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Chemical evolution

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28640886/epigenomic-diversification-within-the-genus-lupinus
#1
Karolina Susek, Agnieszka Braszewska-Zalewska, Adam J Bewick, Robert Hasterok, Robert J Schmitz, Barbara Naganowska
Deciphering the various chemical modifications of both DNA and the histone compound of chromatin not only leads to a better understanding of the genome-wide organisation of epigenetic landmarks and their impact on gene expression but may also provide some insights into the evolutionary processes. Although both histone modifications and DNA methylation have been widely investigated in various plant genomes, here we present the first study for the genus Lupinus. Lupins, which are members of grain legumes (pulses), are beneficial for food security, nutrition, health and the environment...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28640607/primary-and-photochemically-aged-aerosol-emissions-from-biomass-cookstoves-chemical-and-physical-characterization
#2
Stephen M Reece, Aditya Sinha, Andrew P Grieshop
Secondary organic aerosol (SOA) formation during photo-oxidation of primary emissions from cookstoves used in developing countries may make important contributions to their climate and air quality impacts. We present results from laboratory experiments with a field portable oxidation flow reactor (F-OFR) to study the evolution of emissions over hours to weeks of equivalent atmospheric aging. Lab tests, using dry red oak, measured fresh and aged emissions from a 3 stone fire (TSF), a "rocket" natural draft stove (NDS) and a forced draft gasifier stove (FDGS), in order of increasing modified combustion efficiency (MCE) and decreasing particulate matter emission factors (EF)...
June 22, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28640577/laser-ablation-molecular-isotopic-spectrometry-for-molecules-formation-chemistry-in-fs-laser-ablated-plasmas
#3
Huaming Hou, Xianglei Mao, Vassilia Zorba, Richard E Russo
Recently, laser ablated molecular isotopic spectrometry (LAMIS) has expanded its capability to explore molecules formation mechanism in laser induced plasma in addition to isotope analysis. LAMIS is powerful tool for tracking the origination of atoms that involved in formation of investigated molecules by labeling atoms with its isotopic substitution. The evolutionary formation pathways of organic molecules, especially of C2 dimers and CN radicals, were frequently reported. However, very little is known about the formation pathways for metallic radicals and heterodimers in laser ablated plasma...
June 22, 2017: Analytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636311/insights-into-integrated-lead-generation-and-target-identification-in-malaria-and-tuberculosis-drug-discovery
#4
John Okombo, Kelly Chibale
New, safe and effective drugs are urgently needed to treat and control malaria and tuberculosis, which affect millions of people annually. However, financial return on investment in the poor settings where these diseases are mostly prevalent is very minimal to support market-driven drug discovery and development. Moreover, the imminent loss of therapeutic lifespan of existing therapies due to evolution and spread of drug resistance further compounds the urgency to identify novel effective drugs. However, the advent of new public-private partnerships focused on tropical diseases and the recent release of large data sets by pharmaceutical companies on antimalarial and antituberculosis compounds derived from phenotypic whole cell high throughput screening have spurred renewed interest and opened new frontiers in malaria and tuberculosis drug discovery...
June 21, 2017: Accounts of Chemical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28635947/in-situ-dynamic-observations-of-perovskite-crystallisation-and-microstructure-evolution-intermediated-from-pbi6-4-cage-nanoparticles
#5
Qin Hu, Lichen Zhao, Jiang Wu, Ke Gao, Deying Luo, Yufeng Jiang, Ziyi Zhang, Chenhui Zhu, Eric Schaible, Alexander Hexemer, Cheng Wang, Yi Liu, Wei Zhang, Michael Grätzel, Feng Liu, Thomas P Russell, Rui Zhu, Qihuang Gong
Hybrid lead halide perovskites have emerged as high-performance photovoltaic materials with their extraordinary optoelectronic properties. In particular, the remarkable device efficiency is strongly influenced by the perovskite crystallinity and the film morphology. Here, we investigate the perovskites crystallisation kinetics and growth mechanism in real time from liquid precursor continually to the final uniform film. We utilize some advanced in situ characterisation techniques including synchrotron-based grazing incident X-ray diffraction to observe crystal structure and chemical transition of perovskites...
June 21, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28635657/selection-of-nucleic-acid-aptamers-targeting-tumor-cell-surface-protein-biomarkers
#6
REVIEW
Marie-Cécile Mercier, Monique Dontenwill, Laurence Choulier
Aptamers are nucleic acids referred to as chemical antibodies as they bind to their specific targets with high affinity and selectivity. They are selected via an iterative process known as 'selective evolution of ligands by exponential enrichment' (SELEX). Aptamers have been developed against numerous cancer targets and among them, many tumor cell-membrane protein biomarkers. The identification of aptamers targeting cell-surface proteins has mainly been performed by two different strategies: protein- and cell-based SELEX, when the targets used for selection were proteins and cells, respectively...
June 21, 2017: Cancers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28633817/computational-study-of-state-equation-effect-on-single-acoustic-cavitation-bubble-s-phenomenon
#7
Kaouther Kerboua, Oualid Hamdaoui
Many models have been established to study the evolution of the bubble dynamics and chemical kinetics within a single acoustic cavitation bubble during its oscillation. The content of the bubble is a gas medium that generates the evolution of a chemical mechanism governed by the internal bubble conditions. These gases are described by a state equation, linking the pressure to the volume, temperature and species amounts, and influencing simultaneously the dynamical, the thermal and the mass variation in the cavitation bubble...
September 2017: Ultrasonics Sonochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28632318/-the-easier-the-better-preparation-of-efficient-photocatalysts-metastable-poly-heptazine-imide-salts
#8
Zupeng Chen, Aleksandr Savateev, Sergey Pronkin, Vasiliki Papaefthimiou, Christian Wolff, Marc Georg Willinger, Elena Willinger, Dieter Neher, Markus Antonietti, Dariya Dontsova
Cost-efficient, visible-light-driven hydrogen production from water is an attractive potential source of clean, sustainable fuel. Here, it is shown that thermal solid state reactions of traditional carbon nitride precursors (cyanamide, melamine) with NaCl, KCl, or CsCl are a cheap and straightforward way to prepare poly(heptazine imide) alkali metal salts, whose thermodynamic stability decreases upon the increase of the metal atom size. The chemical structure of the prepared salts is confirmed by the results of X-ray photoelectron and infrared spectroscopies, powder X-ray diffraction and electron microscopy studies, and, in the case of sodium poly(heptazine imide), additionally by atomic pair distribution function analysis and 2D powder X-ray diffraction pattern simulations...
June 20, 2017: Advanced Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630166/deficiency-of-phb-complex-impairs-respiratory-supercomplex-formation-and-activates-mitochondrial-flashes
#9
Chongshu Jian, Fengli Xu, Tingting Hou, Tao Sun, Li Jinghang, Heping Cheng, Xianhua Wang
Prohibitins (prohibitin 1, PHB1, and prohibitin 2, PHB2) are evolutionally conserved and ubiquitously expressed mitochondrial protein. PHBs form multimeric ring complexes acting as scaffolds in the inner mitochondrial membrane. Mitochondrial flashes (mitoflashes) are newly discovered mitochondrial signaling events which reflect electrical and chemical excitations of the organelle. Here we investigate possible roles of PHBs in the regulation of mitoflash signaling. Down-regulation of PHBs increases mitoflash frequency by up to 5...
June 19, 2017: Journal of Cell Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28628989/pollutant-removal-and-microorganism-evolution-of-activated-sludge-under-ofloxacin-selection-pressure
#10
Qiang Kong, Xiao He, Yu Feng, Ming-Sheng Miao, Qian Wang, Yuan-da Du, Fei Xu
An activated sludge sequencing batch reactor (SBR) was fed with synthetic wastewater containing ofloxacin (OFL) for 52days to study the overall performance of the SBR, the characteristics of extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) and the bacterial community shift. Removal efficiencies of chemical oxygen demand, ammonia nitrogen, phosphorus and OFL were maintained at 90%, 96%, 80% and 65%, respectively. The EPS contents increased with increasing OFL concentration because more EPS was secreted to protect cells from OFL damage...
June 14, 2017: Bioresource Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28628253/3d-atomic-scale-insights-into-anisotropic-core-shell-structured-ingaas-nanowires-grown-by-metal-organic-chemical-vapor-deposition
#11
Jiangtao Qu, Sichao Du, Tim Burgess, Changhong Wang, Xiangyuan Cui, Qiang Gao, Weichao Wang, Hark Hoe Tan, Hui Liu, Chennupati Jagadish, Yingjie Zhang, Hansheng Chen, Mansoor Khan, Simon Ringer, Rongkun Zheng
III-V ternary InGaAs nanowires have great potential for electronic and optoelectronic device applications; however, the 3D structure and chemistry at the atomic-scale inside the nanowires remain unclear, which hinders tailoring the nanowires for specific applications. Here, atom probe tomography is used in conjunction with a first-principles simulation to investigate the 3D structure and chemistry of InGaAs nanowires, and reveals i) the nanowires form a spontaneous core-shell structure with a Ga-enriched core and an In-enriched shell, due to different growth mechanisms in the axial and lateral directions; ii) the shape of the core evolves from hexagon into Reuleaux triangle and grows larger, which results from In outward and Ga inward interdiffusion occurring at the core-shell interface; and iii) the irregular hexagonal shell manifests an anisotropic growth rate on {112}A and {112}B facets...
June 19, 2017: Advanced Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28628207/engineered-polymerases-with-altered-substrate-specificity-expression-and-purification
#12
Ali Nikoomanzar, Matthew R Dunn, John C Chaput
Polymerase engineering is making it possible to synthesize xeno-nucleic acid polymers (XNAs) with diverse backbone structures and chemical functionality. The ability to copy genetic information back and forth between DNA and XNA has led to a new field of science known as synthetic genetics, which aims to study the genetic concepts of heredity and evolution in artificial genetic polymers. Since many of the polymerases needed to synthesize XNA polymers are not available commercially, researchers must express and purify these enzymes as recombinant proteins from E...
June 19, 2017: Current Protocols in Nucleic Acid Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28627239/complex-multicellular-functions-at-a-unicellular-eukaryote-level-learning-memory-and-immunity
#13
György Csaba
According to experimental data, eukaryote unicellulars are able to learn, have immunity and memory. Learning is carried out in a very primitive form, and the memory is not neural but an epigenetic one. However, this epigenetic memory, which is well justified by the presence and manifestation of hormonal imprinting, is strong and permanent in the life of cell and also in its progenies. This memory is epigenetically executed by the alteration and fixation of methylation pattern of genes without changes in base sequences...
June 19, 2017: Acta Microbiologica et Immunologica Hungarica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28627135/in-situ-electrochemistry-of-rechargeable-battery-materials-status-report-and-perspectives
#14
REVIEW
Yijun Yang, Xizheng Liu, Zhonghua Dai, Fangli Yuan, Yoshio Bando, Dmitri Golberg, Xi Wang
The development of rechargeable batteries with high performance is considered to be a feasible way to satisfy the increasing needs of electric vehicles and portable devices. It is of vital importance to design electrodes with high electrochemical performance and to understand the nature of the electrode/electrolyte interfaces during battery operation, which allows a direct observation of the complicated chemical and physical processes within the electrodes and electrolyte, and thus provides real-time information for further design and optimization of the battery performance...
June 19, 2017: Advanced Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28626359/noble-metal-modified-octahedral-anatase-titania-particles-with-enhanced-activity-for-decomposition-of-chemical-and-microbiological-pollutants
#15
Z Wei, M Endo, K Wang, E Charbit, A Markowska-Szczupak, B Ohtani, E Kowalska
Octahedral anatase particles (OAPs) were prepared by hydrothermal (HT) reaction of titanate nanowires (TNWs). OAPs were modified with noble metals (Au, Ag, Cu and Pt) by two photodeposition methods: in the absence and in the initial presence of oxygen in the system. Photocatalytic activities for oxidative decomposition of acetic acid and anaerobic dehydrogenation of methanol under UV/vis irradiation and for oxidation of 2-propanol under visible light irradiation were investigated. Antibacterial activities for bacteria (Escherichia coli) and fungi (Candida albicans) were investigated in the dark and under UV irradiation and/or visible light irradiation...
June 15, 2017: Chemical Engineering Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28624520/dissecting-the-chloroplast-proteome-of-chickpea-cicer-arietinum-l-provides-new-insights-into-classical-and-non-classical-functions
#16
Nilesh Vikram Lande, Pratigya Subba, Pragya Barua, Dipak Gayen, T S Keshava Prasad, Subhra Chakraborty, Niranjan Chakraborty
Chloroplast, the energy organelle unique to plant cells, is a dynamic entity which integrates an array of metabolic pathways and serves as first level for energy conversion for the entire ecological hierarchy. Increasing amount of sequence data and evolution of mass spectrometric approaches has opened up new avenues for opportune exploration of the global proteome of this organelle. In our study, we aimed at generation of a comprehensive catalogue of chloroplast proteins in a grain legume, chickpea and provided a reference proteome map...
June 14, 2017: Journal of Proteomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28622844/antimycobacterial-metabolism-illuminating-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-biology-and-drug-discovery
#17
REVIEW
Divya Awasthi, Joel S Freundlich
Bacteria are capable of performing a number of biotransformations that may activate or deactivate xenobiotics. Recent efforts have utilized metabolomics techniques to study the fate of small-molecule antibacterials within the targeted organism. Examples involving Mycobacterium tuberculosis are reviewed and analyzed with regard to the insights they provide as to both activation and deactivation of the antibacterial. The studies, in particular, shed light on biosynthetic transformations performed by M. tuberculosis while suggesting avenues for the evolution of chemical tools, highlighting potential areas for drug discovery, and mechanisms of approved drugs...
June 13, 2017: Trends in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28621451/knockdown-of-a-metathoracic-scent-gland-desaturase-enhances-the-production-of-e-4-oxo-2-hexenal-and-suppresses-female-sexual-attractiveness-in-the-plant-bug-adelphocoris-suturalis
#18
J Luo, Z Li, C Ma, Z Zhang, J J Hull, C Lei, S Jin, L Chen
Insect sex pheromones (SPs) are central to mate-finding behaviour, and play an essential role in the survival and reproduction of organisms. Understanding the roles, biosynthetic pathways and evolution of insect chemical communication systems has been an exciting challenge for biologists. Compared with Lepidoptera, little is known about the mechanisms underlying pheromone biosynthesis in Hemiptera. In this study, we isolated and characterized two new desaturase-like genes, termed Asutdes1 and Asutdes2, from Adelphocoris suturalis, an important agricultural pest in China...
June 16, 2017: Insect Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28621134/surfactant-and-binder-free-hierarchical-platinum-nanoarrays-directly-grown-onto-a-carbon-felt-electrode-for-efficient-electrocatalysis
#19
Widya Ernayati Kosimaningrum, Thi-Xuan-Huong Le, Yaovi Holade, Mikhael Bechelany, Sophie Tingry, Buchari Buchari, Indra Noviandri, Christophe Innocent, Marc Cretin
The future of fuel cells that convert the chemical energy to electricity relies mostly on the efficiency of oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) due to its sluggish kinetics. By effectively bypassing the use of organic surfactants, post-synthesis steps for the immobilization onto electrodes, the catalytic inks preparation using binders, and the common problem of nanoparticles detachment from supports involved in traditional methodologies, we demonstrate a versatile electrodeposition method for growing anisotropic microstructures directly onto a three-dimensional (3D) carbon felt electrode, using platinum nanoparticles as elementary building blocks...
June 16, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28620582/physicochemical-and-nutritional-requirements-for-axenic-replication-suggest-physiological-basis-for-coxiella-burnetii-niche-restriction
#20
Eduardo Vallejo Esquerra, Hong Yang, Savannah E Sanchez, Anders Omsland
Bacterial obligate intracellular parasites are clinically significant animal and human pathogens. Central to the biology of these organisms is their level of adaptation to intracellular replication niches associated with physicochemical and nutritional constraints. While most bacterial pathogens can adapt to a wide range of environments, severe niche restriction-an inability to thrive in diverse environments-is a hallmark of bacterial obligate intracellular parasites. Herein the physicochemical and nutritional factors underlying the physiological basis for niche restriction in the zoonotic bacterial obligate intracellular parasite and Q fever agent Coxiella burnetii are characterized...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
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