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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544850/pcpp-adjuvanted-respiratory-syncytial-virus-rsv-sf-subunit-vaccine-self-assembled-supramolecular-complexes-enable-enhanced-immunogenicity-and-protection
#1
Corinne Cayatte, Alexander Marin, Gaurav Manohar Rajani, Kirsten Schneider-Ohrum, Angie Snell Bennett, Jason D Marshall, Alexander K Andrianov
PCPP, a well-defined polyphosphazene macromolecule, has been studied as an immunoadjuvant for a soluble form of the post-fusion glycoprotein (RSV sF) of RSV, which is an attractive vaccine candidate for inducing RSV-specific immunity in mice and humans. We demonstrate that RSV sF-PCPP formulations induce high neutralization titers to RSV comparable to Alum formulations even at a low PCPP dose and protect animals against viral challenge both in the lung and upper respiratory tract. PCPP formulations were also characterized by Th1-biased responses, compared to Th2-biased responses that are more typical for RSV sF alone or RSV sF-Alum formulations, suggesting an inherent immunostimulating activity of the polyphosphazene adjuvant...
May 25, 2017: Molecular Pharmaceutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28543856/experimental-charge-density-from-electron-microscopic-maps
#2
Jimin Wang
The charge density (CD) distribution of an atom is the difference per unit volume between the positive charge of its nucleus and the distribution of the negative charges carried by the electrons that are associated with it. The CDs of the atoms in macromolecules are responsible for their electrostatic potential (ESP) distributions, which can now be visualized using cryo-electron microscopy at high resolution. CD maps can be recovered from experimental ESP density maps using the negative Laplacian operation...
May 20, 2017: Protein Science: a Publication of the Protein Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28543840/imaging-of-nuclear-overhauser-enhancement-at-7-and-3%C3%A2-t
#3
Yuanyu Shen, Gang Xiao, Zhiwei Shen, Xiaolei Zhang, Xiangyong Tang, Wei Hu, Zhiyan Zhang, Jitian Guan, Renhua Wu
Nuclear Overhauser enhancement (NOE) is a type of magnetization transfer using cross-relaxation. It originates from mobile macromolecules, which may have relevance to the evaluation of tumor features. We studied the value of NOE imaging at 7 and 3 T and suggest a utility for diagnosing human brain tumors. Two types of protein solution at different concentrations and pH values, and six normal Sprague Dawley (SD) rats, were used to detect NOE signal with a 7 T scanner. Then, six healthy volunteers and 11 patients with brain tumors (six gliomas and five meningiomas) were included at 3 T...
May 24, 2017: NMR in Biomedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28543531/isolation-structure-and-bioactivities-of-polysaccharides-from-cyclocarya-paliurus-batal-iljinskaja
#4
REVIEW
Qiqiong Li, Jielun Hu, Jianhua Xie, Shaoping Nie, Ming-Yong Xie
Cyclocarya paliurus (Batal.) Iljinskaja, a well-known edible and medicinal plant, has been widely used in China as a traditional medicine for treating hypertension and diabetes. C. paliurus possesses various bioactivities, such as antihyperglycemic, antihyperlipidemic, antihypertensive, anticancer, antifatigue, antioxidation, antimicrobial, colon health-promoting, and immunological activities. Polysaccharides, as natural macromolecules with various biological activities, are considered to be the main effective components in C...
May 22, 2017: Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28542211/f%C3%A3-rster-resonance-energy-transfer-role-of-diffusion-of-fluorophore-orientation-and-separation-in-observed-shifts-of-fret-efficiency
#5
Bram Wallace, Paul J Atzberger
Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET) is a widely used single-molecule technique for measuring nanoscale distances from changes in the non-radiative transfer of energy between donor and acceptor fluorophores. For macromolecules and complexes this observed transfer efficiency is used to infer changes in molecular conformation under differing experimental conditions. However, sometimes shifts are observed in the FRET efficiency even when there is strong experimental evidence that the molecular conformational state is unchanged...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28542095/magnetization-transfer-magnetic-resonance-imaging-noninvasively-detects-renal-fibrosis-in-swine-atherosclerotic-renal-artery-stenosis-at-3-0-t
#6
Kai Jiang, Christopher M Ferguson, John R Woollard, Xiangyang Zhu, Lilach O Lerman
OBJECTIVES: Renal fibrosis is a useful biomarker for diagnosis and evaluation of therapeutic interventions of renal diseases but often requires invasive testing. Magnetization transfer magnetic resonance imaging (MT-MRI), which evaluates the presence of macromolecules, offers a noninvasive tool to probe renal fibrosis in murine renal artery stenosis (RAS) at 16.4 T. In this study, we aimed to identify appropriate imaging parameters for collagen detection at 3.0 T MRI and to test the utility of MT-MRI in measuring renal fibrosis in a swine model of atherosclerotic RAS (ARAS)...
May 24, 2017: Investigative Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28541512/the-interplay-between-metabolic-remodeling-and-immune-regulation-in-glioblastoma
#7
Pravin Kesarwani, Shiva Kant, Antony Prabhu, Prakash Chinnaiyan
The fields of tumor metabolism and immune oncology have both independently received considerable attention over the last several years. The majority of research in tumor metabolism has largely focused on the Warburg effect and its resulting biologic consequences, including energy and macromolecule production. However, recent investigations have identified elegant, multifaceted strategies by which alterations in tumor metabolism can also contribute towards a potent tolerogenic immune environment. One of the most notable is increased tryptophan metabolism through activation of the indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase 1 (IDO1) and tryptophan 2,3-dioxygenase (TDO) pathways...
May 25, 2017: Neuro-oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28541299/antinuclear-antibody-testing-misunderstood-or-misbegotten
#8
REVIEW
David S Pisetsky
Antinuclear antibodies (ANAs) are a diverse group of autoantibodies that recognize nuclear macromolecules and their complexes. ANAs represent key biomarkers in the evaluation of rheumatic diseases, most prominently systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), and ANA testing is commonly performed in the clinical setting. In addition, ANA testing is now used to assess eligibility for participation in clinical trials of new therapeutic agents for SLE. ANAs can be assayed by various techniques, with the fluorescent ANA assay often viewed as the gold standard...
May 25, 2017: Nature Reviews. Rheumatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28540426/genetic-analysis-of-heterogeneous-sub-clones-in-recombinant-chinese-hamster-ovary-cells
#9
Kaiming Chen, Dong Li, Hongwen Li, Bing Li, Jie Li, Lei Huang, Renhao Li, Xiaoqing Xu, Lingxiao Jiang, Cizhong Jiang, Hua Gu, Jianmin Fang
Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells have been widely used for production of recombinant proteins and therapeutic antibodies. However, owing to the instability and heterogeneity of CHO cells, the development of stable and high-expression recombinant CHO cell lines is often time-consuming. To investigate the mechanisms associated with heterogeneity in protein productivity, we performed transcriptome analysis on the subclones derived from a stable parental CHO clone. Two high-expression subclones and one low-expression subclone were selected based on their similar genomic background and subjected to RNA-seq analysis...
May 24, 2017: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28538687/on-forgotten-topological-indices-of-some-dendrimers-structure
#10
Yasir Bashir, Adnan Aslam, Muhammad Kamran, Muhammad Imran Qureshi, Adnan Jahangir, Muhammad Rafiq, Nargis Bibi, Nazeer Muhammad
A series of previously conducted experiments pertaining to various chemicals and drugs uncover a natural linkage between the molecular structures and the bio-medical and pharmacological characteristics. The forgotten topological index computed for the molecular structures of various chemical compounds and drugs has proven significant in medical and pharmaceutical fields by predicting biological features of new chemical compounds and drugs. A topological index can be considered as the transformation of chemical structure into a real number...
May 24, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28536019/in-vitro-studies-of-dna-condensation-by-bridging-protein-in-a-crowding-environment
#11
Sravani K Ramisetty, Petter Langlete, Rahmi Lale, Rita S Dias
The macromolecules of the bacterial cell occupy 20-40% of the total cytosol volume, and crowded environments have long been known to compact and stabilize DNA. Nevertheless, investigations on DNA-protein binding are generally performed in the absence of crowding, which may yield an incomplete understanding of how nucleoid-assembling proteins work. A family of such proteins, abundant in Gram-negative bacteria, is the histone-like nucleoid structuring proteins (H-NS). Herein, the synergistic role of macromolecular crowding (mimicked using polyethylene glycol, PEG) and H-NS was investigated using fluorescence correlation spectroscopy (FCS) and enzyme protection assays...
May 20, 2017: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28536018/physicochemical-and-functional-properties-of-ultrasonic-treated-tragacanth-hydrogels-cross-linked-to-lysozyme
#12
Roya Koshani, Mahmoud Aminlari
The purpose of this study was to prepare, characterize and investigate physiochemical and functional attributes of hen egg white lysozyme (LZM) cross-linked with ultrasonic-treated tragacanth (US-treated TGC) under mild Maillard reactions conditions. FT-IR spectroscopy together with OPA assay revealed that covalent attachment of LZM with TCG's. Under optimum condition (pH=8.5, 60°C, RH=79%, 8 days), only one of the free amino group of LZM was blocked by TGC whereas under the same condition, US treated-TGC's blocked about three amino groups...
May 20, 2017: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28535348/coarse-grained-modeling-of-polyethylene-melts-effect-on-dynamics
#13
Brandon L Peters, K Michael Salerno, Anupriya Agrawal, Dvora Perahia, Gary S Grest
The distinctive viscoelastic behavior of polymers results from a coupled interplay of motion on multiple length and time scales. Capturing the broad time and length scales of polymer motion remains a challenge. Using polyethylene (PE) as a model macromolecule, we construct coarse-grained (CG) models of PE with 3-6 methyl groups per CG bead and probe two critical aspects of the technique: pressure corrections required after iterative Boltzmann inversion (IBI) to generate CG potentials that match the pressure of reference fully-atomistic melt simulations and the transferability of CG potentials across temperatures...
May 23, 2017: Journal of Chemical Theory and Computation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28534676/applications-of-raman-spectroscopy-in-biopharmaceutical-manufacturing-a-short-review
#14
Kevin Buckley, Alan G Ryder
The production of active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs) is currently undergoing its biggest transformation in a century. The changes are based on the rapid and dramatic introduction of protein- and macromolecule-based drugs (collectively known as biopharmaceuticals) and can be traced back to the huge investment in biomedical science (in particular in genomics and proteomics) that has been ongoing since the 1970s. Biopharmaceuticals (or biologics) are manufactured using biological-expression systems (such as mammalian, bacterial, insect cells, etc...
June 2017: Applied Spectroscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28534010/autophagy-in-the-placenta
#15
REVIEW
Soo-Young Oh, Cheong-Rae Roh
Autophagy is an evolutionarily conserved catalytic process by which cytoplasmic components including damaged macromolecules and organelles are degraded. The role of autophagy includes adaptive responses to nutrition deprivation or intracellular stimuli. Although autophagosomes were first observed in early 1960s, it was 1990s that autophagy-related genes in yeast were identified and studied. Nowadays, the molecular machinery of autophagy and signaling pathway to various stimuli are almost outlined. Dysregulation of autophagic activity has been implicated in many human diseases including neurodegenerative diseases, infection and inflammation, and malignancies...
May 2017: Obstetrics & Gynecology Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28533535/tail-tubular-protein-a-a-dual-function-tail-protein-of-klebsiella-pneumoniae-bacteriophage-kp32
#16
Anna Pyra, Ewa Brzozowska, Krzysztof Pawlik, Andrzej Gamian, Miroslawa Dauter, Zbigniew Dauter
Tail tubular protein A (TTPA) is a structural tail protein of Klebsiella pneumoniae bacteriophage KP32, and is responsible for adhering the bacteriophage to host cells. For the first time, we found that TTPA also exhibits lytic activity towards capsular exopolysaccharide (EPS) of the multiresistant clinical strain of Klebsiella pneumoniae, PCM2713, and thus should be regarded as a dual-function macromolecule that exhibits both structural and enzymatic actions. Here, we present our crystallographic and enzymatic studies of TTPA...
May 22, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28531108/regulation-of-metabolic-activity-by-p53
#17
REVIEW
Jessica Flöter, Irem Kaymak, Almut Schulze
Metabolic reprogramming in cancer cells is controlled by the activation of multiple oncogenic signalling pathways in order to promote macromolecule biosynthesis during rapid proliferation. Cancer cells also need to adapt their metabolism to survive and multiply under the metabolically compromised conditions provided by the tumour microenvironment. The tumour suppressor p53 interacts with the metabolic network at multiple nodes, mostly to reduce anabolic metabolism and promote preservation of cellular energy under conditions of nutrient restriction...
May 20, 2017: Metabolites
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28529995/celebrating-more-than-a-century-of-research-on-antibodies-affirmation-through-negation-via-complex-formation
#18
Neil S Greenspan
In this brief commentary, I highlight the remarkable properties of antibodies (also known as immunoglobulins) revealed by more than 100 years of biomedical research. Since antibodies can be elicited through one or another means against almost any molecule or macromolecule, the universe of antibodies represents a sort of molecular mirror for the totality of molecules that make life possible. Consequently, as recounted below, antibodies play a role in almost every aspect of medicine and biomedical research.
2017: Pathogens & Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528949/synthesis-and-characterization-of-cellulose-silver-nanocomposites-from-bioflocculant-reducing-agent
#19
L Muthulakshmi, N Rajini, A Varada Rajalu, Suchart Siengchin, T Kathiresan
Microbial secreted polymers have high molecular weight due to the presence of repeated units of macromolecules. Some of the polymers are derived from natural resources, including marine and soil microorganisms. In nano-biotechnology people are using different biological agents in the preparation of metal nanoparticles. In this study, the microbial bioflocculant polymer was used as an agent in preparation of silver nanoparticles. The prepared nanoparticles were immobilized into the cellulose matrix. The presence of silver nanoparticles inside the cellulose matrix was confirmed by Scanning Electron Microscopic (SEM) and Transmission Electron Microscopic (TEM) analyses...
May 18, 2017: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528947/syntrophic-association-of-termite-gut-bacterial-symbionts-with-bifunctional-characteristics-of-cellulose-degrading-and-polyhydroxyalkanoate-producing-bacteria
#20
Balasubramanian Cibichakravarthy, Subramani Abinaya, Solai Ramatchandirane Prabagaran
The guild between higher termites and their partnership with the diverse community of bacteria and archaea in their gut is a marvel evolutionary achievement. Sustained attempts were made worldwide with a quest for identifying viable important biological macromolecule polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA) accumulating bacteria. Termite gut serve as a novel source for bacteria with dual properties like PHA production as well as cellulose degradation. Among 40 isolates cultivated, 32.5% turned positive for PCR based screening of PhaC gene...
May 18, 2017: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
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