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Probiotic microbiota

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28318296/administration-of-lactobacillus-johnsonii-fi9785-to-chickens-affects-colonisation-by-campylobacter-jejuni-and-the-intestinal-microbiota
#1
R Mañes-Lázaro, P M Van Diemen, C Pin, M J Mayer, M P Stevens, A Narbad
1. Campylobacter jejuni is the most common bacterial cause of human foodborne gastroenteritis in the world largely from contaminated poultry meat. New control measures to reduce or eliminate this pathogen from the animal gastrointestinal tract are urgently required, and the use of probiotics as competitive exclusion agents is a promising biocontrol measure to reduce C. jejuni in the food chain. 2. In this study, we assessed the potential of Lactobacillus johnsonii FI9785, which has shown efficacy against Clostridium perfringens, to combat C...
March 20, 2017: British Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28317737/identification-of-the-key-excreted-molecule-by-lactobacillus-fermentum-related-to-host-iron-absorption
#2
Ana González, Natividad Gálvez, Jesús Martín, Fernando Reyes, Ignacio Pérez-Victoria, Jose M Dominguez-Vera
We have taken a vital step towards understanding why probiotic bacteria increase iron absorption in the gastrointestinal tract. We show here that Lactobacillus fermentum, one of the main probiotics of the microbiota, exhibits an extraordinary ferric-reducing activity. This activity is predominantly due to an excreted molecule: p-hydroxyphenyllactic acid (HPLA). Reduction of Fe(III) to Fe(II) is essential for iron absorption in the gastrointestinal tract. By reducing Fe(III), HPLA boosts Fe(II) absorption through the DMT1 channels of enterocytes...
August 1, 2017: Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28316009/safety-assessment-of-commensal-enterococci-from-dogs
#3
Ivana Kubašová, Viola Strompfová, Andrea Lauková
Enterococci form a complex, diverse, and very important group of bacteria from the technological and food safety aspect, or from the health-improving aspect as probiotics. Generally, enterococci are considered to be of low pathogenic potential, which is associated mostly with clinical strains. In these strains, production of virulence factors as well as resistance to many antimicrobial drugs could complicate treatment of nosocomial infections. Because there is a lack of information on incidence of these attributes in animal commensal enterococci, we screened 160 strains originating from feces of clinically healthy dogs in Eastern Slovakia (n = 105)...
March 18, 2017: Folia Microbiologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28315049/antihypertensive-effects-of-probiotics
#4
REVIEW
Iñaki Robles-Vera, Marta Toral, Miguel Romero, Rosario Jiménez, Manuel Sánchez, Francisco Pérez-Vizcaíno, Juan Duarte
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The present review focuses in the hypertension-associated changes in the microbiota and the current insights regarding the impact of probiotics on blood pressure in animal models and in human hypertensive patients. RECENT FINDINGS: Gut dysbiosis in hypertension is characterized by (i) the gut microbioma that is less diverse and less rich with an increased Firmicutes/Bacteroidetes ratio and (ii) a decrease in acetate- and butyrate-producing bacteria and an increase in lactate-producing bacterial populations...
April 2017: Current Hypertension Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28300682/intestinal-transcriptome-modulation-by-functional-diets-in-rainbow-trout-a-high-throughput-sequencing-appraisal-to-highlight-galt-immunomodulation
#5
Ana Teresa Gonçalves, Valentina Valenzuela-Muñoz, Cristian Gallardo-Escárate
Functional ingredients such as pre- and probiotics are used in aquaculture to improve fish condition, modulating microbiota and promoting a healthy intestinal functioning. They also exert an active effect on the gut associated lymphoid tissue (GALT), stimulating the immune system. However, the molecular underpinnings of pre- and probiotics effect on intestinal mucosa are still unknown. This study investigated the intestinal mucosa transcriptome modulation when fish were fed functional diets and kept at different stocking densities...
March 11, 2017: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28293937/gut-microbiota-and-inflammatory-bowel-disease-an-update
#6
Grainne Holleran, Loris R Lopetuso, Gianluca Ianiro, Silvia Pecere, Marco Pizzoferrato, Valentina Petito, Cristina Graziani, Deirdre Mc Namara, Antonio Gasbarrini, Franco Scaldaferri
Major advances have occurred in the knowledge of the pathogenesis of Inflammatory Bowel Disease (IBD) over the last decade, and perhaps the most major, and clinically advantageous of these advances has been the discovery of the microbiome as a key multifaceted component of inflammation. The Gut microbiome is the largest known group of cells in the body, and is now recognised as an organ in its own right. Initial studies looking at a possible role of bacterial manipulation of the immune system in IBD, looked at identifying a specific bacterial species, and were not representative of a feasible model of inflammation in IBD overall...
March 14, 2017: Minerva Gastroenterologica e Dietologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28293920/the-intriguing-link-between-the-intestinal-microbiota-and-cardiovascular-disease
#7
Giuseppe Lippi, Elisa Danese, Camilla Mattiuzzi, Emmanuel J Favaloro
Human microbiota is a term conventionally used to define the normal flora of microbes living in all of us, most of which are resident in the gastrointestinal tract. Despite it having been known for some time that the vast majority of intestinal bacteria exert a strong influence on human life, recent technologic breakthroughs have made it possible to more accurately characterize the host microbial communities and explore their relationship with many human diseases. Notably, the evidence accumulated over the past 10 years suggests that a reasonable relationship can now be established between gut microbiota composition and the risk of cardiovascular disease...
March 14, 2017: Seminars in Thrombosis and Hemostasis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28291971/can-gut-microbes-play-a-role-in-mental-disorders-and-their-treatment
#8
Klara Latalova, Miroslav Hajda, Jan Prasko
The gut microbes, collectively called microbiota, are linked to the brain through a bidirectional system that involves the vagus nerve, the immune system, and various neurotransmitters. Stress response, memory functions, social behavior, and mood are modulated by microbiota. Furthermore, microbiota play a role in the development of the central nervous system. These features, established largely in rodent studies, have informed hypotheses about the role of microbiota in human psychiatric disorders. Microbiota affect phenomena that are known to be parts of the depression phenotype, such as exaggerated response to stress and inflammatory features...
March 2017: Psychiatria Danubina
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28289278/cafeteria-diet-and-probiotic-therapy-cross-talk-among-memory-neuroplasticity-serotonin-receptors-and-gut-microbiota-in-the-rat
#9
J E Beilharz, N O Kaakoush, J Maniam, M J Morris
The western diet is known to have detrimental effects on cognition and the gut microbiota, but few studies have investigated how these may be related. Here, we examined whether a probiotic could prevent diet-induced memory deficits. Rats were pre-exposed to vehicle, low or high doses of VSL#3 for 2 weeks before half were switched from chow to a cafeteria diet (Caf) for 25 days; VSL#3 treatment continued until death. High-dose VSL#3 prevented the diet-induced memory deficits on the hippocampal-dependent place task, but the probiotic caused deficits on the perirhinal-dependent object task, irrespective of diet or dose...
March 14, 2017: Molecular Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28286571/we-are-not-alone-a-case-for-the-human-microbiome-in-extra-intestinal-diseases
#10
EDITORIAL
S Shivaji
BACKGROUND: "Dysbiosis" in the gut microbiome has been implicated in auto-immune diseases, in inflammatory diseases, in some cancers and mental disorders. The challenge is to unravel the cellular and molecular basis of dysbiosis so as to understand the disease manifestation. MAIN BODY: Next generation sequencing and genome enabled technologies have led to the establishment of the composition of gut microbiomes and established that "dysbiosis" is the cause of several diseases...
2017: Gut Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28286497/fine-flounder-paralichthys-adspersus-microbiome-showed-important-differences-between-wild-and-reared-specimens
#11
Carolina Ramírez, Jaime Romero
The intestinal microbiota is involved in a wide range of biological processes that benefit the host, including providing nutrition and modulating the immune system. Fine flounder (Paralichthys adspersus) is a flatfish of commercial interest that is native to the Chilean coast. The high value of this flatfish has prompted the development of stock enhancement and aquaculture activities. Knowledge of microbiota may help to improve the cultivation of this species; however, few comparative studies have evaluated the intestinal microbiota composition in farmed versus wild fishes...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28280022/complete-genome-sequence-of-bifidobacterium-longum-w11-lmg-p-21586-used-as-a-probiotic-strain
#12
Rosanna Inturri, Marco Ventura, Patricia Ruas-Madiedo, Gabriele Andrea Lugli, Giovanna Blandino
We report the complete genome sequence of Bifidobacterium longum W11 (LMG P-21586) isolated from the intestinal microbiota of a healthy man. The analysis of the sequence may provide insights into the microbiological characteristics and the functional activity of this probiotic strain.
March 9, 2017: Genome Announcements
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28279152/the-altered-gut-microbiota-in-adults-with-cystic-fibrosis
#13
D G Burke, F Fouhy, M J Harrison, M C Rea, P D Cotter, O O'Sullivan, C Stanton, C Hill, F Shanahan, B J Plant, R P Ross
BACKGROUND: Cystic Fibrosis (CF) is an autosomal recessive disease that affects the function of a number of organs, principally the lungs, but also the gastrointestinal tract. The manifestations of cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) dysfunction in the gastrointestinal tract, as well as frequent antibiotic exposure, undoubtedly disrupts the gut microbiota. To analyse the effects of CF and its management on the microbiome, we compared the gut microbiota of 43 individuals with CF during a period of stability, to that of 69 non-CF controls using 454-pyrosequencing of the 16S rRNA gene...
March 9, 2017: BMC Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28271466/intestinal-microbiota-in-type-2-diabetes-and-chronic-kidney-disease
#14
REVIEW
Alice Sabatino, Giuseppe Regolisti, Carmela Cosola, Loreto Gesualdo, Enrico Fiaccadori
PURPOSE OF THE REVIEW: Diabetes mellitus is a major cause of kidney disease [chronic kidney disease (CKD) and end-stage renal disease (ESRD)] and are both characterized by an increased risk of cardiovascular events. Diabetes and kidney disease are also commonly associated with a chronic inflammatory state, which is now considered a non-traditional risk factor for atherosclerosis. In the case of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), inflammation is mainly a consequence of visceral obesity, while in the case of CKD or ESRD patients on dialysis, inflammation is caused by multiple factors, classically grouped as dialysis-related and non-dialysis-related...
March 2017: Current Diabetes Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28270247/gut-brain-actions-underlying-comorbid-anxiety-and-depression-associated-with-inflammatory-bowel-disease
#15
Áine Abautret-Daly, Elaine Dempsey, Adolfo Parra-Blanco, Carlos Medina, Andrew Harkin
Introduction Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is a chronic relapsing and remitting disorder characterised by inflammation of the gastrointestinal tract. There is a growing consensus that IBD is associated with anxiety- and depression-related symptoms. Psychological symptoms appear to be more prevalent during active disease states with no difference in prevalence between Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis. Behavioural disturbances including anxiety- and depression-like symptoms have also been observed in animal models of IBD...
March 8, 2017: Acta Neuropsychiatrica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28259042/probiotic-treatment-reduces-depressive-like-behaviour-in-rats-independently-of-diet
#16
Anders Abildgaard, Betina Elfving, Marianne Hokland, Gregers Wegener, Sten Lund
The gut microbiota has recently emerged as an important regulator of brain physiology and behaviour in animals, and ingestion of certain bacteria (probiotics) therefore appear to be a potential treatment for major depressive disorder (MDD). However, some conceptual and mechanistical aspects need further elucidation. We therefore aimed at investigating whether the habitual diet may interact with the effect of probiotics on depression-related behaviour and further examined some potentially involved mechanisms underlying the microbe-mediated behavioural effects...
February 16, 2017: Psychoneuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28256031/microbiome-dynamic-modulation-through-functional-diets-based-on-pre-and-probiotics-mannan-oligosaccharides-and-saccharomyces-cerevisiae-in-juvenile-rainbow-trout-oncorhynchus-mykiss
#17
Ana Teresa Gonçalves, Cristian Gallardo-Escárate
AIMS: This study used high-throughput sequencing to evaluate the intestinal microbiome dynamics in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) fed commercial diets supplemented with either pre- or probiotics (0.6% mannan-oligosaccharides and 0.5% Saccharomyces cerevisiae respectively) or the mixture of both. METHODS AND RESULTS: A total of 57 fish whole intestinal mucosa and contents bacterial communities were characterized by high-throughput sequencing and analysis of the V3-V4 region of the 16S rRNA gene, as well as the relationship between plasma biochemical health indicators and microbiome diversity...
March 3, 2017: Journal of Applied Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28254498/effects-of-tussah-immunoreactive-substances-on-growth-immunity-disease-resistance-against-vibrio-splendidus-and-gut-microbiota-profile-of-apostichopus-japonicus
#18
Shuhui Ma, Yongxin Sun, Fuqiang Wang, Rui Mi, Zhixin Wen, Xuejun Li, Nan Meng, Yajie Li, Xingfan Du, Shuying Li
Tussah immunoreactive substance (TIS) comprises a number of active chemicals with various bioactivities. The current study investigated the effects of these substances on the sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus. The specific growth rate (SGR) of TIS-fed sea cucumbers was significantly enhanced, whereas no significant difference in SGR was observed between those soaked in antibiotics and those fed with basal diet only. TIS also improved the immune response of the animals when given at a dose of 1.0% or 2.0%, as shown by increased phagocytic, lysozyme, superoxide dismutase, alkaline phosphatase, acid phosphatase, and catalase activities following injection with live Vibrio splendidus...
February 27, 2017: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28252966/metabolic-in-vivo-labeling-highlights-differences-of-metabolically-active-microbes-from-the-mucosal-gastrointestinal-microbiome-between-high-fat-and-normal-chow-diet
#19
Andreas Oberbach, Sven-Bastiaan Haange, Nadine Schlichting, Marco Heinrich, Stefanie Lehmann, Holger Till, Floor Hugenholtz, Yvonne Kullnick, Hauke Smidt, Karin Frank, Jana Seifert, Nico Jehmlich, Martin von Bergen
The gastrointestinal microbiota in the gut interacts metabolically and immunologically with the host tissue in the contact zone of the mucus layer. For understanding the details of these interactions and especially their dynamics it is crucial to identify the metabolically active subset of the microbiome. This became possible by the development of stable isotope probing techniques, which have only sparsely been applied to microbiome research. We applied the in vivo stable isotope approach using (15)N-labeled diet with subsequent identification of metabolically active bacterial species...
March 21, 2017: Journal of Proteome Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28252037/a-proliferative-probiotic-bifidobacterium-strain-in-the-gut-ameliorates-progression-of-metabolic-disorders-via-microbiota-modulation-and-acetate-elevation
#20
Ryo Aoki, Kohei Kamikado, Wataru Suda, Hiroshi Takii, Yumiko Mikami, Natsuki Suganuma, Masahira Hattori, Yasuhiro Koga
The gut microbiota is an important contributor to the worldwide prevalence of metabolic syndrome (MS), which includes obesity and diabetes. The anti-MS effects exerted by Bifidobacterium animalis ssp. lactis GCL2505 (BlaG), a highly proliferative Bifidobacterium strain in the gut, and B. longum ssp. longum JCM1217(T) (BloJ) were comparatively examined. BlaG treatment reduced visceral fat accumulation and improved glucose tolerance, whereas BloJ had no effect on these parameters. Gut microbial analysis revealed that BlaG exerted stronger effects on the overall bacterial structure of the gut microbiota than BloJ, including enrichment of the genus Bifidobacterium...
March 2, 2017: Scientific Reports
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