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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29455461/population-density-mediates-the-interaction-between-pre-and-post-mating-sexual-selection
#1
Erin L McCullough, Bruno A Buzatto, Leigh W Simmons
When females mate with more than one male, sexual selection acts both before and after mating. The interaction between pre- and post-mating episodes of selection is expected to be context dependent, but few studies have investigated how total sexual selection changes under different ecological conditions. We examined how population density mediates the interaction between pre- and post-mating sexual selection by establishing replicate populations of the horned dung beetle Onthophagus taurus at low, medium, and high densities, and using microsatellite-based parentage analyses to measure male fitness...
February 17, 2018: Evolution; International Journal of Organic Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29454687/bioeconomics-of-sexed-semen-utilization-in-a-high-producing-holstein-friesian-dairy-herd
#2
D J Cottle, M Wallace, P Lonergan, A G Fahey
A bioeconomic, stochastic spreadsheet model, that included calculation of the net present value of the additional value of all future descendants resulting from increased selection intensity, was developed to study the profitability of using sexed semen in a high input-high output dairy herd. Three management strategies were modeled: (1) only heifers inseminated with sex-sorted semen and cows inseminated with unsorted semen; (2) both heifers and cows inseminated with sex-sorted semen; and (3) a reference scenario, in which all breeding females were inseminated with unsorted semen...
February 14, 2018: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453134/a-dose-dependent-relationship-between-copper-burden-in-female-urchin-gonads-and-developmental-impairment-of-their-offspring
#3
Nicole E Phillips, Agnes M Rouchon
We examined transgenerational effects of exposure to copper on early development of offspring in the urchin Evechinus chloroticus, and whether parental exposure mediated offspring response to a further low level exposure to copper during early development. Month-long exposure to elevated copper (25 μgL -1 ) in the laboratory increased copper in gonads of both males and females and reduced gonad size by almost half. There was a negative relationship between adult size and copper burden. Normal larval development and larval size four days after fertilization were both strongly, negatively related to the amount of copper in female gonads in a dose-dependent manner, but fertilization success was unaffected...
February 1, 2018: Marine Environmental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29452915/effect-of-male-body-mass-index-on-assisted-reproduction-treatment-outcome-an-updated-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#4
REVIEW
Rabia Mushtaq, Jyotsna Pundir, Chiara Achilli, Osama Naji, Yacoub Khalaf, Tarek El-Toukhy
Men with a body mass index (BMI) of 30 or over are more likely to have reduced fertility and fecundity rates. This systematic review and meta-analysis evaluated the effect of male BMI on IVF and intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) outcome. An electronic search for published literature was conducted in MEDLINE and EMBASE between 1966 and November 2016. Outcome measures were clinical pregnancy rates (CPR) and live birth rates (LBR) per IVF or ICSI cycle. Eleven studies were identified, including 14,372 cycles; nine reported CPR and seven reported LBR...
February 2, 2018: Reproductive Biomedicine Online
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29452261/maternal-betaine-administration-modulates-hepatic-type-1-iodothyronine-deiodinase-dio1-expression-in-chicken-offspring-through-epigenetic-modifications
#5
Zhen Hou, Qinwei Sun, Yun Hu, Shu Yang, Yibo Zong, Ruqian Zhao
As a feed additive, betaine is widely used in livestock production for its ability to promote growth. Our previous studies had reported that maternal betaine supplementation altered hepatic metabolism in offspring. But it remains unknown whether and how maternal betaine modulates metabolism of thyroid hormones in the offspring chickens by epigenetic modification. In this study, one hundred and twenty Rugao yellow-feathered laying hens were randomly divided into two groups, and were fed basal diet with or without 0...
February 13, 2018: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part B, Biochemistry & Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29449726/primary-well-differentiated-neuroendocrine-tumor-of-ovary-collides-with-mucinous-borderline-tumor-in-a-postmenopausal-female-a-report-of-case-and-review-of-literature
#6
M Shahid, A Siddiqi
Collision tumors represent a coexistence of two adjacent but histologically distinct tumors without histologic admixture in an organ. Primary well differentiated neuroendocrine tumor of ovary is rare and coexistent borderline mucinous tumor makes this association extremely rare. Although these tumors have been reported in other organs, its occurrence in ovary is rare. Collision tumor comprising primary neuroendocrine tumor of ovary and mucinous borderline tumor is an extremely rare occurrence. Here we report a case of this collision tumor in a postmenopausal female...
December 2017: Pathologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29448043/estrogen-serum-concentration-affects-blood-immune-cell-composition-and-polarization-in-human-females-under-controlled-ovarian-stimulation
#7
Pardes Habib, Daniela Dreymueller, Benjamin Rösing, Hannes Botung, Alexander Slowik, Adib Zendedel, Shahin Habib, Stefanie Hoffmann, Cordian Beyer
Estrogens modulate the immune system and possess anti-inflammatory properties. In line, immune cells express a variety of estrogen receptors (ER) including ER-alpha and -beta. In the present study, we examined the influence of 17beta-estradiol (E2) serum concentrations on blood leukocyte composition and their ex vivo polarization/activation status by FACS analysis in sub-fertile human females under controlled ovarian stimulation (COS). Using a set of cell-type and polarization-specific markers, we demonstrate that increased 17ß-estradiol (E2) serum concentrations yield an overall increase in leukocytes, neutrophils and monocytes but decreased lymphocytes...
February 12, 2018: Journal of Steroid Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29447380/sirtuins-in-gamete-biology-and-reproductive-physiology-emerging-roles-and-therapeutic-potential-in-female-and-male-infertility
#8
Carla Tatone, Giovanna Di Emidio, Arcangelo Barbonetti, Gaspare Carta, Alberto M Luciano, Stefano Falone, Fernanda Amicarelli
BACKGROUND: Sirtuins (SIRT1-7) are a family of NAD+-dependent deacetylases that catalyze post-translational modifications of proteins. Together, they respond to metabolic challenges, inflammatory signals or hypoxic/oxidative stress, and are associated with aging and longevity. The role of Sirtuins in the regulation of fertility emerged in 2003 when a defective reproductive phenotype was observed in SIRT1-null mice. Although studies on Sirtuins in reproductive biology have been increasing in the last years, a recent comprehensive update on this issue is still lacking...
February 13, 2018: Human Reproduction Update
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29446833/body-fat-content-fat-distribution-and-adipocytokine-production-and-their-correlation-with-fertility-markers-in-young-adult-men-and-women-conceived-by-icsi
#9
F Belva, J De Schepper, M Roelants, H Tournaye, M Bonduelle, S Provyn
OBJECTIVE: Differences in body fat content during childhood and adolescence have been described in offspring conceived by In Vitro Fertilisation (IVF) and Intracytoplasmic Sperm Injection (ICSI). However, data on body fat and its distribution as well as on adipocytokine production in young adults conceived by ICSI are non-existent. We investigated if young adult men and women conceived by ICSI have a normal body fat patterning and adipocytokine production. DESIGN: Cohort study...
February 15, 2018: Clinical Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29444903/generation-and-characterization-of-a-cyp2c11-null-rat-model-by-using-the-crispr-cas9-method
#10
Yuan Wei, Li Yang, Xiaoyan Zhang, Danjuan Sui, Changsuo Wang, Kai Wang, Mangting Shan, Dayong Guo, Hongyu Wang
CYP2C11 is involved in the metabolism of many drugs in rats. To assess the roles of CYP2C11 in physiology and drug metabolism, a CYP2C11-null rat model was generated using the clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat (CRISPR)/Cas9 method. A 2-bp insertion was added to exon 6 of CYP2C11 in Sprague-Dawley rats. CYP2C11 was not detected by Western blotting in liver microsomes of CYP2C11-null rats. No off-target effects were found at eleven predicted sites of the knockout model. The CYP2C11-null rats were viable and had no obvious abnormalities, with the exception of reduced fertility...
February 14, 2018: Drug Metabolism and Disposition: the Biological Fate of Chemicals
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29444593/annals-express-validation-of-an-automated-uplc-igg-n-glycan-analytical-method-applicable-to-classical-galactosaemia
#11
Hugh Owen Colhoun, Eileen P Treacy, Marguerite M MacMahon, Pauline M Rudd, Maria Fitzgibbon, Roisin O'Flaherty, Karolina Maria Stepien
BACKGROUND: Classical galactosaemia (OMIM 230400) is a rare disorder of carbohydrate metabolism caused by deficiency of the galactose-1-phosphate uridyltransferase enzyme. The pathophysiology of the long-term complications, mainly cognitive, neurological and female fertility problems, remains poorly understood. Current clinical methods of biochemical monitoring lack precision and individualisation with an identified need for improved biomarkers for this condition. METHODS: We report the development and detailed validation of an automated ultra-performance liquid chromatography (UPLC) N-glycan analytical method of high peak resolution applied to galactose incorporation into human serum IgG...
January 1, 2018: Annals of Clinical Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29443826/higher-risk-of-posttransplant-graft-failure-in-male-recipients-of-female-donor-grafts-might-not-be-due-to-anastomotic-size-disparity
#12
Kyo Won Lee, Sangbin Han, Sanghoon Lee, Hyun-Hwa Cha, Soohyun Ahn, Hyeon Seon Ahn, Justin S Ko, Mi Sook Gwak, Gaab Soo Kim, Jae-Won Joh, Suk-Koo Lee, Gyu-Seong Choi
BACKGROUND: Posttransplant liver graft failure occurs most often in male recipients of livers from female donors. The respective role of donor sex itself and the size disparity in graft vessels/bile ducts according to donor sex are unclear. Thus, we aimed to evaluate the importance of donor sex with adjustment for anastomotic size disparity between female and male donor grafts. METHODS: A total of 309 male patients without hepatic tumors who underwent living donor liver transplantation were analyzed (109 female and 200 male donors)...
February 13, 2018: Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29442293/recombinant-human-ph20-baseline-analysis-of-the-reactive-antibody-prevalence-in-the-general-population-using-healthy-subjects
#13
Sanna Rosengren, Jennifer Souratha, Dave Conway, Douglas B Muchmore, Barry J Sugarman
BACKGROUND: Recombinant human PH20 (rHuPH20) is used to depolymerize hyaluronan in the subcutaneous space, increasing the dispersion and absorption of co-administered drugs. While ~ 5 to 10% of rHuPH20 treatment-naïve healthy volunteers have demonstrated rHuPH20-reactive antibodies, associations with age, sex, fertility, and immune disorders remain unknown. OBJECTIVES: Using demographically diverse healthy volunteers, we assessed the prevalence of rHuPH20-reactive antibodies in the general population and potential associations with fertility and autoimmunity diseases...
February 13, 2018: BioDrugs: Clinical Immunotherapeutics, Biopharmaceuticals and Gene Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29441775/-hydrating-cleansing-efficacy-and-tolerability-of-new-formulations-with-hyaluronic-acid-0-2-for-intimate-hygiene-in-the-woman-in-fertile-age-and-menopause
#14
Francesca Albani, Adriana Bonfigli, Francesca Consolaro, Luigi Rigano, Monica Campisi
Dehydration of genital areas, known as vaginal dryness, frequently affects woman's life, from fertile to postmenopausal period, and must be treated with specific products, including proper intimate cleansing. Based on that, two new cleanser formulations, characterized by Hyaluronic Acid 0.2% as main ingredient, have been developed (Hyalo Gyn® Intimo Active and Hyalo Gyn® Intimo Advance), with the aim to provide an effective hydration of the vaginal, vulvar, perianal and anal areas beyond guaranteeing daily intimate hygiene...
April 2018: Minerva Ginecologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29441420/multilayered-signaling-pathways-for-pollen-tube-growth-and-guidance
#15
REVIEW
Hong-Ju Li, Jiang-Guo Meng, Wei-Cai Yang
Sexual reproductive success is essential for the survival of all higher organisms. As the most prosperous and diverse group of land plants on earth, flowering plants evolved highly sophisticated fertilization mechanisms. To adapt to the terrestrial environment, a tubular structure pollen tube has been evolved to deliver the immobile sperm cells to the egg and central cell enclosed within the ovule. The pollen tube is generated from the vegetative cell of the pollen (male gametophyte), where two sperm cells are hosted...
February 13, 2018: Plant Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29438909/correlation-of-sex-ratio-at-birth-with-health-and-socioeconomic-indicators
#16
Victor Grech
INTRODUCTION: The sex ratio at birth (male divided by total live births: M/T) has been mooted as a potential sentinel health indicator. Several metrics indicate individual countries' health and socioeconomic status. In this study, in all available countries (where such data was accessible), M/T and these indicators were compared in order to ascertain whether better (vis-à-vis health and socioeconomic status) levels of these indicators were associated with higher M/T in available countries...
February 10, 2018: Early Human Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29438518/obesity-and-high-fat-diet-induce-distinct-changes-in-placental-gene-expression-and-pregnancy-outcome
#17
Erica B Mahany, Xingfa Han, Beatriz C Borges, Sanseray da Silveira Cruz-Machado, Susan J Allen, David Garcia-Galiano, Mark J Hoenerhoff, Nicole H Bellefontaine, Carol F Elias
Obese women are at high risk of pregnancy complications, including preeclampsia, miscarriage, preterm birth, stillbirth and neonatal death. In the present study, we aimed to determine the effects of obesity on pregnancy outcome and placental gene expression in preclinical mouse models of genetic and nutritional obesity. The leptin receptor null reactivatable (LepRloxTB), the LepR deficient (Leprdb/+) and high fat diet (HFD) fed mice were assessed for fertility, pregnancy outcome, placental morphology and placental transcriptome using standard qPCR and qPCR arrays...
February 9, 2018: Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29438493/history-of-estrogen-in-the-male-an-historical-perspective
#18
Rex A Hess, Paul S Cooke
Estrogens have traditionally been considered female hormones. Nevertheless, the presence of estrogenic substances in males has been known for over 90 years. Initial work with estrogen suggested that it was deleterious to male reproduction because exogenous estrogen treatments induced developmental abnormalities. However, demonstrations of estrogen synthesis in the testis and high concentrations of 17β-estradiol (E2) in rete testis fluid suggested that the female hormone might have a function in normal male reproduction...
February 9, 2018: Biology of Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29437880/molecular-regulation-of-follicle-stimulating-hormone-synthesis-secretion-and-action
#19
Nandana Das, Rajendra Kumar
Follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) plays fundamental roles in male and female fertility. FSH is a heterodimeric glycoprotein expressed by gonadotrophs in the anterior pituitary. The hormone-specific FSH-subunit is non-covalently associated with the common -subunit that is also present in the luteinizing hormone (LH), another gonadotrophic hormone secreted by gonadotropes and thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) secreted by thyrotrophs. Several decades of research led to the purification, structural characterization and physiological regulation of FSH in a variety of species including humans...
February 7, 2018: Journal of Molecular Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29435258/no-evidence-of-inbreeding-depression-in-sperm-performance-traits-in-wild-song-sparrows
#20
Sylvain Losdat, Ryan R Germain, Pirmin Nietlisbach, Peter Arcese, Jane M Reid
Inbreeding is widely hypothesized to shape mating systems and population persistence, but such effects will depend on which traits show inbreeding depression. Population and evolutionary consequences could be substantial if inbreeding decreases sperm performance and hence decreases male fertilization success and female fertility. However, the magnitude of inbreeding depression in sperm performance traits has rarely been estimated in wild populations experiencing natural variation in inbreeding. Further, the hypothesis that inbreeding could increase within-ejaculate variation in sperm traits and thereby further affect male fertilization success has not been explicitly tested...
February 2018: Ecology and Evolution
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