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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28823074/single-anastomosis-duodeno-ileal-switch-sadis-a-systematic-review-of-efficacy-and-safety
#1
Saeed Shoar, Lauren Poliakin, Rebecca Rubenstein, Alan A Saber
BACKGROUND: Owing to the possibility of weight regain after the long-term follow-up of gastric bypass patients and because of the high morbidity of biliopancreatic diversion with duodenal switch, single-anastomosis duodeno-ileal switch (SADIS) has emerged as a rescue procedure in bariatric surgery. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this review is to summarize the literature data on SADIS. SETTING: University Hospital, NY. METHODS: A comprehensive literature review was performed through October 2016 to identify English studies on SADIS performed in human subjects...
August 19, 2017: Obesity Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28823056/exploiting-non-canonical-translation-to-identify-new-targets-for-t-cell-based-cancer-immunotherapy
#2
REVIEW
Céline M Laumont, Claude Perreault
Cryptic MHC I-associated peptides (MAPs) are produced via two mechanisms: translation of protein-coding genes in non-canonical reading frames and translation of allegedly non-coding sequences. In general, cryptic MAPs are coded by relatively short open reading frames whose translation can be regulated at the level of initiation, elongation or termination. In contrast to conventional MAPs, the processing of cryptic MAPs is frequently proteasome independent. The existence of cryptic MAPs derived from allegedly non-coding regions enlarges the scope of CD8 T cell immunosurveillance from a mere ~2% to as much as ~75% of the human genome...
August 19, 2017: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences: CMLS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28822962/glucose-transporter-4-glut4-deficient-hearts-develop-maladaptive-hypertrophy-in-response-to-physiologic-or-pathologic-stresses
#3
Adam Raymond Wende, Jaetaek Kim, William Holland, Benjamin E Wayment, Brian T O'Neill, Joseph Tuinei, Manoja K Brahma, Mark E Pepin, Mark A McCrory, Ivan Luptak, Ganesh V Halade, Sheldon E Litwin, E Dale Abel
Pathological cardiac hypertrophy may be associated with reduced expression of the GLUT4 glucose transporter in contrast to exercise-induced cardiac hypertrophy, where GLUT4 levels are increased. However, mice with cardiac specific deletion of GLUT4 (G4H-/-) have normal cardiac function in the unstressed state. This study tested the hypothesis that cardiac GLUT4 is required for myocardial adaptations to hemodynamic demands. G4H-/- and control littermates (Con) were subjected to either a pathological model of left ventricular pressure overload (transverse aortic constriction; TAC) or a physiological model of endurance exercise (swim training)...
August 19, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Heart and Circulatory Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28822907/leaf-carbohydrates-influence-transcriptional-and-post-transcriptional-regulation-of-nocturnal-carboxylation-and-starch-degradation-in-the-facultative-cam-plant-mesembryanthemum-crystallinum
#4
Tahar Taybi, John C Cushman, Anne M Borland
Nocturnal degradation of transitory starch is a limiting factor for the optimal function of crassulacean acid metabolism and must be coordinated with phosphoenolypyruvate carboxylase (PEPC)-mediated CO2 uptake to optimise carbon gain over the diel cycle. The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that nocturnal carboxylation is coordinated with starch degradation in CAM via a mechanism whereby the products of these pathways regulate diel transcript abundance and enzyme activities for both processes. To test this hypothesis, a starch and CAM-deficient mutant of Mesembryanthemum crystallinum was compared with wild type plants under well-watered and saline (CAM-inducing) conditions...
August 5, 2017: Journal of Plant Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28822890/production-of-a-novel-monoclonal-antibody-applicable-for-an-immunochromatographic-assay-for-kudoa-septempunctata-spores-contaminating-the-raw-olive-flounder-paralichthys-olivaceus
#5
Michio Jinnai, Takao Kawai, Tetsuya Harada, Yasutaka Nishiyama, Hiroshi Yokoyama, Sho Shirakashi, Hiroshi Sato, Junko Sakata, Yuko Kumeda, Yutaka Fukuda, Kikuyo Ogata, Kentaro Kawatsu
Kudoa septempunctata, a myxosporean parasite of the olive flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus), causes foodborne gastroenteritis after ingestion of contaminated raw flounder. Available methods to detect K. septempunctata require expensive equipment, well-trained personnel, and lengthy procedures. Here we generated a novel monoclonal antibody (MAb 15G11) against K. septempunctata and used it to produce a prototype immunochromatographic assay (prototype Kudoa-ICA). Within 15min, the prototype Kudoa-ICA detected ≥1...
August 9, 2017: International Journal of Food Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28822812/determinants-of-thermostability-in-the-cytochrome-p450-fold
#6
REVIEW
Kurt L Harris, Raine E S Thomson, Silja J Strohmaier, Yosephine Gumulya, Elizabeth M J Gillam
Cytochromes P450 are found throughout the biosphere in a wide range of environments, serving a multitude of physiological functions. The ubiquity of the P450 fold suggests that it has been co-opted by evolution many times, and likely presents a useful compromise between structural stability and conformational flexibility. The diversity of substrates metabolized and reactions catalyzed by P450s makes them attractive starting materials for use as biocatalysts of commercially useful reactions. However, process conditions impose different requirements on enzymes to those in which they have evolved naturally...
August 16, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28822805/mg53-is-dispensable-for-t-tubule-maturation-but-critical-for-maintaining-t-tubule-integrity-following-cardiac-stress
#7
Caimei Zhang, Biyi Chen, Yihui Wang, Ang Guo, Yiqun Tang, Tahsin Khataei, Yun Shi, William J Kutschke, Kathy Zimmerman, Robert M Weiss, Jie Liu, Christopher J Benson, Jiang Hong, Jianjie Ma, Long-Sheng Song
The cardiac transverse (T)-tubule membrane system is the safeguard for cardiac function and undergoes dramatic remodeling in response to cardiac stress. However, the mechanism by which cardiomyocytes repair damaged T-tubule network remains unclear. In the present study, we tested the hypothesis that MG53, a muscle-specific membrane repair protein, antagonizes T-tubule damage to protect against maladaptive remodeling and thereby loss of excitation-contraction coupling and cardiac function. Using MG53-knockout (MG53-KO) mice, we first established that deficiency of MG53 had no impact on maturation of the T-tubule network in developing hearts...
August 16, 2017: Journal of Molecular and Cellular Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28822768/functional-dissection-and-transport-mechanism-of-magnesium-in-plants
#8
REVIEW
Zhi Chang Chen, Wen Ting Peng, Jian Li, Hong Liao
Magnesium (Mg) is the second most abundant cation in plants, and, as such, is involved in numerous physiological and biochemical processes, including photosynthesis, enzyme activation, and synthesis of nucleic acids and proteins. Due to its relatively small ionic radius and large hydrated radius, Mg binds weakly to soil and root surfaces, and thereby is easily leached from soil. Mg deficiency not only affects crop productivity and quality, but also contributes to numerous chronic human diseases. Therefore, Mg nutrition in plants is an important issue in nutrition and food security...
August 16, 2017: Seminars in Cell & Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28822725/berberine-modulates-amyloid-%C3%AE-peptide-generation-by-activating-amp-activated-protein-kinase
#9
Haijing Zhang, Chunhui Zhao, Guoqiong Cao, Limin Guo, Shuai Zhang, Yuexia Liang, Chunxia Qin, Ping Su, Hang Li, Wensheng Zhang
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is an age-related neurodegenerative disorder characterized by memory deficits and cognitive decline. Excessive amyloid-β (Aβ) peptide aggregates and forms soluble oligomers and insoluble cerebral amyloid plaques, which is widely thought to be the underlying pathogenic mechanism of AD. Therefore, effective regulation of Aβ metabolism is an important aspect of preventing and improving AD. Berberine, which is the main active component of the traditional medicinal herb Coptidis rhizoma, has a positive effect on reducing Aβ levels...
August 16, 2017: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28822552/consequences-of-dietary-energy-source-and-energy-level-on-energy-balance-lactogenic-hormones-and-lactation-curve-characteristics-of-cows-after-a-short-or-omitted-dry-period
#10
R J van Hoeij, J Dijkstra, R M Bruckmaier, J J Gross, T J G M Lam, G J Remmelink, B Kemp, A T M van Knegsel
Omitting the dry period (DP) generally reduces milk production in the subsequent lactation. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of dietary energy source-glucogenic (G) or lipogenic (L)-and energy level-standard (std) or low-on milk production; energy balance (EB); lactogenic hormones insulin, insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1), and growth hormone (GH); and lactation curve characteristics between wk 1 and 44 postpartum in cows after a 0-d or 30-d DP. Cows (n = 110) were assigned randomly to 3 transition treatments: a 30-d DP with a standard energy level required for expected milk yield [30-d DP(std)], a 0-d DP with the same energy level as cows with a 30-d DP [0-d DP(std)], and a 0-d DP with a low energy level [0-d DP(low)]...
August 16, 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28822127/in-vitro-analysis-of-metabolite-transport-proteins
#11
Marc-Sven Roell, Franziska Kuhnert, Shirin Zamani-Nour, Andreas P M Weber
The photorespiratory cycle is distributed over four cellular compartments, the chloroplast, peroxisomes, cytoplasm, and mitochondria. Shuttling of photorespiratory intermediates between these compartments is essential to maintain the function of photorespiration. Specific transport proteins mediate the transport across biological membranes and represent important components of the cellular metabolism. Although significant progress was made in the last years on identifying and characterizing new transport proteins, the overall picture of intracellular metabolite transporters is still rather incomplete...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28822116/interactions-between-variation-in-candidate-genes-and-environmental-factors-in-the-etiology-of-schizophrenia-and-bipolar-disorder-a-systematic-review
#12
REVIEW
Błażej Misiak, Filip Stramecki, Łukasz Gawęda, Katarzyna Prochwicz, Maria M Sąsiadek, Ahmed A Moustafa, Dorota Frydecka
Schizophrenia and bipolar disorder (BD) are complex and multidimensional disorders with high heritability rates. The contribution of genetic factors to the etiology of these disorders is increasingly being recognized as the action of multiple risk variants with small effect sizes, which might explain only a minor part of susceptibility. On the other site, numerous environmental factors have been found to play an important role in their causality. Therefore, in recent years, several studies focused on gene × environment interactions that are believed to bridge the gap between genetic underpinnings and environmental insults...
August 18, 2017: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28822114/glycosylation-of-dentin-matrix-protein-1-is-a-novel-key-element-for-astrocyte-maturation-and-bbb-integrity
#13
Bo Jing, Chunxue Zhang, Xianjun Liu, Liqiang Zhou, Jiping Liu, Yinan Yao, Juehua Yu, Yuteng Weng, Min Pan, Jie Liu, Zuolin Wang, Yao Sun, Yi Eve Sun
The blood-brain barrier (BBB) is a tight boundary formed between endothelial cells and astrocytes, which separates and protects brain from most pathogens as well as neural toxins in circulation. However, detailed molecular players involved in formation of BBB are not completely known. Dentin matrix protein 1 (DMP1)-proteoglycan (PG), which is known to be involved in mineralization of bones and dentin, is also expressed in soft tissues including brain with unknown functions. In the present study, we reported that DMP1-PG was expressed in brain astrocytes and enriched in BBB units...
August 18, 2017: Protein & Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28822027/impact-of-orientation-and-flexibility-of-peptide-linkers-on-t-maritima-lipase-tm1350-displayed-on-bacillus-subtilis-spores-surface-using-cotb-as-fusion-partner
#14
Jawad Ullah, Huayou Chen, Ake Vastermark, Jinru Jia, Bangguo Wu, Zhong Ni, Yilin Le, Hongcheng Wang
Fusion protein construction often requires peptide linkers for prolonged conformation, extended stability and enzyme activity. In this study a series of fusion between Thermotoga maritima lipase Tm1350 and Bacillus subtillis coat protein CotB, comprising of several peptide linkers, with different length, flexibility and orientations were constructed. Effects of temperature, pH and chemicals were examined, on the activity of displayed enzyme. The fusion protein with longer flexible linkers L9 [(GGGGS)4] and L7 (GGGGS-GGGGS-EAAAK-EAAAK-GGGGS-GGGGS) possess 1...
August 18, 2017: World Journal of Microbiology & Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28822006/long-term-outcomes-of-adalimumab-treatment-in-254-patients-with-crohn-s-disease-a-hospital-based-cohort-study-from-korea
#15
Hyungil Seo, Byong Duk Ye, Eun Mi Song, Sun-Ho Lee, Kiju Chang, Ho-Su Lee, Sung Wook Hwang, Sang Hyoung Park, Dong-Hoon Yang, Kyung-Jo Kim, Jeong-Sik Byeon, Seung-Jae Myung, Suk-Kyun Yang
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Large-scale studies regarding the long-term outcomes of adalimumab (ADA) treatment in Asian patients with Crohn's disease (CD) are still scarce. METHODS: We retrospectively analyzed the long-term outcomes of ADA treatment in Korean CD patients who commenced on scheduled ADA treatment at Asan Medical Center between November 2008 and July 2016. Clinical response was defined as maintaining ADA treatment without dose intensification (DI) and/or major abdominal surgery (MAS)...
August 18, 2017: Digestive Diseases and Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821985/impact-of-processing-methods-on-urinary-biomarkers-analysis-in-neonates
#16
Michelle C Starr, David J Askenazi, Stuart L Goldstein, James W MacDonald, Theo K Bammler, Zahra Afsharinejad, Patrick D Brophy, Sandra E Juul, Dennis E Mayock, Sangeeta R Hingorani
BACKGROUND: In neonates, the validation of urinary biomarkers to diagnose acute kidney injury is a rapidly evolving field. The neonatal population poses unique challenges when assessing the collection, storage, and processing of urinary samples for biomarker analysis. Given this, establishing optimal and consistent sample processing in this population for meaningful use in ongoing clinical trials is important. METHODS: Urine from a cohort of 19 hospitalized neonatal intensive care unit patients enrolled in the Preterm Erythropoietin Neuroprotection Trial (Clinical Trial NCT01378273) was collected for biomarker analysis by indirect techniques using Fisher-brand cotton balls placed in the diapers...
August 19, 2017: Pediatric Nephrology: Journal of the International Pediatric Nephrology Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821943/xcc2366-a-gene-encoding-a-putative-tetr-family-transcriptional-regulator-is-required-for-acriflavin-resistance-and-virulence-of-xanthomonas-campestris-pv-campestris
#17
Chao-Tsai Liao, Hsueh-Hsia Lo, Weng-Ting Peng, Wan-Ling Song, Shin-Chiao Du, Yi-Min Hsiao
Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris (Xcc) is the phytopathogen that causes black rot disease in cruciferous plants. The XCC2366 gene product is annotated as a protein belonging to the TetR family of transcriptional regulators. In this study, we evaluated the function and expression of the XCC2366 gene. Mutational analysis demonstrated that XCC2366 is involved in the resistance to acriflavin and is necessary for virulence in Xcc. In addition, the XCC2366 transcription initiation site was mapped at nucleotide A, 63 nucleotide upstream of the XCC2366 translation start codon...
August 18, 2017: Current Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821818/an-essential-role-for-tagln2-in-phagocytosis-of-lipopolysaccharide-activated-macrophages
#18
Hye-Ran Kim, Hyun-Su Lee, Kyung-Sik Lee, In Duk Jung, Min-Sung Kwon, Chang-Hyun Kim, Seong-Min Kim, Myung-Han Yoon, Yeong-Min Park, Sang-Myeong Lee, Chang-Duk Jun
Activated macrophages have a greater ability of phagocytosis against pathogens that is mediated by large-scale actin rearrangement. However, molecular machineries that conduct this task have not been fully identified. Here, we demonstrate an unanticipated role of TAGLN2, a 22-kDa actin-binding protein, in Toll-like receptor (TLR)-stimulated phagocytosis. TAGLN2 was greatly induced in macrophages in response to lipopolysaccharide (LPS), a ligand for TLR4, partly via the NF-κB pathway. TAGLN2-deficient macrophages (TAGLN2 (-/-)) showed defective phagocytic functions of IgM- and IgG-coated sheep red blood cells as well as bacteria...
August 18, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821738/directly-monitor-protein-rearrangement-on-a-nanosecond-to-millisecond-time-scale
#19
Eric H-L Chen, Tony T-Y Lu, Jack C-C Hsu, Yufeng Jane Tseng, T-S Lim, Rita P-Y Chen
In order to directly observe the refolding kinetics from a partially misfolded state to a native state in the bottom of the protein-folding funnel, we used a "caging" strategy to trap the β-sheet structure of ubiquitin in a misfolded conformation. We used molecular dynamics simulation to generate the cage-induced, misfolded structure and compared the structure of the misfolded ubiquitin with native ubiquitin. Using laser flash irradiation, the cage can be cleaved from the misfolded structure within one nanosecond, and we monitored the refolding kinetics of ubiquitin from this misfolded state to the native state by photoacoustic calorimetry and photothermal beam deflection techniques on nanosecond to millisecond timescales...
August 18, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821724/atg4-proteolytic-activity-can-be-inhibited-by-atg1-phosphorylation
#20
Jana Sánchez-Wandelmer, Franziska Kriegenburg, Sabrina Rohringer, Martina Schuschnig, Rubén Gómez-Sánchez, Bettina Zens, Susana Abreu, Ralph Hardenberg, David Hollenstein, Jieqiong Gao, Christian Ungermann, Sascha Martens, Claudine Kraft, Fulvio Reggiori
The biogenesis of autophagosomes depends on the conjugation of Atg8-like proteins with phosphatidylethanolamine. Atg8 processing by the cysteine protease Atg4 is required for its covalent linkage to phosphatidylethanolamine, but it is also necessary for Atg8 deconjugation from this lipid to release it from membranes. How these two cleavage steps are coordinated is unknown. Here we show that phosphorylation by Atg1 inhibits Atg4 function, an event that appears to exclusively occur at the site of autophagosome biogenesis...
August 18, 2017: Nature Communications
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