aristides M Tsatsakis, Demetrios A Spandidos, Demetrios Kouretas
Olive oil (OO) constitutes the basis of the Mediterranean diet, and it seems that its biophenols, such as hydroxytyrosol (HT) may scavenge free radicals, attracting distinct attention due to their beneficial effects in many pathological conditions, such as cancer. To the best of our knowedge, this is the first study in which the functional properties of an OO total polyphenolic fraction (TPF) and pure HT were examined in order to determine their antioxidant effects at a cellular level in endothelial cells and myoblasts...
July 20, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28730967/microglia-and-astrocytes-in-alzheimer-s-disease-implications-for-therapy
#7
Marc Fakhoury
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a complex neurodegenerative disorder characterized by the progressive loss of neurons, which typically leads to severe impairments in cognitive functions including memory and learning. Key pathological features of this disease include the deposition of highly insoluble amyloid β peptide and the formation of neurofibrillary tangles (NFTs) in the brain. Over the past few years, mounting evidence has implicated sustained glial-mediated inflammation as a major contributor of the neurodegenerative processes and cognitive deficits observed in AD...
July 19, 2017: Current Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28730491/development-of-selected-reaction-monitoring-methods-to-systematically-quantify-kinase-abundance-and-phosphorylation-stoichiometry-in-human-samples
#8
Kirsten Beck, Nathan Camp, Michael Bereman, James Bollinger, Jarrett Egertson, Michael MacCoss, Alejandro Wolf-Yadlin
Protein phosphorylation, one of the most common types of post-translational modifications, is the central regulatory mechanism of cellular signaling networks. In human cells, thousands of proteins are continuously and dynamically phosphorylated and dephosphorylated at specific sites and times in response to external and internal stimuli. Reversible phosphorylation is facilitated by the action of two protein superfamilies: kinases and phosphatases. Kinases play an essential role in almost every relevant physiological process in human cells and their deregulation is linked to pathologies ranging from cancer to autoimmune diseases...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28730486/phosphoproteomic-analysis-of-isolated-mitochondria-in-yeast
#9
Margaux Renvoisé, Ludovic Bonhomme, Marlène Davanture, Michel Zivy, Claire Lemaire
Mitochondria play a central role in cellular energy metabolism and cell death. Deregulation of mitochondrial functions is associated with several human pathologies (neurodegenerative diseases, neuromuscular diseases, type II diabetes, obesity, cancer). The steadily increasing number of identified mitochondrial phosphoproteins, kinases, and phosphatases in recent years suggests that reversible protein phosphorylation plays an important part in the control of mitochondrial processes. In addition, many mitochondrial phosphoproteins probably still remain to be identified, considering that 30% of proteins are expected to be phosphorylated in eukaryotes...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28730470/dissecting-kinase-effector-signaling-using-the-raprtap-methodology
#10
Anne-Marie Ray, Jennifer E Klomp, Kerrie B Collins, Andrei V Karginov
Kinases are involved in a broad spectrum of cell behaviors. A single kinase can interact with different ligands each eliciting a specific cellular response. Dissecting downstream signaling pathways of kinases is a key step to understanding physiological and pathological cell process. However, directing kinase activity to specific substrates remains challenging. Here, we present a new tool to selectively activate a kinase in a specific protein complex in living cells. This technology uses a rapamycin-inducible kinase activation coupled to interaction with FKBP12-binding domain (FRB) tagged protein...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28730272/mitochondria-as-a-target-of-cardioprotection-in-models-of-preconditioning
#11
REVIEW
Magdaléna Jašová, Ivana Kancirová, Iveta Waczulíková, Miroslav Ferko
Over the recent years the view on mitochondria in the heart as a cellular powerhouse providing ATP supply needed to sustain contractile function, basal metabolic processes, and ionic homeostasis has changed radically. At present it is known that dysfunctions of these organelles are essential in the development of a large number of diseases, including cardiovascular diseases. Moreover, mitochondria are considered to be a very promising target of endogenous strategies that are essential in the protection of the myocardium from acute ischemia/reperfusion injury...
July 20, 2017: Journal of Bioenergetics and Biomembranes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28730077/proteomic-profiling-of-early-degenerative-retina-of-rcs-rats
#12
Zhi-Hong Zhu, Yan Fu, Chuan-Huang Weng, Cong-Jian Zhao, Zheng-Qin Yin
AIM: To identify the underlying cellular and molecular changes in retinitis pigmentosa (RP). METHODS: Label-free quantification-based proteomics analysis, with its advantages of being more economic and consisting of simpler procedures, has been used with increasing frequency in modern biological research. Dystrophic RCS rats, the first laboratory animal model for the study of RP, possess a similar pathological course as human beings with the diseases. Thus, we employed a comparative proteomics analysis approach for in-depth proteome profiling of retinas from dystrophic RCS rats and non-dystrophic congenic controls through Linear Trap Quadrupole - orbitrap MS/MS, to identify the significant differentially expressed proteins (DEPs)...
2017: International Journal of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28729293/3d-pseudocontinuous-arterial-spin-labeling-mr-imaging-in-the-preoperative-evaluation-of-gliomas
#13
Q Zeng, B Jiang, F Shi, C Ling, F Dong, J Zhang
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Previous studies showed conflicting results concerning the value of CBF maps obtained from arterial spin-labeling MR imaging in grading gliomas. This study was performed to investigate the effectiveness of CBF maps derived from 3D pseudocontinuous arterial spin-labeling in preoperatively assessing the grade, cellular proliferation, and prognosis of gliomas. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Fifty-eight patients with pathologically confirmed gliomas underwent preoperative 3D pseudocontinuous arterial spin-labeling...
July 20, 2017: AJNR. American Journal of Neuroradiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28729036/molecular-mechanisms-of-renal-aging
#14
REVIEW
Roland Schmitt, Anette Melk
Epidemiologic, clinical, and molecular evidence suggest that aging is a major contributor to the increasing incidence of acute kidney injury and chronic kidney disease. The aging kidney undergoes complex changes that predispose to renal pathology. The underlying molecular mechanisms could be the target of therapeutic strategies in the future. Here, we summarize recent insight into cellular and molecular processes that have been shown to contribute to the renal aging phenotype.The main clinical finding of renal aging is the decrease in glomerular filtration rate, and its structural correlate is the loss of functioning nephrons...
July 17, 2017: Kidney International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28729029/impact-of-micrornas-in-the-cellular-response-to-hypoxia
#15
Thomas Bertero, Roger Rezzonico, Nicolas Pottier, Bernard Mari
In mammalian cells, hypoxia, or inadequate oxygen availability, regulates the expression of a specific set of MicroRNAs (MiRNAs), termed "hypoxamiRs." Over the past 10 years, the appreciation of the importance of hypoxamiRs in regulating the cellular adaptation to hypoxia has grown dramatically. At the cellular level, each hypoxamiR, including the master hypoxamiR MiR-210, can simultaneously regulate expression of multiple target genes in order to fine-tune the adaptive response of cells to hypoxia. This review addresses the complex molecular regulation of MiRNAs in both physiological and pathological conditions of low oxygen adaptation and the multiple functions of hypoxamiRs in various hypoxia-associated biological processes, including apoptosis, survival, proliferation, angiogenesis, inflammation, and metabolism...
2017: International Review of Cell and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28728818/mechanosensitive-piezo-channels-in-the-gastrointestinal-tract
#16
C Alcaino, G Farrugia, A Beyder
Sensation of mechanical forces is critical for normal function of the gastrointestinal (GI) tract and abnormalities in mechanosensation are linked to GI pathologies. In the GI tract there are several mechanosensitive cell types-epithelial enterochromaffin cells, intrinsic and extrinsic enteric neurons, smooth muscle cells and interstitial cells of Cajal. These cells use mechanosensitive ion channels that respond to mechanical forces by altering transmembrane ionic currents in a process called mechanoelectrical coupling...
2017: Current Topics in Membranes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28727777/8-oxoguanine-dna-glycosylase-ogg1-deficiency-elicits-coordinated-changes-in-lipid-and-mitochondrial-metabolism-in-muscle
#17
Vladimir Vartanian, Jana Tumova, Pawel Dobrzyn, Agnieszka Dobrzyn, Yusaku Nakabeppu, R Stephen Lloyd, Harini Sampath
Oxidative stress resulting from endogenous and exogenous sources causes damage to cellular components, including genomic and mitochondrial DNA. Oxidative DNA damage is primarily repaired via the base excision repair pathway that is initiated by DNA glycosylases. 8-oxoguanine DNA glycosylase (OGG1) recognizes and cleaves oxidized and ring-fragmented purines, including 8-oxoguanine, the most commonly formed oxidative DNA lesion. Mice lacking the OGG1 gene product are prone to multiple features of the metabolic syndrome, including high-fat diet-induced obesity, hepatic steatosis, and insulin resistance...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28727426/fully-atomistic-a%C3%AE-40-and-a%C3%AE-42-oligomers-in-water-observation-of-pore-like-conformations
#18
Matthew John Voelker, Bogdan Barz, Brigita Urbanc
Oligomers formed by amyloid β-protein (Aβ) are central to Alzheimer's disease (AD) pathology, yet their structure remains elusive. Of the two predominant Aβ alloforms, Aβ40 and Aβ42, the latter is more strongly associated with AD. Here, we structurally characterized Aβ40 and Aβ42 monomers through pentamers which were converted from previously derived coarse-grained (DMD4B-HYDRA) simulations into all-atom conformations and subjected to explicit-solvent MD. Free energy landscapes revealed that structural differences between Aβ40 and Aβ42 conformations increase with oligomer order up to trimers...
July 20, 2017: Journal of Chemical Theory and Computation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28726665/-about-the-role-of-digestive-tract-decompression-in-patients-with-acute-bowel-obstruction-mistakes-complications-and-their-prevention
#19
V Benedykt
The purpose of the work is improvement in treatment of patients with acute small bowel obstruction by justification for gastrointestinal decompression and different methods of small intestine intubation for effective evacuation of itscontents. We conducted morphological and morphometric study of the small intestine in 53 white rats. It was established that acute small bowel obstruction causes expansion of all parts of small bowel microvasculature with significant lesions of venous structures. We revealed thinning of intestinal muscular layer 2...
June 2017: Georgian Medical News
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28725634/ip3-receptor-mediated-calcium-signaling-and-its-role-in-autophagy-in-cancer
#20
REVIEW
Elzbieta Kania, Gemma Roest, Tim Vervliet, Jan B Parys, Geert Bultynck
Calcium ions (Ca(2+)) play a complex role in orchestrating diverse cellular processes, including cell death and survival. To trigger signaling cascades, intracellular Ca(2+) is shuffled between the cytoplasm and the major Ca(2+) stores, the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), the mitochondria, and the lysosomes. A key role in the control of Ca(2+) signals is attributed to the inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (IP3) receptors (IP3Rs), the main Ca(2+)-release channels in the ER. IP3Rs can transfer Ca(2+) to the mitochondria, thereby not only stimulating core metabolic pathways but also increasing apoptosis sensitivity and inhibiting basal autophagy...
2017: Frontiers in Oncology
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