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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28805820/prostate-cancer-associated-spop-mutations-confer-resistance-to-bet-inhibitors-through-stabilization-of-brd4
#1
Xiangpeng Dai, Wenjian Gan, Xiaoning Li, Shangqian Wang, Wei Zhang, Ling Huang, Shengwu Liu, Qing Zhong, Jianping Guo, Jinfang Zhang, Ting Chen, Kouhei Shimizu, Francisco Beca, Mirjam Blattner, Divya Vasudevan, Dennis L Buckley, Jun Qi, Lorenz Buser, Pengda Liu, Hiroyuki Inuzuka, Andrew H Beck, Liewei Wang, Peter J Wild, Levi A Garraway, Mark A Rubin, Christopher E Barbieri, Kwok-Kin Wong, Senthil K Muthuswamy, Jiaoti Huang, Yu Chen, James E Bradner, Wenyi Wei
The bromodomain and extraterminal (BET) family of proteins comprises four members-BRD2, BRD3, BRD4 and the testis-specific isoform BRDT-that largely function as transcriptional coactivators and play critical roles in various cellular processes, including the cell cycle, apoptosis, migration and invasion. BET proteins enhance the oncogenic functions of major cancer drivers by elevating the expression of these drivers, such as c-Myc in leukemia, or by promoting the transcriptional activities of oncogenic factors, such as AR and ERG in prostate cancer...
August 14, 2017: Nature Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28805642/hytrosaviruses-current-status-and-perspective
#2
REVIEW
Henry M Kariithi, Irene K Meki, Drion G Boucias, Adly Mm Abd-Alla
Salivary gland hytrosaviruses (SGHVs) are entomopathogenic dsDNA, enveloped viruses that replicate in the salivary glands (SGs) of the adult dipterans, Glossina spp (GpSGHV) and Musca domestica (MdSGHV). Although belonging to the same virus family (Hytrosaviridae), SGHVs have distinct morphologies and pathobiologies. Two GpSGHV strains potentially account for the differential pathologies in lab-bred tsetse. New data suggest incorporation of host-derived cellular proteins and lipids into mature SGHVs. In addition to within the SGs, MdSGHV undergoes limited replication in the corpora allata, potentially disrupting hormone biosynthesis, and GpSGHV replicates in the milk glands providing a transmission conduit to progeny tsetse...
August 2017: Current Opinion in Insect Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28805251/wiskott-aldrich-syndrome-protein-emerging-mechanisms-in-immunity
#3
REVIEW
Elizabeth Rivers, Adrian J Thrasher
The Wiskott Aldrich syndrome protein (WASP) participates in innate and adaptive immunity through regulation of actin cytoskeleton-dependent cellular processes, including immune synapse formation, cell signaling, migration and cytokine release. There is also emerging evidence for a direct role in nuclear transcription programmes uncoupled from actin polymerization. A deeper understanding of some of the more complex features of Wiskott Aldrich syndrome (WAS) itself, such as the associated autoimmunity and inflammation, has come from identification of defects in the number and function of anti-inflammatory myeloid cells and regulatory T and B cells, as well as defects in positive and negative B-cell selection...
August 14, 2017: European Journal of Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28804562/premature-exhaustion-of-mesenchymal-stromal-cells-from-myelodysplastic-syndrome-patients
#4
Yanbin Pang, Chengxin Deng, Suxia Geng, Jianyu Weng, Peilong Lai, Pengjun Liao, Lingji Zeng, Zesheng Lu, Jing Zhang, Xin Du
Myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) predominantly occurs in aging people. Over the past decades, the cellular and molecular pathologies of MDS cells have been intensively investigated. However, how the bone marrow stromal niches are altered during MDS development remains elusive. In this study, we attempted to isolate and characterize mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) from 30 MDS patients. We observed that only 9/30 bone marrow aspirations from MDS patients successfully formed a monolayer in vitro, while 17/17 bone marrow aspirations from normal donors (median age 45 years, range: 22-73 years) succeeded in this process...
2017: American Journal of Translational Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28804501/regulatory-role-of-redox-balance-in-determination-of-neural-precursor-cell-fate
#5
REVIEW
Mohamed Ariff Iqbal, Eftekhar Eftekharpour
In 1990s, reports of discovery of a small group of cells capable of proliferation and contribution to formation of new neurons in the central nervous system (CNS) reversed a century-old concept on lack of neurogenesis in the adult mammalian brain. These cells are found in all stages of human life and contribute to normal cellular turnover of the CNS. Therefore, the identity of regulating factors that affect their proliferation and differentiation is a highly noteworthy issue for basic scientists and their clinician counterparts for therapeutic purposes...
2017: Stem Cells International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28803453/repeated-exposure-to-two-stressors-in-sequence-demonstrates-that-corticosterone-and-pvn-interleukin-1%C3%AE-responses-habituate-independently
#6
Dennis F Lovelock, Terrence Deak
A wide range of stress-related pathologies such as post-traumatic stress disorder are thought to arise from aberrant or maladaptive forms of stress adaptation. The hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis readily adapts to repeated stressor exposure, yet little is known about adaptation in neuroimmune responses to repeated or sequential stress challenges. In Experiment 1, rats were exposed to ten days of restraint alone (60 min daily), forced swim alone (30 min daily), or daily sequential exposure to restraint (60 min) followed immediately by forced swim (30 minutes), termed sequential stress exposure...
August 12, 2017: Journal of Neuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28803347/melatonin-mitochondria-and-the-skin
#7
REVIEW
Andrzej T Slominski, Michal A Zmijewski, Igor Semak, Tae-Kang Kim, Zorica Janjetovic, Radomir M Slominski, Jaroslaw W Zmijewski
The skin being a protective barrier between external and internal (body) environments has the sensory and adaptive capacity to maintain local and global body homeostasis in response to noxious factors. An important part of the skin response to stress is its ability for melatonin synthesis and subsequent metabolism through the indolic and kynuric pathways. Indeed, melatonin and its metabolites have emerged as indispensable for physiological skin functions and for effective protection of a cutaneous homeostasis from hostile environmental factors...
August 12, 2017: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences: CMLS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28802884/astrocytes-and-endoplasmic-reticulum-stress-a-bridge-between-obesity-and-neurodegenerative-diseases
#8
REVIEW
Cynthia A Martin-Jiménez, Ángela García-Vega, Ricardo Cabezas, Gjumrakch Aliev, Valentina Echeverria, Janneth González, George E Barreto
Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is a subcellular organelle involved in protein folding and processing. ER stress constitutes a cellular process characterized by accumulation of misfolded proteins, impaired lipid metabolism and induction of inflammatory responses. ER stress has been suggested to be involved in several human pathologies, including neurodegenerative diseases and obesity. Different studies have shown that both neurodegenerative diseases and obesity trigger similar cellular responses to ER stress. Moreover, both diseases are assessed in astrocytes as evidences suggest these cells as key regulators of brain homeostasis...
August 9, 2017: Progress in Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28802667/different-approaches-to-modeling-analysis-of-mitochondrial-swelling
#9
REVIEW
Sabzali Javadov, Xavier Chapa-Dubocq, Vladimir Makarov
Mitochondria are critical players involved in both cell life and death through multiple pathways. Structural integrity, metabolism and function of mitochondria are regulated by matrix volume due to physiological changes of ion homeostasis in cellular cytoplasm and mitochondria. Ca(2+) and K(+) presumably play a critical role in physiological and pathological swelling of mitochondria when increased uptake (influx)/decreased release (efflux) of these ions enhances osmotic pressure accompanied by high water accumulation in the matrix...
August 9, 2017: Mitochondrion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28802492/blue-nevi-and-related-tumors
#10
REVIEW
Artur Zembowicz
The major entities related to blue nevus are common blue nevus, cellular blue nevus, atypical blue nevus, and malignant blue nevus. These lesions share presence of dermal pigmented dendritic melanocytes derived from embryonal precursors to melanocytes, Schwann cells, and glial cells migrating to the skin from the ventral neural crest. Genetically, blue nevi harbor mutations in G-protein-coupled receptor subunits GNAQ and GNA11. Progression to malignant blue nevus is associated with additional mutations and partial gains and losses of chromosomal material...
September 2017: Clinics in Laboratory Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28802038/trem2-maintains-microglial-metabolic-fitness-in-alzheimer-s-disease
#11
Tyler K Ulland, Wilbur M Song, Stanley Ching-Cheng Huang, Jason D Ulrich, Alexey Sergushichev, Wandy L Beatty, Alexander A Loboda, Yingyue Zhou, Nigel J Cairns, Amal Kambal, Ekaterina Loginicheva, Susan Gilfillan, Marina Cella, Herbert W Virgin, Emil R Unanue, Yaming Wang, Maxim N Artyomov, David M Holtzman, Marco Colonna
Elevated risk of developing Alzheimer's disease (AD) is associated with hypomorphic variants of TREM2, a surface receptor required for microglial responses to neurodegeneration, including proliferation, survival, clustering, and phagocytosis. How TREM2 promotes such diverse responses is unknown. Here, we find that microglia in AD patients carrying TREM2 risk variants and TREM2-deficient mice with AD-like pathology have abundant autophagic vesicles, as do TREM2-deficient macrophages under growth-factor limitation or endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress...
August 10, 2017: Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28801931/immunomodulatory-effects-of-adipose-stromal-vascular-fraction-cells-promote-alternative-activation-macrophages-to-repair-tissue-damage
#12
Annie C Bowles, Rachel M Wise, Brittany Y Gerstein, Robert C Thomas, Roberto Ogelman, Isabella Febbo, Bruce A Bunnell
The pathogenesis of many diseases is driven by the interactions between helper T (TH ) cells and macrophages. The phenotypes of these cells are a functional dichotomy that are persuaded according to the surrounding milieu. In both multiple sclerosis (MS) and the experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) model, TH 1 and TH 17 cells propagate autoimmune signaling and inflammation in the peripheral lymphoid tissues. In turn, this pro-inflammatory repertoire promotes the classical activation, formerly the M1-type, macrophages...
August 12, 2017: Stem Cells
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28801915/manganese-and-1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium-mpp-induced-neurotoxicity-indicate-differences-in-morphological-electrophysiological-and-genome-wide-alterations-implications-for-idiopathic-parkinson-s-disease
#13
Rajeswara Babu Mythri, Narayana Reddy Raghunath, Santosh Chandrakant Narwade, Mirazkar DasharathaRao Pandareesh, Kollarkandi Rajesh Sabitha, Mohamad Aiyaz, Bipin Chand, Manas Sule, Krittika Ghosh, Senthil Kumar, Bhagyalakshmi Shankarappa, Soundarya Soundararajan, Phalguni Anand Alladi, Meera Purushottam, Narayanappa Gayathri, Deepti Dileep Deobagkar, Thenkanidiyoor Rao Laxmi, Srinivas Bharath Muchukunte Mukunda
Idiopathic Parkinson's disease (iPD) and manganese-induced atypical Parkinsonism are characterized by movement disorder and nigrostriatal pathology. Although clinical features, brain region involved and responsiveness to levodopa distinguish both, differences at the neuronal level are largely unknown. We studied the morphological, neurophysiological and molecular differences in dopaminergic neurons exposed to the PD toxin 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium ion (MPP(+) ) and manganese (Mn) followed by validation in the 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) and Mn mouse models...
August 12, 2017: Journal of Neurochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28801376/cellular-blue-nevus-of-perilimbal-conjunctiva-a-case-report-and-review-of-literature
#14
Tiangeng He, Chunjie Mao, Dongbo Xu, Hua Yan
Cellular blue nevus is an uncommon neoplasm in the conjunctiva. Here we present an unusual case of a cellular blue nevus that clinically resembled conjunctival melanoma. A 29-year-old Chinese male was found to have a giant pigmented lesion of the conjunctiva around the limbal area of right eye from birth. Excisional biopsy with no-touch technique, lamellar corneal transplantation, amniotic membrane transplantation and adjuvant cryotherapy were performed. Histopathology revealed a nodular, well-defined tumor, which was composed of heavily pigmented dendritic cells and less pigmented spindle cells...
August 2017: Annals of Clinical and Laboratory Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28801366/fullerenes-may-cause-eif-mediated-perturbation-in-translational-machinery-evidence-from-in-silico-analysis
#15
Sumbul Firdaus, Anupam Dhasmana, Mohd Wahid, Arshad Jawed, Raju K Mandal, Sajad A Dar, Mohammed Y Areeshi, Mohtashim Lohani, Shafiul Haque
GOALS: Fullerenes have tremendous potential for human biological studies which may further lead to their therapeutic applications. Hence, it has become necessary to explore the possibility of their interference with various important cellular processes. The current study was designed to explore how the presence of fullerenes can affect the binding of DNA with different enzymes and factors involved in transcription and translation process. METHODS: Various bioinformatics approaches and software programs were used to study the effect of fullerenes on the binding pattern of DNA with different enzymes and factors involved in transcription and translation process...
August 2017: Annals of Clinical and Laboratory Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28800930/fashioning-blood-vessels-by-ros-signalling-and-metabolism
#16
REVIEW
Massimo M Santoro
Formation and maturation of a functional vascular network is a process called angiogenesis. This is a crucial biological event in all vertebrates. Precise morphogenetic and cellular mechanisms act in endothelial cells (ECs) to drive angiogenesis during growth and throughout adulthood. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) and their metabolism are proving to be crucial participants in the shaping and stabilizing of blood vessels. Often, the same mechanisms are responsible for the insurgence of vascular-associated pathologies...
August 8, 2017: Seminars in Cell & Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28800777/bortezomib-treatment-induces-a-higher-mortality-rate-in-lupus-model-mice-with-a-higher-disease-activity
#17
Tomoko Ikeda, Hiroshi Fujii, Masato Nose, Yukiko Kamogawa, Tsuyoshi Shirai, Yuko Shirota, Tomonori Ishii, Hideo Harigae
BACKGROUND: Bortezomib (Bz) is a proteasome inhibitor that directly targets antibody-producing plasma cells. We recently reported the first randomized control trial that evaluated the effects of Bz in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). In that study, we demonstrated that Bz treatment is associated with many adverse reactions in patients with refractory disease. In the present study, we examine the therapeutic and toxic effects of Bz on MRL/MpJ-lpr/lpr (MRL/lpr) mice with severe disease activity...
August 11, 2017: Arthritis Research & Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28800482/targeting-phenotypic-heterogeneity-in-benign-prostatic-hyperplasia
#18
REVIEW
Douglas W Strand, Daniel N Costa, Franto Francis, William A Ricke, Claus G Roehrborn
Benign prostatic hyperplasia and associated lower urinary tract symptoms remain difficult to treat medically, resulting in hundreds of thousands of surgeries performed annually in elderly males. New therapies have not improved clinical outcomes since alpha blockers and 5 alpha reductase inhibitors were introduced in the 1990s. An underappreciated confounder to identifying novel targets is pathological heterogeneity. Individual patients display unique phenotypes, composed of distinct cell types. We have yet to develop a cellular or molecular understanding of these unique phenotypes, which has led to failure in developing targeted therapies for personalized medicine...
August 4, 2017: Differentiation; Research in Biological Diversity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28800366/proceedings-of-the-isev-symposium-on-hiv-neuroaids-drug-abuse-evs
#19
Guoku Hu, Kenneth W Witwer, Vincent C Bond, Norman Haughey, Fatah Kashanchi, Lynn Pulliam, Shilpa Buch
Extracellular vesicles (EVs) are globular, membrane bound nanovesicles (30-100 nm range) that are shed both during normal cellular functioning and under pathological conditions by most cell types. In recent years, there has been significant interest in the study of these vesicles as conduits for the delivery of information between cells from both analogous and disparate tissues. Their ability to carry specialised cargo including signalling mediators, proteins, messenger RNA and miRNAs characterises these vesicles as primary facilitators of cell-to-cell communication and regulation...
2017: Journal of Extracellular Vesicles
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28800207/optically-derived-metabolic-and-hemodynamic-parameters-predict-hippocampal-neurogenesis-in-the-btbr-mouse-model-of-autism
#20
David Abookasis, Danit Lerman, Hava Roth, Mati Tfilin, Gadi Turgeman
In the present study, we made use of dual-wavelength laser speckle imaging (DW-LSI) to assess cerebral blood flow in the BTBR genetic mouse model of Autism Spectrum Disorder, as well as control (C57Bl/6J) mice. Since the deficits in social behavior demonstrated by BTBR mice are attributed to changes in neural tissue structure and function, we postulated that these changes can be detected optically using DW-LSI. BTBR mice demonstrated reductions in both cerebral blood flow (CBF) and cerebral oxygen metabolism (CMRO2 ), as suggested by studies using conventional neuroimaging technologies to reflect impaired neuronal activation and cognitive function...
August 11, 2017: Journal of Biophotonics
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