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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29782991/beneficial-and-paradoxical-roles-of-selenium-at-nutritional-levels-of-intake-in-healthspan-and-longevity
#1
REVIEW
Li Zhang, Huawei Zeng, Wen-Hsing Cheng
Accumulation of genome and macromolecule damage is a hallmark of aging, age-associated degeneration, and genome instability syndromes. Although processes of aging are irreversible, they can be modulated by genome maintenance pathways and environmental factors such as diet. Selenium (Se) confers its physiological functions mainly through selenoproteins, but Se compounds and other proteins that incorporate Se nonspecifically also impact optimal health. Bruce Ames proposed that the aging process could be mitigated by a subset of low-hierarchy selenoproteins whose levels are preferentially reduced in response to Se deficiency...
May 18, 2018: Free Radical Biology & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29782974/molecular-therapy-using-sirna-recent-trends-and-advances-of-multi-target-inhibition-of-cancer-growth
#2
REVIEW
Shweta Jain, Kamla Pathak, Ankur Vaidya
RNA interference (RNAi) therapy, harnessed to produce a new class of drugs for treatment, has drawn attention and seen steady progress over the years. Molecular therapy using biological macromolecules small interfering RNA (siRNA) for gene silencing has received significant attention to target cancer-related genes. Basically, siRNA molecules bind to messenger RNAs (mRNA) by complementary base pairing, to induce degradation of the mRNA and/or block protein synthesis. Numerous genes and gene related proteins have been reported till date to target in siRNA based cancer therapy...
May 18, 2018: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29780980/charge-and-hydration-structure-of-dendritic-polyelectrolytes-molecular-simulations-of-polyglycerol-sulphate
#3
Rohit Nikam, Xiao Xu, Matthias Ballauff, Matej Kanduč, Joachim Dzubiella
Macromolecules based on dendritic or hyperbranched polyelectrolytes have been emerging as high potential candidates for biomedical applications. Here we study the charge and solvation structure of dendritic polyglycerol sulphate (dPGS) of generations 0 to 3 in aqueous sodium chloride solution by explicit-solvent molecular dynamics computer simulations. We characterize dPGS by calculating several important properties such as relevant dPGS radii, molecular distributions, the solvent accessible surface area, and the partial molecular volume...
May 21, 2018: Soft Matter
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29779478/exosomes-in-therapy-engineering-pharmacokinetic-and-future-applications
#4
Claudia Arenaccio, Chiara Chiozzini, Flavia Ferrantelli, Patrizia Leone, Eleonora Olivetta, Maurizio Federico
BACKGROUND: Eukaryotic cells release vesicles of different sizes under both physiological and pathological conditions. On the basis of the respective biogenesis, extracellular vesicles are classified as apoptotic bodies, microvesicles, and exosomes. Among these, exosomes are considered tools for innovative therapeutic interventions, especially when engineered with effector molecules. The delivery functions of exosomes are favored by a number of typical features. These include their small size (i...
May 20, 2018: Current Drug Targets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29777936/fast-synthesis-of-porous-copper-nanoclusters-for-fluorescence-detection-of-iron-ions-in-water-samples
#5
Yihong Huang, Hanqiang Zhang, Xiaofen Xu, Jiangcong Zhou, Fenfen Lu, Zhusen Zhang, Zhibiao Hu, Jiangshui Luo
Copper nanoclusters (Cu NCs) have attracted great research interest in recent years owing to its unique physical, electrical and optical properties. Macromolecules have been widely used as templates to synthesize fluorescent Cu NCs. In this study, a simple method for synthesis of albumin chicken egg capped porous copper nanoclusters (p-Cu NCs) was developed for the first time. The obtained p-Cu NCs exhibited intense emission and excitation peaks at 280 nm and 340 nm, respectively. Besides, the p-Cu NCs fluorescence probe could be quenched by Fe3+ ions in aqueous solutions...
May 9, 2018: Spectrochimica Acta. Part A, Molecular and Biomolecular Spectroscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29776140/universal-size-properties-of-a-star-ring-polymer-structure-in-disordered-environments
#6
K Haydukivska, V Blavatska
We consider the complex polymer system, consisting of a ring polymer connected to the f_{1}-branched starlike structure, in a good solvent in the presence of structural inhomogeneities. In particular cases f_{1}=1 and f_{1}=2, such a system restores the synthesized tadpole-shaped polystyrenes [Doi et al., Macromolecules 46, 1075 (2013)MAMOBX0024-929710.1021/ma302511j]. We assume that structural defects are correlated at large distances x according to a power law x^{-a}. Applying the direct polymer renormalization approach, we evaluate the universal size characteristics such as the ratio of the radii of gyration of star-ring and star topologies, and compare the effective sizes of single arms in complex structures and isolated polymers of the same total molecular weight...
March 2018: Physical Review. E
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775237/yolk-accumulation-in-an-insect-oocyte
#7
Isabela Ramos
Oocytes are remarkable cells in the matter of accumulating macronutrients. Oviparous animals have evolved to produce germline cells that not only enter meiosis to generate a gamete, but also differentiate into a giant cell designed to support embryo growth. To accomplish that, an oocyte typically grows up to 5,000x its original size by accumulating macromolecules, which are collectively referred to as yolk. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
May 18, 2018: Molecular Reproduction and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29774971/3d-dna-origami-crystals
#8
Tao Zhang, Caroline Hartl, Kilian Frank, Amelie Heuer-Jungemann, Stefan Fischer, Philipp C Nickels, Bert Nickel, Tim Liedl
3D crystals assembled entirely from DNA provide a route to design materials on a molecular level and to arrange guest particles in predefined lattices. This requires design schemes that provide high rigidity and sufficiently large open guest space. A DNA-origami-based "tensegrity triangle" structure that assembles into a 3D rhombohedral crystalline lattice with an open structure in which 90% of the volume is empty space is presented here. Site-specific placement of gold nanoparticles within the lattice demonstrates that these crystals are spacious enough to efficiently host 20 nm particles in a cavity size of 1...
May 18, 2018: Advanced Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29774472/uncooked-spaghetti-in-a-colander-injection-of-semiflexible-polymers-in-a-nanopore
#9
Thomas Auger, Loïc Auvray, Jean-Marc Di Meglio, Fabien Montel
We study the flow injection of semiflexible polymers in a nanopore with a diameter smaller than the persistence length of the macromolecules. The suction model from de Gennes and Brochard is modified to take into account the effect of the rigidity of the polymer in the Odijk regime. We show that in this case of extreme confinement the flow threshold vanishes slowly and that in the limit of infinitely small nanopore the free energy barrier eventually disappears.
May 17, 2018: European Physical Journal. E, Soft Matter
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29773918/rna-modifying-proteins-as-anticancer-drug-targets
#10
REVIEW
P Ann Boriack-Sjodin, Scott Ribich, Robert A Copeland
All major biological macromolecules (DNA, RNA, proteins and lipids) undergo enzyme-catalysed covalent modifications that impact their structure, function and stability. A variety of covalent modifications of RNA have been identified and demonstrated to affect RNA stability and translation to proteins; these mechanisms of translational control have been termed epitranscriptomics. Emerging data suggest that some epitranscriptomic mechanisms are altered in human cancers as well as other human diseases. In this Review, we examine the current understanding of RNA modifications with a focus on mRNA methylation, highlight their possible roles in specific cancer indications and discuss the emerging potential of RNA-modifying proteins as therapeutic targets...
May 18, 2018: Nature Reviews. Drug Discovery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29773368/mutlifunctional-nanoparticles-prepared-from-arginine-modified-chitosan-and-thiolated-fucoidan-for-oral-delivery-of-hydrophobic-and-hydrophilic-drugs
#11
Chien-Ho Chen, Yung-Song Lin, Shao-Jung Wu, Fwu-Long Mi
Self-assembled nanoparticles (NPs) from arginine-modified chitosan (CS-N-Arg) and thiolated fucoidan (THL-fucoidan) were synthesized to enhance the transport of dextran and curcumin across intestinal epithelial cell layer. CS-N-Arg/THL-fucoidan NPs exhibited a pH-sensitive assembly-disassembly and drug release property. Evaluations of the NPs in enhancing the transport of a hydrophilic macromolecule (FITC-dextran) and a hydrophobic drug (curcumin) were investigated in Caco-2 cell monolayers. The cationic CS-N-Arg in the NPs induced disruption of intestinal epithelial tight junctions as indicated by the decrease of transepithelial electrical resistance (TEER)...
August 1, 2018: Carbohydrate Polymers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29772557/high-density-lipoprotein-carbamylation-and-dysfunction-in-vascular-disease
#12
Jeans Miguel Santana, Clinton Douglas Brown
High-density lipoprotein (HDL) is cardioprotective because of its anti-atherogenic properties. Nevertheless, our goal to optimize HDL cholesterol (HDL-C) levels have had little effects on the atherothrombotic burden and suggests a closer look be taken at HDL function and dysfunction. HDL is a group of complex macromolecules composed of a lipid- and proteome that work in synergy to execute its anti-inflammatory, anti-atherogenic, and anti-thrombotic effects. However, throughout its life-span in circulation, HDL undergoes significant modification...
June 1, 2018: Frontiers in Bioscience (Landmark Edition)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29772223/design-of-a-small-scale-multi-inlet-vortex-mixer-for-scalable-nanoparticle-production-and-application-to-the-encapsulation-of-biologics-by-inverse-flash-nanoprecipitation
#13
Chester E Markwalter, Robert K Prud'homme
Flash NanoPrecipitation (FNP) is a scalable approach to generate polymeric nanoparticles using rapid micromixing in specially-designed geometries such as a confined impinging jets (CIJ) mixer or a Multi-Inlet Vortex Mixer (MIVM). A major limitation of formulation screening using the MIVM is that a single run requires tens of milligrams of the therapeutic. To overcome this, we have developed a scaled-down version of the MIVM, requiring as little as 0.2 mg of therapeutic, for formulation screening. The redesigned mixer can then be attached to pumps for scale-up of the identified formulation...
May 14, 2018: Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29771681/selective-adsorption-of-oppositely-charged-pnipaam-on-halloysite-surfaces-a-route-to-thermo-responsive-nanocarriers
#14
Giuseppe Cavallaro, Giuseppe Lazzara, Lorenzo Lisuzzo, Stefana Milioto, Filippo Parisi
Halloysite nanotubes were functionalized with stimuli-responsive macromolecules to generate smart nanohybrids. Poly(N-isopropylacrylamide)-co-methacrylic acid (PNIPAAM-co-MA) was selectively adsorbed into halloysite lumen by exploiting electrostatic interactions. Amine-terminated PNIPAAM polymer was also investigated that selectively interacts with the outer surface of the nanotubes. The adsorption site has a profound effect on the thermodynamic behavior and therefore temperature responsive features of the hybrid material...
May 17, 2018: Nanotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29768406/silencing-of-rpatg6-impaired-the-yolk-accumulation-and-the-biogenesis-of-the-yolk-organelles-in-the-insect-vector-r-prolixus
#15
Priscila H Vieira, Larissa Bomfim, Georgia C Atella, Hatisaburo Masuda, Isabela Ramos
In oviparous animals, the egg yolk is synthesized by the mother in a major metabolic challenge, where the different yolk components are secreted to the hemolymph and delivered to the oocytes mostly by endocytosis. The yolk macromolecules are then stored in a wide range of endocytic-originated vesicles which are collectively referred to as yolk organelles and occupy most of the mature oocytes cytoplasm. After fertilization, the contents of these organelles are degraded in a regulated manner to supply the embryo cells with fundamental molecules for de novo synthesis...
May 16, 2018: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29768261/n-cadherin-attenuates-high-glucose-induced-nucleus-pulposus-cell-senescence-through-regulation-of-the-ros-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-pathway
#16
Gang Hou, Huiqing Zhao, Haijun Teng, Pei Li, Wenbin Xu, Junbin Zhang, Lulu Lv, Zhiliang Guo, Li Wei, Hui Yao, Yichun Xu
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a potential etiology of disc degeneration. N-cadherin (N-CDH) helps maintain the cell viability, cell phenotype and matrix biosynthesis of nucleus pulposus (NP) cells. Here, we mainly aimed to investigate whether N-CDH can attenuate high glucose-induced NP cell senescence and its potential mechanism. METHODS: Rat NP cells were cultured in a base culture medium and base culture medium with a 0.2 M glucose concentration. Recombinant lentiviral vectors were used to enhance N-CDH expression in NP cells...
May 11, 2018: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29765606/a-new-mr-sad-algorithm-for-the-automatic-building-of-protein-models-from-low-resolution-x-ray-data-and-a-poor-starting-model
#17
Pavol Skubák, Demet Araç, Matthew W Bowler, Ana R Correia, Andre Hoelz, Sine Larsen, Gordon A Leonard, Andrew A McCarthy, Sean McSweeney, Christoph Mueller-Dieckmann, Harm Otten, Gabriel Salzman, Navraj S Pannu
Determining macromolecular structures from X-ray data with resolution worse than 3 Å remains a challenge. Even if a related starting model is available, its incompleteness or its bias together with a low observation-to-parameter ratio can render the process unsuccessful or very time-consuming. Yet, many biologically important macromolecules, especially large macromolecular assemblies, membrane proteins and receptors, tend to provide crystals that diffract to low resolution. A new algorithm to tackle this problem is presented that uses a multivariate function to simultaneously exploit information from both an initial partial model and low-resolution single-wavelength anomalous diffraction data...
March 1, 2018: IUCrJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29765407/effects-of-transplanted-heparin-poloxamer-hydrogel-combining-dental-pulp-stem-cells-and-bfgf-on-spinal-cord-injury-repair
#18
Lihua Luo, Abdullkhaleg Ali Albashari, Xiaoyan Wang, Ling Jin, Yanni Zhang, Lina Zheng, Jianjian Xia, Helin Xu, Yingzheng Zhao, Jian Xiao, Yan He, Qingsong Ye
Spinal cord injury (SCI) is one of serious traumatic diseases of the central nervous system and has no effective treatment because of its complicated pathophysiology. Tissue engineering strategy which contains scaffolds, cells, and growth factors can provide a promising treatment for SCI. Hydrogel that has 3D network structure and biomimetic microenvironment can support cellular growth and embed biological macromolecules for sustaining release. Dental pulp stem cells (DPSCs), derived from cranial neural crest, possess mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) characteristics and have an ability to provide neuroprotective and neurotrophic properties for SCI treatment...
2018: Stem Cells International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29763383/eb-2017-article-soy-protein-isolate-feeding-does-not-result-in-reproductive-toxicity-in-the-pre-pubertal-rat-testis
#19
Martin Jj Ronis, Horacio Gomez-Acevedo, Kartik Shankar, Neha Sharma, Michael Blackburn, Rohit Singhal, Kelly E Mercer, Thomas M Badger
The isoflavone phytoestrogens found in the soy protein isolate used in soy infant formulas have been shown to have estrogenic actions in the developing male reproductive tract resulting in reproductive toxicity. However, few studies have examined potential estrogenicity of soy protein isolate as opposed to that of pure isoflavones. In this study, we fed weanling male Sprague-Dawley rats a semi-purified diet with casein or soy protein isolate as the sole protein source from postnatal day 21 to 33. Additional groups were fed casein or soy protein isolate and treated s...
May 2018: Experimental Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29761848/preparative-free-flow-electrophoresis-a-versatile-technology-complementing-gradient-centrifugation-in-the-isolation-of-highly-purified-cell-organelles
#20
REVIEW
Markus Islinger, Robert Wildgruber, Alfred Völkl
Free-flow electrophoresis (FFE) exploits differences in the overall charge of bio-particles separating cells, organelles, macromolecules, ions etc. according to their distinct electrophoretic mobility and isoelectric point (pI) values. Indeed, around a neutral pH organelles usually exhibit a negative surface charge, migrating in an electric field from the cathode towards the anode. Since its introduction more than five decades ago by Barrollier et al. (1958) and Hannig (1961), FFE has become an established analytical and preparative separation method for the isolation of a variety of organelles...
May 15, 2018: Electrophoresis
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