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"Red yeast"

Hongwei Shen, Xibin Zhang, Zhiwei Gong, Yanan Wang, Xue Yu, Xiaobing Yang, Zongbao K Zhao
Lipid production by the red yeast Rhodosporidium toruloides was explored under nutrient limitation. To determine the compositional profiles of R. toruloides cells, samples were prepared using a continuous cultivation process under nutrient limitation and analyzed via several methods, including Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and elemental analysis. Under nitrogen limitation, as the dilution rate increased, the cellular lipid content decreased but the carbohydrate and protein contents increased. Under carbon limitation, the cellular lipid, protein, and carbohydrate contents remained relatively constant at the different dilution rates...
February 6, 2017: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
Paola M Hunter, Robert A Hegele
Dyslipidaemia is characterized by increased blood levels of total or LDL cholesterol and triglycerides, or decreased HDL cholesterol levels, and is a risk factor for cardiovascular disease. Dyslipidaemia has a high worldwide prevalence, and many patients are turning to alternatives to pharmacotherapy to manage their lipid levels. Lifestyle modification should be emphasized in all patients to reduce cardiovascular risk and can be initiated before pharmacotherapy in primary prevention of cardiovascular disease...
January 30, 2017: Nature Reviews. Endocrinology
Gabriela Mazzanti, Paola Angela Moro, Emanuel Raschi, Roberto Da Cas, Francesca Menniti-Ippolito
AIMS: Red yeast rice (RYR) is contained in dietary supplements for patients with dyslipidemia. RYR supplements contain monacolin K, which is chemically identical to lovastatin, a licensed drug with a well-known risk profile. We aim to describe the safety profile of RYR by analysing spontaneous reports of suspected adverse reactions (ARs). METHODS: Within the Italian Surveillance System of Natural Health Products, suspected ARs were collected and evaluated by a multidisciplinary group of experts to assess causality using the WHO-UMC system or the CIOMS/RUCAM score, for hepatic reactions...
January 17, 2017: British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology
Francesco Di Pierro, Pietro Putignano, Tarcisio Ferrara, Carmela Raiola, Giuliana Rapacioli, Nicola Villanova
BACKGROUND: Berberis aristata, because of its berberine content, and Monascus purpureus fermented rice, because of the presence of monacolins (naturally derived statins), are widely investigated food-grade ingredients used to formulate cholesterol-lowering supplements. Although they are extensively used, berberine is poorly absorbed and monacolins are poorly chemically characterized, not standardized, and possibly contaminated with toxic compounds. Silymarin is reported to enhance berberine absorption, while Monakopure™-K20 (MK-20) is a highly standardized red yeast rice containing monacolins K and KA in the ratio of 1:1 but not secondary monacolins, dehydromonacolins, or citrinin...
2017: Clinical Pharmacology: Advances and Applications
Christian Steffen
Red yeast rice is the fermentation product of the mould Monascus ruber and is traditionally used in East Asia to dye and conserve food. Its main pharmacologically active compound, monakolin K, was isolated from red yeast rice and is used as an inhibitor of cholesterol synthesis under the INN lovastatin. Lovastatin and several other statins are marketed as drugs whereas red yeast rice is offered as a food supplement. As statins can cause severe side effects, such as muscle damage and kidney failure, the dosing and information about interactions with drugs and food is essential for the use of these products...
January 4, 2017: Bundesgesundheitsblatt, Gesundheitsforschung, Gesundheitsschutz
Wendi Wei, Sheng Lin, Minghua Chen, Tianxi Liu, Ali Wang, Jinjie Li, Qinglan Guo, Xiaoya Shang
Monascustin (1), an unusual γ-lactam, was isolated from an ethanol extract of the Monascus purpureus fermented rice. Its structure including the absolute configuration was determined by spectroscopic data analysis and confirmed by X-ray crystallography. A plausible biosynthetic pathway is discussed on the basis of amino acid derivatization. Compound 1 showed inhibitory activity against histone deacetylase 1.
January 27, 2017: Journal of Natural Products
Vivencio Barrios, Carlos Escobar, Arrigo Francesco Giuseppe Cicero, David Burke, Peter Fasching, Maciej Banach, Eric Bruckert
Compelling evidence supports the effectiveness of the reduction of total and LDL cholesterol (TC and LDL-C) in primarily preventing cardiovascular events, within the framework of life-long prevention programs mainly consisting in lifestyle changes. Pharmacological treatment should be introduced when lifestyle changes, including use of nutraceuticals, have failed. ESC/EAS guidelines list a number of nutraceutical compounds and functional foods which have been individually studied in randomized, controlled clinical trials (RCTs)...
February 2017: Atherosclerosis. Supplements
M Pirro, C Vetrani, C Bianchi, M R Mannarino, F Bernini, A A Rivellese
AIM: Evidence showed that LDL-cholesterol lowering is associated with a significant cardiovascular risk reduction. The initial therapeutic approach to hypercholesterolemia includes dietary modifications but the compliance to recommendations is often inadequate. Some dietary components with potential cholesterol-lowering activity are present in small amounts in food. Therefore, in recent years the use of "nutraceuticals" (i.e., nutrients and/or bioactive compounds with potential beneficial effects on human health) has become widespread...
January 2017: Nutrition, Metabolism, and Cardiovascular Diseases: NMCD
Stephanie Maxine Ross
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 2017: Holistic Nursing Practice
Yanbin Liu, Sihui Amy Yap, Chong Mei John Koh, Lianghui Ji
BACKGROUND: Red yeast species in the Rhodotorula/Rhodosporidium genus are outstanding producers of triacylglyceride and cell biomass. Metabolic engineering is expected to further enhance the productivity and versatility of these hosts for the production of biobased chemicals and fuels. Promoters with strong activity during oil-accumulation stage are critical tools for metabolic engineering of these oleaginous yeasts. RESULTS: The upstream DNA sequences of 6 genes involved in lipid biosynthesis or accumulation in Rhodotorula toruloides were studied by luciferase reporter assay...
November 25, 2016: Microbial Cell Factories
Mariangela Rondanelli, Attilio Giacosa, Paolo Morazzoni, Davide Guido, Mario Grassi, Gabriella Morandi, Chiara Bologna, Antonella Riva, Pietro Allegrini, Simone Perna
Background. High HDL-cholesterol (HDL-C) values are negatively correlated with cardiovascular diseases. This review analyses the effect of the supplementation with various Mediterranean diet products (artichoke, bergamot, and olive oil) and Asian diet products (red yeast rice) on the HDL-C value in dyslipidemic subjects. Methods. A systematic review has been done involving all the English written studies published from the 1st of January 1958 to the 31st of March 2016. Results. The results of this systematic review indicate that the dietary supplementation with red yeast rice, bergamot, artichoke, and virgin olive oil has promising effects on the increase of HDL-C serum levels...
2016: BioMed Research International
Tina Heinz, Jan Philipp Schuchardt, Katharina Möller, Peyman Hadji, Andreas Hahn
Hypercholesterolemia and elevated homocysteine concentrations are associated with cardiovascular risk. Previous studies have demonstrated a cholesterol-lowering effect of red yeast rice (RYR) supplements which contained 5 to 10 mg of monacolin K. We hypothesized that the intake of a low monacolin K dose may likewise reduce low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C) and other plasma lipids. In secondary analyses, we tested the homocysteine lowering effect of folic acid, which was also included in the study preparation...
October 2016: Nutrition Research
Pamela Córdova, Jennifer Alcaíno, Natalia Bravo, Salvador Barahona, Dionisia Sepúlveda, María Fernández-Lobato, Marcelo Baeza, Víctor Cifuentes
BACKGROUND: The yeast Xanthophyllomyces dendrorhous produces carotenoids of commercial interest, including astaxanthin and β-carotene. Although carotenogenesis in this yeast and the expression profiles of the genes controlling this pathway are known, the mechanisms regulating this process remain poorly understood. Several studies have demonstrated that glucose represses carotenogenesis in X. dendrorhous, suggesting that this pathway could be regulated by catabolic repression. Catabolic repression is a highly conserved regulatory mechanism in eukaryotes and has been widely studied in Saccharomyces cerevisiae...
November 14, 2016: Microbial Cell Factories
Yogen Patel, Alex B Behar, Chirag D Shah, Ravi E Kasi
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 2016: PM & R: the Journal of Injury, Function, and Rehabilitation
Keisuke Yamamoto, Kiyotaka Y Hara, Toshihiko Morita, Akira Nishimura, Daisuke Sasaki, Jun Ishii, Chiaki Ogino, Noriyuki Kizaki, Akihiko Kondo
BACKGROUND: Red yeast, Xanthophyllomyces dendrorhous is the only yeast known to produce astaxanthin, an anti-oxidant isoprenoid (carotenoid) widely used in the aquaculture, food, pharmaceutical and cosmetic industries. The potential of this microorganism as a platform cell factory for isoprenoid production has been recognized because of high flux through its native terpene pathway. Recently, we developed a multiple gene expression system in X. dendrorhous and enhanced the mevalonate synthetic pathway to increase astaxanthin production...
September 13, 2016: Microbial Cell Factories
Jennifer Alcaíno, Natalia Bravo, Pamela Córdova, Andrés E Marcoleta, Gabriela Contreras, Salvador Barahona, Dionisia Sepúlveda, María Fernández-Lobato, Marcelo Baeza, Víctor Cifuentes
The red yeast X. dendrorhous is one of the few natural sources of astaxanthin, a carotenoid used in aquaculture for salmonid fish pigmentation and in the cosmetic and pharmaceutical industries for its antioxidant properties. Genetic control of carotenogenesis is well characterized in this yeast; however, little is known about the regulation of the carotenogenesis process. Several lines of evidence have suggested that carotenogenesis is regulated by catabolic repression, and the aim of this work was to identify and functionally characterize the X...
2016: PloS One
L Z Wang, M L Zhou, J W Wang, D Wu, T Yan
Twenty castrated Boer crossbred goats were used in the present study with two treatments to examine the effect of dietary replacement of ordinary rice with red yeast rice on nutrient utilization, enteric methane emission and ruminal archaea structure and composition. Two treatment diets contained (DM basis) 70.0% of forage, 21.8% of concentrates and 8.2% of either ordinary rice (control) or red yeast rice (RYR). Nutrient utilization was measured and enteric methane emissions were determined in respiration chambers...
2016: PloS One
J R B J Brouwers, J E Roeters van Lennep, A H E M Maas
- In various non-medical publications, red yeast rice (red fermented rice, RYR) is recommended as a cholesterol-lowering substance. This supplement contains a naturally occurring statin, namely monacolin K.- Patients who wish to use RYR should be advised to only take products from reputable pharmaceutical companies. Pharmacists can provide advice on this.- Users of RYR should be alerted to the potential drug interactions and serious risks associated with its use during pregnancy.- RYR appears to be better tolerated than statins...
2016: Nederlands Tijdschrift Voor Geneeskunde
Yanan Wang, Sufang Zhang, Markus Pötter, Wenyi Sun, Li Li, Xiaobing Yang, Xiang Jiao, Zongbao K Zhao
Under nutrient-limited conditions, the red yeast Rhodosporidium toruloides can accumulate neutral lipids, of which the compositional fatty acids are mainly saturated and mono-unsaturated ones with 16 or 18 carbon atoms. To improve the linoleic acid content in the lipids, we enabled galactose-inducible expression of the gene encoding Δ12-fatty acid desaturase (FADS) from Mortierella alpina or Fusarium verticillioides by integration of the corresponding expression cassettes into the genome of R. toruloides haploid and diploid strains...
December 2016: Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology
Chunji Li, Ning Zhang, Jia Song, Na Wei, Bingxue Li, Hongtao Zou, Xiaori Han
Carotenoids are one of the most common classes of natural pigments widely occurring within organisms. These structurally diverse pigments are of great importance in different processes such as nutrition, vision, cellular growth and development. While found in various yeast strains, one of the best-studied carotenoid producer is the pigmented species Sporidiobolus pararoseus. However, the precise nature of the genes involved in the biosynthesis of carotenoids in this species remains unclear. Here, we cloned a cDNA copy of the phytoene desaturase gene crtI from Sporidiobolus pararoseus CGMCC 2...
September 15, 2016: Gene
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