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gun shot

Matthieu Picher, Kerstin Bücker, Thomas LaGrange, Florian Banhart
We implement a parametric study with single electron pulses having a 7 ns duration to find the optimal conditions for imaging, diffraction, and electron energy-loss spectroscopy (EELS) in the single-shot approach. Photoelectron pulses are generated by illuminating a flat tantalum cathode with 213 nm nanosecond laser pulses in a 200 kV transmission electron microscope (TEM) with thermionic gun and Wehnelt electrode. For the first time, an EEL spectrometer is used to measure the energy distribution of single nanosecond electron pulses which is crucial for understanding the ideal imaging conditions of the single-shot approach...
March 13, 2018: Ultramicroscopy
Thomas Kamphausen, Katharina Janßen, Sibylle Banaschak, Markus Alexander Rothschild
From time to time, severe or fatal injuries caused by small caliber air rifle projectiles are seen. In forensic sciences, the theoretical wounding potential of these weapons and projectiles is widely known. Usually, shots against the skull were reported and, in these cases, penetrating the eyes or thin bone layers of the temporal region. Amongst a huge number of different projectiles available for air guns, sub-caliber 4.4-mm (.173) caliber steel ball projectiles were used in an unusual suicide case. This case led to fundamental questions concerning wound ballistics...
March 6, 2018: International Journal of Legal Medicine
David M Sipe, Alexander A Aksenov, Logan D Plath, Jonathan S Feldman, Mark E Bier
The characterization of nanomaterials is critical to understand the size/structure dependent properties of these particles. In this report, a form of heavy ion mass spectrometry (HIMS), namely, superconducting tunnel junction (STJ) cryodetection mass spectrometry (MS) is used to characterize quantum dot semiconductor nanocrystals and gold nanoparticles. The nanoparticles studied ranged in mass from 200 kDa to > 1.5 MDa and included lead sulfide quantum dots, various cadmium-selenide and/or -telluride based core-shell quantum dots coated with different ligands, and gold nanoparticles...
February 26, 2018: ACS Nano
Christopher S Koper, William D Johnson, Kenneth Stesin, Jeffery Egge
Laws restricting large ammunition magazines for semiautomatic weapons are intended to reduce firearm deaths and injuries by preventing gun attacks involving high numbers of shots. However, data on shootings from high-volume gunfire (HVG) incidents are extremely limited. This study examined gunshot victimisations resulting from HVG attacks (>10 shots fired) using police data on shootings in Minneapolis, Minnesota from January through August 2014 (n=135 to 167). Shots fired estimates were generated from police reports based on physical evidence recovered, reported gunshot victims, and accounts of witnesses and actors...
February 24, 2018: Injury Prevention: Journal of the International Society for Child and Adolescent Injury Prevention
Steffan Edward Octávio Oliveira, Neville George Gregory, Filipe Antonio Dalla Costa, Troy John Gibson, Osmar Antonio Dalla Costa, Mateus José Rodrigues Paranhos da Costa
This study assessed the effectiveness of penetrating (PCB; 190 psi; N = 363) and non-penetrating captive bolt guns (NPCB; 210-220 psi; N = 92) to stun a total of 455 cattle (Zebu and Zebu Cross). Physical bolt parameters (momentum, kinetic energy and energy density) were evaluated. Clinical indicators of brain function were recorded after stunning (GR), after being hoisted (HO) and at the bleeding rail (BL). Physical bolt parameters (bolt velocity, momentum, kinetic energy, energy density and sectional density) were significantly higher (P < 0...
February 15, 2018: Meat Science
Eddie Garcia, Abdul H Zaid, Diane P Calello, Lisa McHugh, Grant Arzumanov, Najaf Asrar, Ari Sapin, Kristin G Fless
BACKGROUND: Botulism is a paralytic disease caused by the neurotoxin produced by Clostridium botulinum. The majority of cases are due to ingestion or injection drug use. Wound botulism from traumatic injury is exceedingly rare, with only one to two cases reported each year in the United States. CASE REPORT: A 27-year-old man presented to the Emergency Department with diplopia, dysphagia, and progressive weakness 10 days after sustaining a gunshot wound to his right lower leg...
February 12, 2018: Journal of Emergency Medicine
Marios Hadjipavlou, Edmund Grouse, Robert Gray, Denosshan Sri, Dean Huang, Christian Brown, Davendra Sharma
OBJECTIVES: To present our series of patients with penetrating renal trauma treated at two urban major trauma centres and to discuss the contemporary management of such injuries. METHODS: We reviewed prospective urological trauma databases for all patients presenting with penetrating renal trauma between January 2005 and October 2016. Patient demographics, clinical characteristics, imaging, management and follow-up data were analysed. RESULTS: Over the 11-year period, 63 patients presented with penetrating renal injuries...
February 13, 2018: BJU International
Ryan Powers, Stephen Hurley, Edward Park, Brian McArdle, Patricia Vidal, Sarah P Psutka, Courtney M P Hollowell
PURPOSE: Scrotal Gunshot Wound (SGSW) may result in testicular injury, necessitating urgent scrotal exploration and attempted testicular salvage. Scrotal Ultrasound (SUS) is highly sensitive and specific for testicular rupture in the setting of blunt scrotal trauma but is poorly studied in the setting of SGSW. This study's objective was to determine the accuracy of SUS in the identification of testicular rupture following SGSW. METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed patients with SGSW from 2003-2014 with preoperative US prior to scrotal exploration...
January 29, 2018: Journal of Urology
Jae Pil Lee, Yoon A Kim, Sung Kyum Kim, Hoon Kim
An endo-β-1,4-glucanase gene, cel9K, was cloned using the shot-gun method from Paenibacillus sp. X4, which was isolated from alpine soil. The gene was 2,994 bp in length, encoding a protein of 997 amino acid residues with a predicted signal peptide composed of 32 amino acid residues. Cel9K was a multimodular enzyme, and the molecular mass and theoretical pI of the mature Cel9K were 103.5 kDa and 4.81, respectively. Cel9K contains the GGxxDAGD, PHHR, GAxxGG, YxDDI, and EVxxDYN motifs found in most glycoside hydrolase family 9 (GH9)...
February 1, 2018: Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology
Nachiket P Marathe, Anders Janzon, Stathis D Kotsakis, Carl-Fredrik Flach, Mohammad Razavi, Fanny Berglund, Erik Kristiansson, D G Joakim Larsson
Evolution has provided environmental bacteria with a plethora of genes that give resistance to antibiotic compounds. Under anthropogenic selection pressures, some of these genes are believed to be recruited over time into pathogens by horizontal gene transfer. River sediment polluted with fluoroquinolones and other drugs discharged from bulk drug production in India constitute an environment with unprecedented, long-term antibiotic selection pressures. It is therefore plausible that previously unknown resistance genes have evolved and/or are promoted here...
January 6, 2018: Environment International
Jesse J Helton, Tatiana Gochez-Kerr
Although most child welfare placements receive a rigorous assessment and ongoing safety monitoring, it is still unclear which is safest in terms of physical abuse. Our goals for this study were to assess the relative risk of physical assault for different child welfare placements in a national sample of youth and examine that risk within placement types for children with various levels of behavioral problems. Unlike previous studies of assault prevalence, we constrained our analysis to youth self-reports of assaults within a current placement to increase validity...
October 1, 2017: Journal of Interpersonal Violence
Heike Schmitt, Ariane Roemer, Carsten Zeilinger, Rolf Salcher, Martin Durisin, Hinrich Staecker, Thomas Lenarz, Athanasia Warnecke
OBJECTIVE: Biomarkers reflecting the etiology and pathophysiology of inner ear diseases are limited. Evaluation of proteins in the perilymph may improve our understanding of inner ear disease. Heat shock proteins (HSP) belong to a superfamily of stress proteins and promote refolding of denatured proteins. The aim of the study was to analyze HSP in human perilymph and to identify possible correlation with audiological and etiologic data. METHODS: Sampling of the perilymph was performed during cochlear implantation and vestibular schwannoma removal...
January 2018: Otology & Neurotology
Seth C Taylor, Elena F Kranioti
Gun violence is a global phenomenon with regional variation in frequency and severity. Handguns are often used in violent deaths such as suicides and homicides. Hence, ballistic trauma is a critical subject of forensic investigations. Trauma patterns are fundamental evidence for the reconstruction of the incident and for the determination of the manner of death. This study investigated the differences in trauma patterns with a series of experiments using six different calibers (.22 LR, .38 Special, .380 ACP, 9×19mm, ...
January 2018: Forensic Science International
Anuradha Ravi, Lorena Valdés-Varela, Miguel Gueimonde, Knut Rudi
Conjugative plasmids represent major reservoirs for horizontal transmission of antibiotic resistance (AR) and virulence genes. Our knowledge about the ecology and persistence of these plasmids in the gut microbiota remains limited. The IncF plasmids are the most widespread in clinical samples and in healthy humans. Therefore, the main aim is to study their ecology and association with the developing gut microbiota. Using a longitudinal (2, 10, 30 and 90 days) cohort of full-term infants, we investigated the transmission and persistence of IncFIA and IncFIB plasmids...
November 17, 2017: FEMS Microbiology Ecology
T J Gibson, C B Rebelo, T A Gowers, N M Chancellor
1. The aim of this study was to evaluate the electroencephalographic (EEG) and behavioural responses of turkeys stunned with three different concussive non-penetrative captive-bolt guns prior to slaughter. 2. Thirty-one slaughter weight ex-breeding female turkeys (29 weeks of age; mean body weight 13.32 ± SD 0.65 kg) were stunned with the Cash Poultry Killer (CPK) (n=10), Turkey Euthanasia Device (TED) (n=10) and Zephyr EXL (n=11). 3. Mean peak kinetic energy was highest for the CPK compared to the TED and Zephyr EXL (75...
November 3, 2017: British Poultry Science
Roger W Byard, Damian McDonald
Ben Hall was a nineteenth-century Australian bushranger (outlaw) who was shot and killed by colonial police on May 5 1865. Popular belief is that Hall was shot while sleeping in his camp bedding. This contrasts with the official police version of Hall being shot while attempting to escape by running away. To evaluate this divergence of opinion a study of the gun belt allegedly worn by Hall at the time of his fatal shooting was undertaken. This revealed a nineteenth-century belt with a defect corresponding to an oblique bullet hole...
October 30, 2017: Forensic Science, Medicine, and Pathology
Kate B Savoie, Thomas M Beazley, Brent Cleveland, Sina Khaneki, Troy A Markel, Peter M Hammer, Stephanie Savage, Regan F Williams
BACKGROUND: With changing weaponry associated with injuries in civilian trauma, there is no clinical census on the utility of presacral drainage (PSD) in penetrating rectal injuries (PRIs), particularly in pediatric patients. METHODS: Patients with PRI from July 2004-June 2014 treated at two free-standing children's hospitals and two adult level 1 trauma centers were compared by age (pediatric patients ≤16 years) and PSD. A stratified analysis was performed based on age...
November 2017: Journal of Surgical Research
Roger W Byard, Adam Ford, Tony Raymond, Jeremy J Sofonia, Owen Kaluza, David G Barnes
A gunfight between police and a gang of men led by the self-styled "Captain Moonlite", a.k.a. George Scott, occurred on 16th November 1879 at a farmhouse near Wantabadgery Station in the colony of New South Wales. The skirmish resulted in the deaths of two bushrangers and one police officer. As a result, Captain Moonlite and Thomas Rogan were hung in Sydney's Darlinghurst Gaol on 20 January 1880 for the murder of Constable Edward Webb-Bowen. Culpability for firing the fatal shot, however, has remained a source of controversy...
October 23, 2017: Forensic Science, Medicine, and Pathology
Yiying Liu, Guoquan Yan, Mingxia Gao, Xiangmin Zhang
A novel method to characterize cell surface proteins and complexes has been developed. Polydopamine (PDA)-encapsulated Hela cells were prepared for plasma membrane proteome research. Since the PDA protection, the encapsulated cells could be maintained for more than two weeks. Amino groups functionalized magnetic nanoparticles were also used for cell capture by the reaction with the PDA coatings. Plasma membrane fragments were isolated and enriched with assistance of an external magnetic field after disruption of the coated cells by ultrasonic treatment...
October 16, 2017: Journal of Proteomics
Francesca Ingravallo, Carlos H Schenck, Ernesto D'Aloja, Monica Puligheddu
PURPOSE: We report a case of firing a loaded gun during sleep in a geriatric patient with undiagnosed major sleep disorders and multiple risk factors for sleep violence. Polysomnographic findings, diagnostic challenges, and forensic implications in this unprecedented geriatric case are discussed. METHODS: A 75-year-old employed man, married for 32 years, presented to a sleep center reporting to having fired a shot in his bedroom during sleep while his wife was away, without memory of hearing the gunshot...
October 16, 2017: Sleep & Breathing, Schlaf & Atmung
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