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(anesth* OR anaesth*) AND review

Márcio Alexandre Terra Passos, Pedro Eder Portari-Filho
Background: Elective laparoscopic cholecystectomy has very low risk for infectious complications, ranging the infection rate from 0.4% to 1.1%. Many surgeons still use routine antibiotic prophylaxis. Aim: Evaluate the real impact of antibiotic prophylaxis in elective laparoscopic cholecystectomies in low risk patients. Method: Prospective, randomized and double-blind study. Were evaluated 100 patients that underwent elective laparoscopic cholecystectomy divided in two groups: group A (n=50), patients that received prophylaxis using intravenous Cephazolin (2 g) during anesthetic induction and group B (n=50), patients that didn't receive any antibiotic prophylaxis...
July 2016: Arquivos Brasileiros de Cirurgia Digestiva: ABCD, Brazilian Archives of Digestive Surgery
Herbert H Dedo
The tools described in this article are verified to be Greco-Roman medical and surgical instruments for the eye, ear, nose, and throat. They include three myrtle leaf-shaped scalpels, three ear spoons, a "Q-tip," a forceps, a needle, and two arrow-pointed scalpels. One of the arrow-pointed scalpels is nearly identical to a Juerger keratome, suggesting that in Roman times, cataracts were extracted, not just "couched" into the posterior chamber. The description presented here goes beyond traditional archeological claims, because as a head and neck surgeon, I evaluated these instruments from a surgeon's point of view...
October 18, 2016: Laryngoscope
James K Hamill, Jamie-Lee Rahiri, Gamage Gunaratna, Andrew G Hill
BACKGROUND: No enhanced recovery after surgery protocol has been published for laparoscopic appendectomy. This was a review of evidence-based interventions that could optimize recovery after appendectomy. METHODS: Interventions for the review Clinical pathway, fast-track or enhanced recovery protocols; needlescopic approach; single incision laparoscopic (SIL) approach; natural orifice transluminal endoscopic surgery (NOTES); regional nerve blocks; intraperitoneal local anaesthetic (IPLA); drains...
October 17, 2016: Surgical Endoscopy
Laszlo Vutskits, Zhongcong Xie
General anaesthesia is usually considered to safely induce a reversible brain state allowing the performance of surgery under optimal conditions. An increasing number of clinical and experimental observations, however, suggest that anaesthetic drugs, especially when they are administered at the extremes of age, can trigger long-term morphological and functional alterations in the brain. Here, we review available mechanistic data linking general-anaesthesia exposure to impaired cognitive performance in both young and mature nervous systems...
October 18, 2016: Nature Reviews. Neuroscience
Eunchai Kang, Daniel A Berg, Orion Furmanski, William M Jackson, Yun Kyoung Ryu, Christy D Gray, C David Mintz
The mechanism by which anesthetics might act on the developing brain in order to cause long term deficits remains incompletely understood. The hippocampus has been identified as a structure that is likely to be involved, as rodent models show numerous deficits in behavioral tasks of learning that are hippocampal-dependent. The hippocampus is an unusual structure in that it is the site of large amounts of neurogenesis postnatally, particularly in the first year of life in humans, and these newly generated neurons are critical to the function of this structure...
October 14, 2016: Neurotoxicology and Teratology
Pedro Llinares, Isabel Ruiz, Rafael Zaragoza, Ricard Ferrer, Alejandro H Rodríguez, Emilio Maseda, Santiago Grau
BACKGROUND: Although in the past decade the management of invasive fungal infections has improved, a number of controversies persist regarding empirical antifungal treatment in critically-ill hematology patients. AIMS: To identify key clinical knowledge to elaborate a set of recommendations, with a high level of consensus, necessary for the approach to fungal infections in critically-ill hematology patients. METHODS: A Spanish prospective questionnaire, which measures consensus through the Delphi technique, was anonymously answered and e-mailed by 30 multidisciplinary national experts, all specialists in fungal invasive infections from six scientific national societies; intensivists, anesthesiologists, microbiologists, pharmacologists and specialists in infectious diseases...
October 14, 2016: Revista Iberoamericana de Micología
Eugene T H Ek, Sophia K Paul, Robert N Hotchkiss
BACKGROUND: The role of elbow contracture release in the very young is unclear, with existing studies reporting conflicting results. This study evaluated the long-term results after open elbow contracture release in patients aged younger than 18 years. METHODS: Between 1994 and 2012, 32 patients underwent open elbow contracture release at a mean age of 13.8 years (range, 5-18 years), and their outcomes were reviewed. The primary cause was traumatic in 30 patients (4 radial head/neck fractures, 5 intra-articular distal humeral fractures, 11 extra-articular distal humeral fractures, 10 complex fracture-dislocations), and the mean time from the index injury to contracture release was 16...
October 14, 2016: Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery
Quraish Ghadiali, Larissa K Ghadiali, William M Schiff, Jeffrey G Odel
PURPOSE: To report a case series of two patients with contralateral anesthesia after retrobulbar block. METHODS: Retrospective review of two cases and review of the literature. RESULTS: Two patients of one practitioner received contralateral anesthesia after retrobulbar block for posterior segment surgery. Patient 1 suffered from transient contralateral akinesia, whereas Patient 2 experienced transient contralateral amaurosis. CONCLUSION: Posterior spread of anesthetics is a rare but potentially serious complication of retrobulbar anesthesia caused by spread of anesthetics along the optic nerve sheath...
October 5, 2016: Retinal Cases & Brief Reports
Brian M Ilfeld
A continuous peripheral nerve block (CPNB) consists of a percutaneously inserted catheter with its tip adjacent to a target nerve/plexus through which local anesthetic may be administered, providing a prolonged block that may be titrated to the desired effect. In the decades after its first report in 1946, a plethora of data relating to CPNB was published, much of which was examined in a 2011 Anesthesia & Analgesia article. The current update is an evidence-based review of the CPNB literature published in the interim...
October 3, 2016: Anesthesia and Analgesia
Dafna Willner, Valeria Spennati, Shelly Stohl, Giulia Tosti, Simone Aloisio, Federico Bilotta
Spine surgery has been growing rapidly as a neurosurgical operation, with an increase of 220% over a 15-year period. Intraoperative blood transfusion is a major outcome determinant of spine procedures. Various approaches, including pharmacologic and nonpharmacologic therapies, have been tested to decrease both intraoperative and postoperative blood loss. The aim of this systematic review is to report clinical evidence on the relationship between intraoperative blood loss (primary outcome) and on transfusion requirements and postoperative complications (secondary outcomes) in patients undergoing spine surgery...
October 3, 2016: Anesthesia and Analgesia
Sofia Geralemou, Tong J Gan
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Postoperative and postdischarge nausea and vomiting have profound impact on the efficient delivery of quality healthcare. In addition to patient dissatisfaction, physical morbidities as well as unplanned hospital admissions may result. It is important to risk stratify and intervene on patients at risk. The aim of this review is to explore the benefits and shortcomings of the scoring systems commonly used today. RECENT FINDINGS: Two widely-used risk stratification systems identify and score patient-, anesthesia-, and surgery-related risk factors for postoperative/postdischarge nausea and vomiting in the adult population...
September 29, 2016: Current Opinion in Anaesthesiology
Michael H Andreae, Arthur Atchabahian, Aileen M McCrillis, Jerry Y Chao, Suzuko Suzuki, Shlomo Shinnar, Charles B Hall, Richard B Lipton
This is the protocol for a review and there is no abstract. The objectives are as follows: The objective of this review is to compare the effects of regional versus general anaesthesia on cognitive function after procedures other than cardiac surgery or neurosurgery in adult and in paediatric patients.
2016: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
S Parthasarathy, R Sripriya, N Krishnaveni
Intestinal obstruction is associated with significant morbidity and mortality. Scientific assessment of the cause, site of obstruction, appropriate correction of the fluid deficit and electrolyte imbalance with preoperative stabilization of blood gases is ideal as a preoperative workup. Placement of a preoperative epidural catheter especially in the thoracic interspace takes care of perioperative pain and stress reduction. Intraoperative management by controlled general anesthesia administering a relative high inspired fraction of oxygen with invasive monitoring in selected sick cases is mandatory...
September 2016: Anesthesia, Essays and Researches
Safiya Imtiaz Shaikh, D Nagarekha, Ganapati Hegade, M Marutheesh
Postoperative nausea and vomiting (PONV) is one of the complex and significant problems in anesthesia practice, with growing trend toward ambulatory and day care surgeries. This review focuses on pathophysiology, pharmacological prophylaxis, and rescue therapy for PONV. We searched the Medline and PubMed database for articles published in English from 1991 to 2014 while writing this review using "postoperative nausea and vomiting, PONV, nausea-vomiting, PONV prophylaxis, and rescue" as keywords. PONV is influenced by multiple factors which are related to the patient, surgery, and pre-, intra-, and post-operative anesthesia factors...
September 2016: Anesthesia, Essays and Researches
Alireza Daneshkazemi, Seyyed Mohammad Abrisham, Pedram Daneshkazemi, Amin Davoudi
Dental pain management is one of the most critical aspects of modern dentistry which might affect patient's quality of life. Several methods are suggested to provide a painless situation for patients. Desensitization of the oral site using topical anesthetics is one of those methods. The improvements of topical anesthetic agents are probably one of the most important advances in dental science in the past 100 years. Most of them are safe and can be applied on oral mucosa with minimal irritation and allergic reactions...
September 2016: Anesthesia, Essays and Researches
Emily J MacKay, Prakash A Patel, Jacob T Gutsche, Stuart J Weiss, John G Augoustides
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 28, 2016: Journal of Cardiothoracic and Vascular Anesthesia
Nitesh Patel, Ayesha Bryant, Kensi Duncan, Promil Kukreja, Mark F Powell
PURPOSE: Intrathecal morphine provides superior pain control for patients undergoing cesarean delivery when compared to intravenous opioid patient-controlled analgesia. However, no study has assessed the overall cost associated with each modality as a primary outcome. The aim of this study is to determine the overall cost of each modality for the first 24 h post cesarean delivery. METHODS: Charts of patients undergoing cesarean delivery at our institution from January 1, 2014 to December 31, 2014 were reviewed...
October 14, 2016: Journal of Anesthesia
P Taura, G Martinez-Palli, A Blasi, E Rivas, J Beltran, J Balust
Liver transplantation (LT) offers patients with liver disease a real chance for long-term survival. In the past decade, successful survival after LT along with the Model for End-Stage Liver Disease-based allocation policy have increased willingness to accept patients with a higher risk profile and marginal organs and to prioritize the sickest patients on the waiting list. Therefore, the anesthesiologist now deals with very challenging patients. In the present review, we aimed to highlight key aspects of intraoperative LT management in high-risk patients and to place these aspects in the perspective of their impact on perioperative outcomes...
September 2016: Transplantation Proceedings
Wei-Chen Lin, Chen-Wang Chang, Cheng-Hsin Chu
Emergency cholecystectomy for acute cholecystitis (AC) is associated with high morbidity and mortality rates in elderly patients with significant comorbidities. The aim of this study was to evaluate percutaneous cholecystostomy for AC in elderly patients with various coexisting diseases. We retrospectively reviewed the records of 4311 patients with AC treated in Mackay Memorial Hospital between the years 2000 and 2015. The clinical course of AC was compared between nonelderly (age ≤70 years) and elderly patients (age>70 years)...
October 2016: Kaohsiung Journal of Medical Sciences
Hannah A Blair, James E Frampton
Methoxyflurane (Penthrox(®)) is a halogenated ether first used clinically as a volatile inhalational anaesthetic. It has been used as an analgesic in Australia and New Zealand for the past 30 years. In the UK and Europe, methoxyflurane has been approved for the emergency relief of moderate to severe trauma pain in conscious adult patients. Methoxyflurane is self-administered using a hand-held inhaler. This article reviews the pharmacological properties of methoxyflurane and its clinical efficacy and tolerability in these patients...
October 13, 2016: Clinical Drug Investigation
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