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Chemical evolution

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28822486/adaptation-to-toxic-hosts-as-a-factor-in-the-evolution-of-insecticide-resistance
#1
REVIEW
Andrei Alyokhin, Yolanda H Chen
Insecticide resistance is a serious economic problem that jeopardizes sustainability of chemical control of herbivorous insects and related arthropods. It can be viewed as a specific case of adaptation to toxic chemicals, which has been driven in large part, but not exclusively, by the necessity for insect pests to tolerate defensive compounds produced by their host plants. Synthetic insecticides may simply change expression of specific sets of detoxification genes that have evolved due to ancestral associations with host plants...
June 2017: Current Opinion in Insect Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821347/stable-oil-laden-foams-formation-and-evolution
#2
REVIEW
Rémy Mensire, Elise Lorenceau
The interaction between oil and foam has been the subject of various studies. Indeed, oil can be an efficient defoaming agent, which can be highly valuable in various industrial applications where undesired foaming may occur, as seen in jet-dyeing processes or waste water treatment plant. However, oil and foam can also constructively interact as observed in detergency, fire-fighting, food and petroleum industries, where oil can be in the foam structure or put into contact with the foam without observing a catastrophic break-up of the foam...
August 2, 2017: Advances in Colloid and Interface Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28820220/real-time-plasmon-spectroscopy-study-of-the-solid-state-oxidation-and-kirkendall-void-formation-in-copper-nanoparticles
#3
Mariano D Susman, Yishai Feldman, Tatyana A Bendikov, Alexander Vaskevich, Israel Rubinstein
Oxidation and corrosion reactions have a major effect on the application of non-noble metals. Kinetic information and simple theoretical models are often insufficient for describing such processes in metals at the nanoscale, particularly in cases involving formation of internal voids (nano Kirkendall effect, NKE) during oxidation. Here we study the kinetics of solid-state oxidation of chemically-grown copper nanoparticles (NPs) by in situ localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) spectroscopy during isothermal annealing in the range 110-170 °C...
August 18, 2017: Nanoscale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28820214/mediated-water-electrolysis-in-biphasic-systems
#4
Micheál D Scanlon, Pekka Peljo, Lucie Rivier, Heron Vrubel, Hubert H Girault
The concept of efficient electrolysis by linking photoelectrochemical biphasic H2 evolution and water oxidation processes in the cathodic and anodic compartments of an H-cell, respectively, is introduced. Overpotentials at the cathode and anode are minimised by incorporating light-driven elements into both biphasic reactions. The concepts viability is demonstrated by electrochemical H2 production from water splitting utilising a polarised water-organic interface in the cathodic compartment of a prototype H-cell...
August 18, 2017: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28817279/soft-chemical-fabrication-of-iron-based-thin-film-electrocatalyst-for-water-oxidation-under-neutral-ph-and-structure-activity-tuning-by-cerium-incorporation
#5
Jony Saha, T P Radhakrishnan
Design of electrocatalysts for the fundamentally important oxygen evolution reaction can be greatly aided by systematic structure-activity tuning via composition variation. We have explored the iron-cerium system as they are the most abundant transition and rare earth metals, and also due to the mutualistic impact of their size and electronic attributes that can induce critical changes in the structure and electrochemical activity. Submicrometer thick films of a series of Fe(III)-Ce(III) phosphate(oxyhydroxide) (FeCePH) are fabricated using a soft chemical strategy involving surfactant-aided assembly, spin-coating, and mild thermal annealing...
August 17, 2017: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28816305/real-time-atomic-scale-observation-of-void-formation-and-anisotropic-growth-in-ii-vi-semiconducting-ribbons
#6
Xing Huang, Travis Jones, Hua Fan, Marc-Georg Willinger
Void formation in semiconductors is generally considered to be deteriorating. However, for some systems, void formation and evolution are beneficial and can be used for the fabrication of novel nanostructures. In either scenario, the understanding of void formation and evolution is of both scientific and technical high importance. Herein, using ZnS ribbons as an example, we report real-time observations of void formation and the kinetics of growth at the nano- and atomic scales upon heating. Direct imaging reveals that voids, created by a focused electron beam in wurtzite (WZ) ribbons, have a rectangular shape elongated along the <0001> direction...
August 17, 2017: Nanoscale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28814077/temperature-dependent-two-dimensional-transition-metal-dichalcogenide-heterostructures-controlled-synthesis-and-their-properties
#7
Fei Chen, Lei Wang, Xiaohong Ji, Qinyuan Zhang
Vertical stacked and lateral stitched heterostructures consisting of two-dimensional (2D) transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDCs) are predicted to possess novel electronic and optical properties, which offer the opportunities for the development of next-generation of electronic and optoelectronic devices. In the present work, we report temperature-dependent synthesis of 2D TMDCs heterostructures on Si/SiO2 substrate, including MoS2-WS2, WS2-MoS2-WS2, Mo1-xWxS2-WS2, and Mo1-xWxS2 alloyed bilayer heterostructures by ambient pressure chemical vapor deposition (CVD)...
August 17, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813591/on-surface-oligomerization-of-self-terminating-molecular-chains-for-the-design-of-spintronic-devices
#8
Emil Sierda, Mikel Abadia, Jens Brede, Micha Elsebach, Bernhard Bugenhagen, Marc Heinrich Prosenc, Maciej Bazarnik, Roland Wiesendanger
Molecular spintronics is currently attracting a lot of attention due to its great advantages over traditional electronics. A variety of self-assembled molecule-based devices are under development, but studies regarding the reliability of the growth-process remain rare. Here, we present a method to control the length of molecular spintronic chains and to make their terminations chemically inert, thereby suppressing uncontrolled coupling to surface defects. The temperature evolution of chain formation was followed by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, to determine optimal growth conditions...
August 16, 2017: ACS Nano
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812648/fungus-like-mycelial-fossils-in-2-4-billion-year-old-vesicular-basalt
#9
Stefan Bengtson, Birger Rasmussen, Magnus Ivarsson, Janet Muhling, Curt Broman, Federica Marone, Marco Stampanoni, Andrey Bekker
Fungi have recently been found to comprise a significant part of the deep biosphere in oceanic sediments and crustal rocks. Fossils occupying fractures and pores in Phanerozoic volcanics indicate that this habitat is at least 400 million years old, but its origin may be considerably older. A 2.4-billion-year-old basalt from the Palaeoproterozoic Ongeluk Formation in South Africa contains filamentous fossils in vesicles and fractures. The filaments form mycelium-like structures growing from a basal film attached to the internal rock surfaces...
April 24, 2017: Nature ecology & evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812194/amorphous-silica-promoted-lysine-dimerization-a-thermodynamic-prediction
#10
Norio Kitadai, Kumiko Nishiuchi, Akari Nishii, Keisuke Fukushi
It has long been suggested that mineral surfaces played a crucial role in the abiotic polymerization of amino acids that preceded the origin of life. Nevertheless, it remains unclear where the prebiotic process took place on the primitive Earth, because the amino acid-mineral interaction and its dependence on environmental conditions have yet to be understood adequately. Here we examined experimentally the adsorption of L-lysine (Lys) and its dimer (LysLys) on amorphous silica over a wide range of pH, ionic strength, adsorbate concentration, and the solid/water ratio, and determined the reaction stoichiometries and the equilibrium constants based on the extended triple-layer model (ETLM)...
August 15, 2017: Origins of Life and Evolution of the Biosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28810788/direct-measurement-of-site-specific-rates-of-reactions-of-h-with-c3h8-i-c4h10-and-n-c4h10
#11
Chia-Chieh Lin, Wei-Yu Chen, Hiroyuki Matsui, Niann-Shiah Wang
We measured the rates of abstraction of a hydrogen atom from specific sites in propane C3H8, 2-methyl propane (i-C4H10), and butane (n-C4H10); the sites are a primary hydrogen of C3H8 and i-C4H10 and a secondary hydrogen of n-C4H10. The excellent reproducibility of conditions of a diaphragm-less shock tube enabled us to conduct comparative measurements of the evolution of H atoms in three mixtures-(i) 0.5 ppm C2H5I + Ar, (ii) 0.5 ppm C2H5I + 50-100 ppm alkane as C3H8 or i-C4H10 or n-C4H10 + Ar, and (iii) the same concentrations of alkane + Ar without C2H5I-in the temperature range 1000-1200 K and at a pressure of 2...
August 14, 2017: Journal of Chemical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28810205/chemical-composition-source-and-process-of-urban-aerosols-during-winter-haze-formation-in-northeast-china
#12
Jian Zhang, Lei Liu, Yuanyuan Wang, Yong Ren, Xin Wang, Zongbo Shi, Daizhou Zhang, Huizheng Che, Hujia Zhao, Yanfei Liu, Hongya Niu, Jianmin Chen, Xiaoye Zhang, A P Lingaswamy, Zifa Wang, Weijun Li
The characteristics of aerosol particles have been poorly evaluated even though haze episodes frequently occur in winter in Northeast China. OC/EC analysis, ion chromatography, and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) were used to investigate the organic carbon (OC) and elemental carbon (EC), and soluble ions in PM2.5 and the mixing state of individual particles during a severe wintertime haze episode in Northeast China. The organic matter (OM), NH4(+), SO4(2-), and NO3(-) concentrations in PM2.5 were 89...
August 12, 2017: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28809983/controllable-synthesis-of-inorganic-organic-zn1-xcdxs-deta-solid-solution-nanoflowers-and-their-enhanced-visible-light-photocatalytic-hydrogen-production-performance
#13
Jiali Lv, Jinfeng Zhang, Kai Dai, Changhao Liang, Guangping Zhu, Zhongliao Wang, Zhen Li
Sustainable photocatalytic hydrogen evolution (PHE) of water splitting has been utilized to solve the serious environmental pollution and energy shortage problems over the last decade. Inorganic-organic hybrid materials could combine the organic molecules and functional inorganic blocks into unique materials through complicated physical and chemical interactions. In this paper, diethylenetriamine (DETA) was used as an organic molecule template for the synthesis of inorganic-organic Zn1-xCdxS-DETA solid solution nanoflowers (NFs) at very low temperature...
August 15, 2017: Dalton Transactions: An International Journal of Inorganic Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28809816/modeling-the-non-equilibrium-process-of-the-chemical-adsorption-of-ammonia-on-gan-0001-reconstructed-surfaces-based-on-steepest-entropy-ascent-quantum-thermodynamics
#14
Akira Kusaba, Guanchen Li, Michael R von Spakovsky, Yoshihiro Kangawa, Koichi Kakimoto
Clearly understanding elementary growth processes that depend on surface reconstruction is essential to controlling vapor-phase epitaxy more precisely. In this study, ammonia chemical adsorption on GaN(0001) reconstructed surfaces under metalorganic vapor phase epitaxy (MOVPE) conditions (3Ga-H and Nad-H + Ga-H on a 2 × 2 unit cell) is investigated using steepest-entropy-ascent quantum thermodynamics (SEAQT). SEAQT is a thermodynamic-ensemble based, first-principles framework that can predict the behavior of non-equilibrium processes, even those far from equilibrium where the state evolution is a combination of reversible and irreversible dynamics...
August 15, 2017: Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28809114/boolean-logic-tree-of-label-free-dual-signal-electrochemical-aptasensor-system-for-biosensing-three-state-logic-computation-and-keypad-lock-security-operation
#15
Jiao Yang Lu, Xin Xing Zhang, Wei Tao Huang, Qiu Yan Zhu, Xuezhi Ding, Liqiu Xia, Hong Qun Luo, Nian Bing Li
The most serious and yet unsolved problems of molecular logic computing, consist in how to connect molecular events in complex systems into a usable device with specific functions and how to selectively control branchy logic processes from the cascading logic systems. This report demonstrates that Boolean logic tree is utilized to organize and connect "plug and play" chemical events DNA, nanomaterials, organic dye, biomolecule, and denaturant for developing the dual-signal electrochemical evolution aptasensor system with good resettability for amplification detection of thrombin, controllable and selectable three-state logic computation and keypad lock security operation...
August 15, 2017: Analytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28808709/phase-diagram-and-structural-evolution-of-tin-indium-sn-in-nanosolder-particles-from-a-non-equilibrium-state-to-an-equilibrium-state
#16
Yang Shu, Teiichi Ando, Qiyue Yin, Guangwen Zhou, Zhiyong Gu
A binary system of tin/indium (Sn/In) in the form of nanoparticles was investigated for phase transitions and structural evolution at different temperatures and compositions. The Sn/In nanosolder particles in the composition range of 24-72 wt% In were synthesized by a surfactant-assisted chemical reduction method under ambient conditions. The morphology and microstructure of the as-synthesized nanoparticles were analyzed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM), selected area electron diffraction (SAED) and X-ray diffraction (XRD)...
August 15, 2017: Nanoscale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28805643/the-evolution-of-cuticular-fertility-signals-in-eusocial-insects
#17
REVIEW
Adrian A Smith, Jürgen Liebig
A reproductive division of labor is a definitive characteristic of eusocial insect societies and it requires a means through which colony members can assess the presence and productivity of reproductive individuals. Cuticular hydrocarbons are the primary means of doing so across eusocial hymenopterans. However, recent experimental work presents conflicting views on how these chemical signals function, are interpreted by workers, and evolve. These recent advances include demonstrations of hydrocarbons as evolutionarily conserved 'queen pheromones' and as species-divergent 'fertility signals' used by both queens and workers...
August 2017: Current Opinion in Insect Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28803753/recent-progresses-in-biomedical-applications-of-aptamer-functionalized-systems
#18
REVIEW
Fei Ding, Yangguang Gao, Xianran He
Aptamers, known as "chemical antibodies" are screened via a combinational technology of systematic evolution of ligands by exponential enrichment (SELEX). Due to their specific targeting ability, high binding affinity, low immunogenicity and easy modification, aptamer-functionalized systems have been extensively applied in various fields and exhibit favorable results. However, there is still a long way for them to be commercialized, and few aptamer-functionalized systems have yet successfully entered clinical and industrial use...
March 18, 2017: Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28802999/primordial-membranes-more-than-simple-container-boundaries
#19
REVIEW
Martin M Hanczyc, Pierre-Alain Monnard
Cellular membranes, which are self-assembled bilayer structures mainly composed of lipids, proteins and conjugated polysaccharides, are the defining feature of cell physiology. It is likely that the complexity of contemporary cells was preceded by simpler chemical systems or protocells during the various evolutionary stages that led from inanimate to living matter. It is also likely that primitive membranes played a similar role in protocell 'physiology'. The composition of such ancestral membranes has been proposed as mixtures of single hydrocarbon chain amphiphiles, which are simpler versions of modern lipids...
August 10, 2017: Current Opinion in Chemical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28800243/kinetically-driven-phase-transformation-during-lithiation-in-copper-sulfide-nanoflakes
#20
Kai He, Zhenpeng Yao, Sooyeon Hwang, Na Li, Ke Sun, Hong Gan, Yaping Du, Hua Zhang, Chris Wolverton, Dong Su
Two-dimensional (2D) transition metal chalcogenides have been widely studied and utilized as electrode materials for lithium ion batteries due to their unique layered structures to accommodate reversible lithium insertion. Real-time observation and mechanistic understanding of the phase transformations during lithiation of these materials are critically important for improving battery performance by controlling structures and reaction pathways. Here, we use in situ transmission electron microscopy methods to study the structural, morphological, and chemical evolutions in individual copper sulfide (CuS) nanoflakes during lithiation...
August 11, 2017: Nano Letters
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