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yolk sac, fetal heart, in the first trimester

Graham J Burton, Eric Jauniaux
The placenta is the largest fetal organ, and toward the end of pregnancy the umbilical circulation receives at least 40% of the biventricular cardiac output. It is not surprising, therefore, that there are likely to be close haemodynamic links between the development of the placenta and the fetal heart. Development of the placenta is precocious, and in advance of that of the fetus. The placenta undergoes considerable remodeling at the end of the first trimester of pregnancy, and its vasculature is capable of adapting to environmental conditions and to variations in the blood supply received from the mother...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
Mamta Rath Datta, Ankush Raut
OBJECTIVE: To assess first-trimester ultrasound measurements for the prediction of early spontaneous abortion. METHODS: In a prospective observational study in Jamshedpur, India, women with singleton pregnancies of 42-76 days were enrolled between November 2014 and April 2016. Inclusion criteria were spontaneous conception, embryonic cardiac activity, and regular menstrual cycle. Fetal crown-to-rump length (CRL), gestational sac diameter (GSD), yolk sac diameter (YSD), and fetal heart rate (FHR) were measured by transvaginal ultrasonography...
September 2017: International Journal of Gynaecology and Obstetrics
Yan Yi, Guangxiu Lu, Yan Ouyang, Ge lin, Fei Gong, Xihong Li
BACKGROUND: According to previous studies, even after embryonic cardiac activity is detected, the pregnancy loss rate remains 3-4 %. The objectives of this study were to investigate the differences in ultrasound parameters between a miscarriage group and an ongoing pregnancy group during the 1(st) trimester and to build a logistic model to predict early pregnancy loss (EPL) after the appearance of embryonic cardiac activity in patients who have undergone in vitro fertilization embryo transfer (IVF-ET) treatment...
March 31, 2016: Reproductive Biology and Endocrinology: RB&E
Jessica Preisler, Julia Kopeika, Laure Ismail, Veluppillai Vathanan, Jessica Farren, Yazan Abdallah, Parijat Battacharjee, Caroline Van Holsbeke, Cecilia Bottomley, Deborah Gould, Susanne Johnson, Catriona Stalder, Ben Van Calster, Judith Hamilton, Dirk Timmerman, Tom Bourne
OBJECTIVES: To validate recent guidance changes by establishing the performance of cut-off values for embryo crown-rump length and mean gestational sac diameter to diagnose miscarriage with high levels of certainty. Secondary aims were to examine the influence of gestational age on interpretation of mean gestational sac diameter and crown-rump length values, determine the optimal intervals between scans and findings on repeat scans that definitively diagnose pregnancy failure.) DESIGN: Prospective multicentre observational trial...
September 23, 2015: BMJ: British Medical Journal
Cecilia Bottomley, Vanya Van Belle, Emma Kirk, Sabine Van Huffel, Dirk Timmerman, Tom Bourne
STUDY QUESTION: What is the performance of a simple scoring system to predict whether women will have an ongoing viable intrauterine pregnancy beyond the first trimester? SUMMARY ANSWER: A simple scoring system using demographic and initial ultrasound variables accurately predicts pregnancy viability beyond the first trimester with an area under the curve (AUC) in a receiver operating characteristic curve of 0.924 [95% confidence interval (CI) 0.900-0.947] on an independent test set...
January 2013: Human Reproduction
Míryan L V Alberto, Flavio V Meirelles, Felipe Perecin, Carlos E Ambrósio, Phelipe O Favaron, André L R Franciolli, Andrea M Mess, José M Dos Santos, Rose E G Rici, Marcelo Bertolini, Maria A Miglino
Assisted reproduction techniques have improved agricultural breeding in the bovine. However, important development steps may differ from the situation in vivo and there is a high mortality rate during the first trimester of gestation. To better understand these events, we investigated the development of embryos and fetal membranes following fixed-time AI (FTAI), IVF and nuclear transfer (NT). The onset of yolk-sac development was not normal in cloned embryos. Later steps differed from conditions in vivo in all three groups; the yolk-sac was yellowish and juxtaposed with the amniotic membrane...
2013: Reproduction, Fertility, and Development
Nermin Köşüş, Aydın Köşüş, Nilgün Oztürk Turhan
PURPOSE: This study aimed to examine two-dimensional ultrasound (2D US) volumetric measurements of 1st trimester structures and their relationship with β-hCG, progesterone, and fetal heart rate (FHR) in 6-10 weeks healthy pregnant women. METHODS: Using conventional 2D transvaginal ultrasound imaging, the crown rump length (CRL), yolk sac (YS) and gestational sac (GS) were measured in 80 women. Volumetric measurements were done in 32 cases that were selected among 80 women, using a simplified formula for the volume of a prolate ellipsoid: V = 0...
August 2012: Archives of Gynecology and Obstetrics
Y Jeve, R Rana, A Bhide, S Thangaratinam
OBJECTIVES: To evaluate, by systematic review of the literature, the accuracy of first-trimester ultrasound in diagnosing early embryonic demise. METHODS: We searched MEDLINE (1951-2011), Embase (1980-2011) and the Cochrane Library (2010) for relevant citations. The reference lists of all known primary and review articles were examined. Language restrictions were not applied. Studies which evaluated the accuracy of first-trimester ultrasonography in pregnant women for the diagnosis of early embryonic demise were selected in a two-stage process and their data extracted by two reviewers...
November 2011: Ultrasound in Obstetrics & Gynecology
Aneet Kaur, Amarjit Kaur
OBJECTIVES: Examination of pregnant women in the first trimester with transvaginal ultrasonography with the aim to study various fetal development markers, e.g., gestation sac, yolk sac, fetal heart motion, CRL length, and fetal anatomy in both normal and abnormal pregnancies. Comparative evaluation of transvaginal ultrasonography vis-à-vis transabdominal scanning in the study of first trimester of pregnancy and its complications. To assess the relative merits and demerits of transvaginal ultrasonography in comparison with the transabdominal technique...
July 2011: Journal of Pharmacy & Bioallied Sciences
George K I Papaioannou, Argyro Syngelaki, Nerea Maiz, Jackie A Ross, Kypros H Nicolaides
OBJECTIVES: To determine if sonographic features of live embryos at 6-10 weeks' gestation are altered in aneuploidies. METHODS: Embryonic crown rump length (CRL), embryonic heart rate, gestational sac diameter (GSD) and yolk sac diameter (YSD) were measured by transvaginal sonography in 5603 live embryos from singleton pregnancies at 6-10 weeks' gestation. The measurements were expressed as differences from the expected normal mean for CRL (delta values) and median delta values in the aneuploid cases were compared to the euploid group...
July 2011: Early Human Development
George I Papaioannou, Argyro Syngelaki, Nerea Maiz, Jackie A Ross, Kypros H Nicolaides
BACKGROUND: The aim of this retrospective study was to assess the value of maternal history and ultrasound scan findings at 6-10 weeks for predicting early miscarriage. METHODS: Embryonic crown-rump length (CRL), heart rate (HR), gestational sac diameter (GSD) and yolk sac diameter (YSD) were compared in two groups of women with singleton pregnancies attending an early pregnancy unit. In the first group the initial scan demonstrated a live embryo but in a subsequent visit the scan showed a dead embryo, complete or incomplete miscarriage...
July 2011: Human Reproduction
George I Papaioannou, Argyro Syngelaki, Leona C Y Poon, Jackie A Ross, Kypros H Nicolaides
OBJECTIVES: To construct normal ranges for embryonic crown-rump length (CRL), heart rate (HR), gestational sac diameter (GSD) and yolk sac diameter (YSD) at 6-10 weeks of gestation. METHODS: We examined 4,698 singleton pregnancies with ultrasound measurements of CRL, HR, GSD and YSD at 6-10 weeks and CRL at 11-13 weeks resulting in the live birth after 36 weeks of phenotypically normal neonates with birth weight above the 5th centile. Gestational age was derived from CRL at the 11- to 13-week scan using the formula of Robinson and Fleming...
2010: Fetal Diagnosis and Therapy
Marcus R Filly, Peter W Callen, N Tugce Yegul, Roy A Filly
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to assess the positive predictive value for confirming early embryonic death in the clinical sonographic scenario wherein an embryo is identified without a visible heartbeat; the embryonic crown-rump length (CRL) is 5 mm or less; and the embryo is not immediately adjacent to the yolk sac. METHODS: A retrospective study of 882 first-trimester sonograms was performed among women who had an intrauterine pregnancy of uncertain viability based on 1 or more sonographic findings (eg, no visible heartbeat in an embryo with a CRL of < or =5 mm)...
February 2010: Journal of Ultrasound in Medicine: Official Journal of the American Institute of Ultrasound in Medicine
M Metin Altay, Hakan Yaz, Ali Haberal
AIM: The assessment of the first trimester ultrasonographic and progesterone measurements to predict spontaneous abortion risk. METHODS: Ninety-nine women at the 10th week of pregnancy were included in this prospective study. Their ages, progesterone (P) levels, mean gestational sac diameters (MGSD), crown-rump lengths (CRL), MGSD-CRL measurements and fetal heart rates (FHR) were recorded. These variables were compared by abortion status. RESULTS: Patients were followed up until the 20th weeks, and 8 (8...
April 2009: Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology Research
Mark Deutchman, Amy Tanner Tubay, David Turok
Vaginal bleeding in the first trimester occurs in about one fourth of pregnancies. About one half of those who bleed will miscarry. Guarded reassurance and watchful waiting are appropriate if fetal heart sounds are detected, if the patient is medically stable, and if there is no adnexal mass or clinical sign of intraperitoneal bleeding. Discriminatory criteria using transvaginal ultrasonography and beta subunit of human chorionic gonadotropin testing aid in distinguishing among the many conditions of first trimester bleeding...
June 1, 2009: American Family Physician
Fotios K Varelas, Nicolaos M Prapas, Ren-Ing Liang, Ioannis M Prapas, Georgios A Makedos
OBJECTIVES: To investigate embryonic heart rate (EHR) and yolk sac diameter (YSD) during the first trimester and their role as prognostic markers of first trimester pregnancy outcome. STUDY DESIGN: Prospective cohort study involving 219 women conducted in the 4th Academic Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Greece. Gestational age (GA) was determined ultrasonographically based on gestational sac diameter and crown-rump length...
May 2008: European Journal of Obstetrics, Gynecology, and Reproductive Biology
Joaquin Santolaya-Forgas, Juan De Leon-Luis, Lara A Friel, Roman Wolf
The objective of this study was to determine if very early ultrasonographic measurements obtained from human and baboon are comparable. For this purpose, the gestational, amniotic and yolk sacs, embryonic crown rump length (CRL) and heart rate were measured ultrasonographically between 35 and 47 days from the mean day of a three-day mating period in baboons (n=18) and between 42 to 58 days from fertilization as calculated from the CRL measurements in human pregnancies (n=82). Ultrasonographic measurements from both species were then plotted in the same graph using Carnegie stages of embryonic development as the independent variable to allow for visual comparisons...
September 2007: Ultrasound in Medicine & Biology
Hisashi Yonemoto, Shigeru Itoh, Yasushi Nakamura, Katsuyuki Kinoshita
A case of umbilical cord cyst was identified via 2-dimensional and 3-dimensional sonographic examination at 8 weeks' menstrual age. The cyst was solitary, measuring 18.0 mm, and it was located close to the placental insertion on the umbilical cord. The gestational sac and yolk sac diameters and the fetal heart rate were within normal ranges for menstrual age. Follow-up 3-Dimensional sonographic examination in the second trimester showed complete resolution of the cyst. Amniocentesis revealed a normal karyotype, and a normal infant was delivered at term...
March 2006: Journal of Clinical Ultrasound: JCU
E Jauniaux, J Johns, G J Burton
The advent of high-resolution transvaginal ultrasound (TVS) has revolutionized our understanding of the pathophysiology and the management of early pregnancy failure. Knowledge of the ultrasound appearances of normal early pregnancy development and a good understanding of its pitfalls are essential for the diagnosis and management of early pregnancy failure. Ultrasound imaging has rapidly replaced all other techniques used to study normal human development in the first trimester, and ultrasound features of the early gestational sac have corroborated anatomical studies showing that the first structures to appear are the celomic cavity and the secondary yolk sac...
June 2005: Ultrasound in Obstetrics & Gynecology
Grzegorz Roman, Witold Malinowski
OBJECTIVES: The aim of the research was evaluation of the clinical usefulness of chosen ultrasonographic morphological parameters of the yolk sac in the first trimester of unifetal pregnancies. MATERIAL AND METHOD: Analysis has been done on 391 cases of unifetal pregnancies in the first trimester. Parameters of ultrasonographic evaluation: diameter, appearance and size of yolk sac, biometrics and fetal anatomy, confirmation of heart beating. CONCLUSIONS: The yolk sac should be observed in the fifth week or when its biggest size equals to 10 mm in a normal pregnancy...
August 2004: Ginekologia Polska
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