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acute rejection treatment

Chuanlei Yang, Xing Chen, Zhanjie Wei, Jie Xiao, Weiqiang Chen, Yuqiang Shang, Jinping Liu
Acute rejection is the most important factor causing allograft loss, which remains a challenge for patients undergoing organ transplantation. There is considerable evidence indicating that the activity of PI3K and its downstream positive and negative regulators plays a major role in regulating the activation of different subsets of effector CD4+ T cells. Thus, we investigated whether class A PI3Ks are involved in the development of acute allograft rejection, we found that p110α protein expression levels in the allograft group were significantly up-regulated on day 7 post-transplantation, while p110β and p110δ expression was significantly increased on days 5 and 7 post-transplantation...
2018: American Journal of Translational Research
X-F Zou, B Song, J-H Duan, Z-D Hu, Z-L Cui, T Yang
BACKGROUND: Previously, high levels of CXCR3+ T-cell recruitment was demonstrated in the prolonged ischemia-accelerated acute allograft rejection in rat kidney transplant. In the present study, the effect of chemokine IP-10 was investigated and the expression of chemokine-related PRINS (Psoriasis susceptibility-related RNA gene induced by stress) lncRNA determined in the allografts subjected to ischemia. METHODS: F344-to-Lewis rat kidney transplantation was performed, and renal grafts were stored for 2 hours or 16 hours...
June 2018: Transplantation Proceedings
J H Kwon, I A Hanouneh, D Allende, L Yerian, T Diago, B Eghtesad, N N Zein
INTRODUCTION: De novo autoimmune hepatitis, also known as plasma cell hepatitis, is an increasingly recognized entity following liver transplantation. The aim of this study is to investigate the long-term outcomes of patients with de novo autoimmune hepatitis. METHODS: Using transplant liver biopsy database, we identified all patients showing plasma cell hepatitis following liver transplantation between 2008 and 2013. The diagnosis of plasma cell hepatitis was based on the histologic features from liver biopsies...
June 2018: Transplantation Proceedings
Georg A Böhmig, Markus Wahrmann, Farsad Eskandary, Lionel Rostaing
The complement system may contribute in many ways to transplant injury, being a promising target for specific therapeutic interventions. There is evidence that the monoclonal anti-C5 antibody eculizumab is effective in the prevention and treatment of early antibody-mediated rejection (ABMR), but terminal complement blockade might be of limited efficiency in chronic rejection. Given the diversity of immunological events triggered by activation steps upstream to C5, in particular, opsonin and anaphylatoxin formation through C3 cleavage, one may argue that, in the specific context of ABMR, inhibition of antibody-triggered classical pathway (CP) activation might be beneficial...
June 4, 2018: Transplantation
Devon M Headen, Kyle B Woodward, María M Coronel, Pradeep Shrestha, Jessica D Weaver, Hong Zhao, Min Tan, Michael D Hunckler, William S Bowen, Christopher T Johnson, Lonnie Shea, Esma S Yolcu, Andrés J García, Haval Shirwan
Islet transplantation is a promising therapy for type 1 diabetes. However, chronic immunosuppression to control rejection of allogeneic islets induces morbidities and impairs islet function. T effector cells are responsible for islet allograft rejection and express Fas death receptors following activation, becoming sensitive to Fas-mediated apoptosis. Here, we report that localized immunomodulation using microgels presenting an apoptotic form of the Fas ligand with streptavidin (SA-FasL) results in prolonged survival of allogeneic islet grafts in diabetic mice...
June 4, 2018: Nature Materials
Ana Lucić Vrdoljak, Nino Fuchs, Anja Mikolić, Suzana Žunec, Irena Brčić Karačonji, Andreja Jurič, Ljerka Prester, Vedran Micek, Marijana Neuberg, Samir Čanović, Gordan Mršić, Nevenka Kopjar
There is growing interest regarding the use of herbal preparations based on Cannabis sativa for medicinal purposes, despite the poorly understood interactions of their main constituent Δ⁸-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) with conventional drugs, especially cytostatics. The objective of this pilot study was to prove whether the concomitant intake of THC impaired liver function in male Wistar rats treated with the anticancer drug irinotecan (IRI), and evaluate the toxic effects associated with this exposure. IRI was administered once intraperitoneally (at 100 mg/kg of the body weight (b...
June 1, 2018: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
P Li, Y-Y Zhang, J Deng
OBJECTIVE: We investigated the effects of BMSCs, which was modified by programmed death ligand-1 immunoglobulin (PDL1Ig) gene, on the immunological rejection of orthotopic liver transplantation (OLT) in rats. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Rat BMSCs were cultured and modified by recombinant adenovirus pAdEasy-1/PDL1Ig for 72h. The total protein was extracted, and the protein expression of PDL1Ig after transfection was detected by Western blotting. Mixed lymphocyte reaction was applied to detect the inhibitory effect of BMSCs, including pre-transfection and post-transfection, on the cell activity of T lymphocytes in peripheral blood...
May 2018: European Review for Medical and Pharmacological Sciences
L S Vest, F M Koraishy, Z Zhang, N N Lam, M A Schnitzler, V R Dharnidharka, D Axelrod, A S Naik, T A Alhamad, B L Kasiske, G P Hess, K L Lentine
While guidelines support metformin as a therapeutic option for diabetic patients with mild-to-moderate renal insufficiency, the frequency and outcomes of metformin use in kidney transplant recipients are not well described. We integrated national U.S. transplant registry data with records from a large pharmaceutical claims clearinghouse (2008-2015). Associations (adjusted hazard ratio, 95% LCL aHR95% UCL ) of diabetes regimens (with and excluding metformin) in the first year post-transplant with patient and graft survival over the subsequent year were quantified by multivariate Cox regression, adjusted for recipient, donor, and transplant factors and propensity for metformin use...
May 31, 2018: Clinical Transplantation
François Durand, Claire Francoz, Sumeet K Asrani, Saro Khemichian, Thomas A Pham, Randall S Sung, Yuri S Genyk, Mitra K Nadim
Since the implementation of the MELD score-based allocation system, the number of transplant candidates with impaired renal function has increased. The aims of this review are to present new insights in the definitions and predisposing factors that result in acute kidney injury (AKI), and to propose guidelines for the prevention and treatment of post liver transplantation (LT) AKI. This review is based on both systematic review of relevant literature and expert opinion. Pretransplant AKI is associated with posttransplant morbidity, including prolonged post LT AKI which then predisposes to posttransplant chronic kidney disease (CKD)...
May 29, 2018: Transplantation
Chetan Naik, Cody Moore, Matthew Pipeling, Jonathan D'Cunha, Kristine Ruppert, Christopher Ensor, Matthew Morrell
Background: Acute cellular rejection (ACR) is a major risk factor for chronic lung allograft dysfunction after lung transplantation. Acute cellular rejection can persist or recur despite augmentation of immunosuppression by conventional methods. There are limited therapeutic options in treating these recurrent and refractory ACRs. We describe our experience with cyclophosphamide therapy for recurrent and refractory ACR in lung transplant recipients. Methods: Six consecutive patients who were treated with cyclophosphamide for recurrent or refractory ACR were included in the series...
May 2018: Transplantation Direct
Sybille Landwehr-Kenzel, Anne Zobel, Henrike Hoffmann, Niels Landwehr, Michael Schmueck-Henneresse, Thomas Schachtner, Andy Roemhild, Petra Reinke
Novel concepts employing autologous, ex vivo expanded natural regulatory T cells (nTreg) for adoptive transfer has potential to prevent organ rejection after kidney transplantation. However, the impact of dialysis and maintenance immunosuppression on the nTreg phenotype and peripheral survival is not well understood, but essential when assessing patient eligibility. The current study investigates regulatory T-cells in dialysis and kidney transplanted patients and the feasibility of generating a clinically useful nTreg product from these patients...
June 2018: Kidney International
G Joelsons, T Domenico, L F Gonçalves, R C Manfro
The aim of the present study was to evaluate messenger RNA expression in kidney allograft recipients. Forty-four kidney transplant recipients were evaluated up to three months after grafting. After transplantation, peripheral blood samples were drawn sequentially for real-time polymerase chain reaction analyses of perforin and TIM-3 genes. Biopsies were obtained to evaluate acute graft dysfunction and interpreted according to the Banff classification. Eight patients presented episodes of acute rejection. Recipients with rejection had significantly higher levels of TIM-3 mRNA transcripts compared to those without rejection (median gene expression 191...
2018: Brazilian Journal of Medical and Biological Research, Revista Brasileira de Pesquisas Médicas e Biológicas
Johan Noble, Thomas Jouve, Lionel Rostaing, Paolo Malvezzi
Cornerstone immunosuppressive therapy currently relies on immediate-release tacrolimus, a calcineurin inhibitor (CNI) that is potentially nephrotoxic and is more diabetogenic than cyclosporine A. Two new formulations of tacrolimus have been launched: an extended-release formulation (Advagraf®/Astagraf XL®, Astellas company) and a long-lasting formulation (Envarsus®, Veloxis company). Area covered: Herein, we assess the efficacy of an extended-release formulation of tacrolimus (Advagraf®/Astagraf XL®) used in conjunction with or without an induction therapy (i...
May 14, 2018: Expert Review of Clinical Immunology
Vladimir Perovic, Milos Markovic, Milica Kravljaca, Emina Milosevic, Milica Djoric, Vera Pravica, Radomir Naumovic
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Transplantation is the best treatment option for end stage kidney disease. The most common early complications in post-transplant period are acute rejection (AR) of the graft and delayed graft function (DGF). The underlying mechanisms in these events are heterogeneous and at least in part involve cytokine genes which regulate immune response to allograft. We have investigated whether functional single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) in the genes encoding IFN-γ (IFNG), TNF (TNFA), IL-10 (IL10) and p40 subunit of IL-12/IL-23 (IL12B) could predict risk of AR and DGF in kidney allograft recipients...
May 10, 2018: Archives of Medical Research
Julio Pascual, Stefan P Berger, Oliver Witzke, Helio Tedesco, Shamkant Mulgaonkar, Yasir Qazi, Steven Chadban, Federico Oppenheimer, Claudia Sommerer, Rainer Oberbauer, Yoshihiko Watarai, Christophe Legendre, Franco Citterio, Mitchell Henry, Titte R Srinivas, Wen-Lin Luo, AnaMaria Marti, Peter Bernhardt, Flavio Vincenti
Background Everolimus permits reduced calcineurin inhibitor (CNI) exposure, but the efficacy and safety outcomes of this treatment after kidney transplant require confirmation. Methods In a multicenter noninferiority trial, we randomized 2037 de novo kidney transplant recipients to receive, in combination with induction therapy and corticosteroids, everolimus with reduced-exposure CNI (everolimus arm) or mycophenolic acid (MPA) with standard-exposure CNI (MPA arm). The primary end point was treated biopsy-proven acute rejection or eGFR<50 ml/min per 1...
May 11, 2018: Journal of the American Society of Nephrology: JASN
Uwe Querfeld, Lutz T Weber
The clinical application of mycophenolate mofetil (MMF) has significantly widened beyond the prophylaxis of acute and chronic rejections in solid organ transplantation. MMF has been recognized as an excellent treatment option in many immunologic glomerulopathies. For children with frequently relapsing nephrotic syndrome (FRNS) or steroid-dependent nephrotic syndrome (SDNS) experiencing steroid toxicity, MMF has been recommended as a steroid-sparing drug. Uncontrolled studies in patients with FRNS and SDSN have shown that many patients can achieve sustained remission of proteinuria with MMF monotherapy...
May 11, 2018: Pediatric Nephrology: Journal of the International Pediatric Nephrology Association
S D Hwang, J H Lee, S W Lee, K-M Park, J K Kim, M-J Kim, J H Song
BACKGROUND: Rejection and infection can occur after kidney transplantation and are important factors in preserving graft kidney function. The use of immunosuppressant agents in transplantation is therefore important, and the question of which induction therapy should be used as an immunosuppressant is controversial. OBJECTIVE: The goal of this study was to assess the comparative benefits and harms of various maintenance immunosuppressive induction agents in adults undergoing kidney transplantation by using a network meta-analysis and to generate rankings of the different immunosuppressive regimens according to their safety and efficacy...
May 2018: Transplantation Proceedings
Roberto Gordillo, Raj Munshi, Eric J Monroe, Giridhar M Shivaram, Jodi M Smith
Protocol biopsies are defined as sampling of allograft tissue at predetermined times regardless of function. This procedure can be justified due to the lack of non-invasive methods to reliably diagnose rejection (acute or subclinical). Changes in creatinine are not seen with subclinical rejection or early acute rejection and do not always correlate with efficacy of treatment. Parents and providers are still hesitant to pursue protocol biopsy due to the potential complications and lack of definitive evidence of a benefit from doing this procedure...
May 3, 2018: Pediatric Nephrology: Journal of the International Pediatric Nephrology Association
Marjolein Helleman, Lars-Gunnar Lundh, Sophie I Liljedahl, Daiva Daukantaité, Sofie Westling
BACKGROUND: Brief admission (BA) is an adjunctive treatment option for individuals with self-harming behavior, having traits of borderline personality disorder (BPD). It is offered alongside outpatient psychotherapy for the purpose of strengthening autonomy, self-reflection and self-care and to increase the likelihood of being able to stay in therapy by avoiding lengthy inpatient hospitalizations. AIMS: To investigate participants' experiences with BA during the pilot phase of the Brief Admission Skåne Randomized Controlled Trial (BASRCT), in order to detect possible strengths and limitations of the intervention and gain knowledge to facilitate implementation of BA at other treatment centers...
April 27, 2018: Nordic Journal of Psychiatry
Yuvaram N V Reddy, David Nunes, Vipul Chitalia, Craig E Gordon, Jean M Francis
Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is a common cause of increased morbidity and mortality in kidney transplant patients. It is associated with posttransplant glomerulonephritis, chronic allograft nephropathy, and New Onset Diabetes after Transplant (NODAT). In the past, HCV was difficult to treat due to the presence of interferon alpha-based therapies that were difficult to tolerate and were associated with adverse side-effects, such as the risk of rejection. With the advent of oral directly acting antiviral therapies, the landscape for HCV and transplantation has changed...
April 2018: Hemodialysis International
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