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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28814769/genome-wide-association-studies-for-female-fertility-traits-in-chinese-and-nordic-holsteins
#1
Aoxing Liu, Yachun Wang, Goutam Sahana, Qin Zhang, Lin Liu, Mogens Sandø Lund, Guosheng Su
Reduced female fertility could cause considerable economic loss and has become a worldwide problem in the modern dairy industry. The objective of this study was to detect quantitative trait loci (QTL) for female fertility traits in Chinese and Nordic Holsteins using various strategies. First, single-trait association analyses were performed for female fertility traits in Chinese and Nordic Holsteins. Second, the SNPs with P-value < 0.005 discovered in Chinese Holsteins were validated in Nordic Holsteins...
August 16, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28814658/sperm-competition-games-when-males-invest-in-paternal-care
#2
Gustavo S Requena, Suzanne H Alonzo
Sperm competition games investigate how males partition limited resources between pre- and post-copulatory competition. Although extensive research has explored how various aspects of mating systems affect this allocation, male allocation between mating, fertilization and parental effort has not previously been considered. Yet, paternal care can be energetically expensive and males are generally predicted to adjust their parental effort in response to expected paternity. Here, we incorporate parental effort into sperm competition games, particularly exploring how the relationship between paternal care and offspring survival affects sperm competition and the relationship between paternity and paternal care...
August 16, 2017: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28814657/differential-sperm-storage-by-female-zebra-finches-taeniopygia-guttata
#3
Nicola Hemmings, Tim Birkhead
When females mate promiscuously, female sperm storage provides scope to bias the fertilization success towards particular males via the non-random acceptance and utilization of sperm. The difficulties observing post-copulatory processes within the female reproductive tract mean that the mechanisms underlying cryptic female choice remain poorly understood. Here, we use zebra finches Taeniopygia guttata, selected for divergent sperm lengths, combined with a novel technique for isolating and extracting sperm from avian sperm storage tubules (SSTs), to test the hypothesis that sperm from separate ejaculates are stored differentially by female birds...
August 16, 2017: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28814372/association-of-cyp19a1-gene-polymorphisms-with-anoestrus-in-water-buffaloes
#4
Khairy M El-Bayomi, Ayman A Saleh, Ashraf Awad, Mahmoud S El-Tarabany, Hadeel S El-Qaliouby, Mohamed Afifi, Shymaa El-Komy, Walaa M Essawi, Essam A Almadaly, Mohammed A El-Magd
Cytochrome P450 aromatase (encoded by the CYP19A1 gene) regulates oestrogen biosynthesis and so plays an essential role in female fertility. We investigated the genetic association of CYP19A1 with the risk of anoestrus in Egyptian water buffaloes. A total of 651 animals (326 anoestrous and 325 cycling) were used in this case-control study. Using single-strand conformation polymorphisms and sequencing, four single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were detected; c.-135T>C SNP in the 5'UTR and three non-synonymous SNPs: c...
August 17, 2017: Reproduction, Fertility, and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811333/arabidopsis-lorelei-a-maternally-expressed-imprinted-gene-promotes-early-seed-development
#5
Yanbing Wang, Tatsuya Tsukamoto, Jennifer Ashley Noble, Xunliang Liu, Rebecca Mosher, Ravishankar Palanivelu
n flowering plants the female gametophyte controls pollen tube reception immediately before fertilization and regulates seed development immediately after fertilization, although controlling mechanisms remain poorly understood. Previously, we showed that LORELEI (LRE), which encodes a putative glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI)-anchored membrane protein, is critical for pollen tube reception by the female gametophyte before fertilization and initiation of seed development after fertilization. Here, we show that LRE is expressed in the synergid, egg, and central cells of the female gametophyte and in the zygote and proliferating endosperm of the seed...
August 15, 2017: Plant Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28809602/fertility-preservation-and-sexual-health-after-cancer-therapy
#6
Nigel Pereira, Glenn L Schattman
Recent developments in cancer diagnostics and treatments have considerably improved long-term survival rates. Despite improvements in chemotherapy regimens, more focused radiotherapy and diverse surgical options, cancer treatments often have gonadotoxic side-effects that can manifest as loss of fertility or sexual dysfunction, particularly in young cancer survivors. In this review, we focus on two pertinent quality-of-life issues in female cancer survivors of reproductive age-fertility preservation and sexual function...
August 15, 2017: Journal of Oncology Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28808767/identification-and-expression-analysis-of-micrornas-during-ovule-development-in-rice-oryza-sativa-by-deep-sequencing
#7
Ya Wu, Liyu Yang, Meiling Yu, Jianbo Wang
MicroRNA (miRNA) expression profiles during rice ovule development revealed the possible miRNA-mediated regulation between ovule sporophytic tissue and female gametophyte and the involvement of miRNAs in programmed cell death. MiRNAs are 20-24-nucleotide small RNAs that play key roles in the regulation of many growth and developmental processes in plants. Rice ovule development comprises a series of biological events, which are regulated by complex molecular mechanisms. To gain insight into miRNA-mediated regulation of rice ovule development, Illumina sequencing was used to examine the expression of miRNAs from the megaspore mother cell meiosis stage to the fertilized ovule stage...
August 14, 2017: Plant Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28808540/who-s-my-daddy-considerations-for-the-influence-of-sexual-selection-on-multiple-paternity-in-elasmobranch-mating-systems
#8
Kady Lyons, Chris L Chabot, Christopher G Mull, Corinne N Paterson Holder, Christopher G Lowe
Polyandry resulting in multiply-sired litters has been documented in the majority of elasmobranch species examined to date. Although commonly observed, reasons for this mating system remain relatively obscure, especially in batoids. The round stingray (Urobatis halleri) is an abundant, well-studied elasmobranch distributed throughout the northeastern Pacific that we used to explore hypotheses regarding multiple paternity in elasmobranchs. Twenty mid- to late-term pregnant females were sampled off the coast of southern California and their litters analyzed for the occurrence of multiple paternity using five nuclear microsatellite loci...
August 2017: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28807736/uterine-didelphys-with-bilateral-cervical-agenesis-in-a-15-year-old-female
#9
Kate C Arnold, Theresa C Thai, LaTasha B Craig
BACKGROUND: Isolated uterine didelphys requires no treatment in contrast to cervical agenesis, which requires a hysterectomy. Given this, correct diagnosis of Müllerian anomalies is paramount for making recommendations for patient care. CASE: A 15-year-old presented to clinic with pelvic pain and primary amenorrhea. Uterine didelphys with bilateral cervical agenesis was diagnosed by imaging. Hysterectomy was recommended and diagnosis was confirmed at surgery and by anatomic pathology...
August 11, 2017: Journal of Pediatric and Adolescent Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28807164/effect-of-chinese-herbal-medicine-on-male-infertility
#10
Dan Jiang, Alberto Coscione, Lily Li, Bai-Yun Zeng
Male infertility normally refers a male's inability to cause pregnancy in a fertile female partner after 1 year of unprotected intercourse. Male infertility in recent years has been attracting increasing interest from public due to the evidence in decline in semen quality. There are many factors contributing to the male infertility including abnormal spermatogenesis; reproductive tract anomalies or obstruction; inadequate sexual and ejaculatory functions; and impaired sperm motility, imbalance in hormone levels, and immune system dysfunction...
2017: International Review of Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28807160/treatment-of-chinese-herbal-medicine-for-female-infertility
#11
Dan Jiang, Lily Li, Bai-Yun Zeng
Female infertility is when a woman of reproductive age and sexual active, without contraception, cannot get pregnant after a year and more or keeps having miscarriages. Although conventional treatments for infertility such as hormone therapy, in vitro fertilization and many more, helped many female patients with infertility get pregnant during past a few decades, it is far from satisfactory with prolonging treatment time frames and emotional and financial burden. In recent years, more patients with infertile problems are seeking to alternative and complementary medicines to achieve a better outcome...
2017: International Review of Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28806103/hsp83-loss-suppresses-proteasomal-activity-resulting-in-an-upregulation-of-caspase-dependent-compensatory-autophagy
#12
Courtney Choutka, Lindsay DeVorkin, Nancy Erro Go, Ying-Chen Claire Hou, Annie Moradian, Gregg B Morin, Sharon M Gorski
The 2 main degradative pathways that contribute to proteostasis are the ubiquitin-proteasome system and autophagy but how they are molecularly coordinated is not well understood. Here, we demonstrate an essential role for an effector caspase in the activation of compensatory autophagy when proteasomal activity is compromised. Functional loss of Hsp83, the Drosophila ortholog of human HSP90 (heat shock protein 90), resulted in reduced proteasomal activity and elevated levels of the effector caspase Dcp-1. Surprisingly, genetic analyses showed that the caspase was not required for cell death in this context, but instead was essential for the ensuing compensatory autophagy, female fertility, and organism viability...
August 14, 2017: Autophagy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28805926/multiple-trait-genomewide-mapping-and-gene-network-analysis-for-scrotal-circumference-growth-curves-in-brahman-cattle
#13
A C C Soares, S E F Guimarães, M J Kelly, M R S Fortes, F F E Silva, L L Verardo, R Mota, S Moore
Fertility traits are economically important in cattle breeding programs. Scrotal circumference (SC) measures are repeatable, easily obtained, highly heritable, and positively correlated with female fertility traits and sperm quality traits in males. A useful approach to summarize SC measures over time is using nonlinear models, which summarize specific measures of SC in a few parameters with biological interpretation. This approach facilitates the selection of bulls with larger SC and maturity index (K), that is, early maturing animals...
August 2017: Journal of Animal Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28800577/case-report-use-of-tumor-and-germline-y-chromosomal-analysis-to-guide-surgical-management-in-a-46-xx-female-presenting-with-gonadoblastoma-with-dysgerminoma
#14
Jeanna M McCuaig, Abdul Noor, Barry Rosen, Robert F Casper, Frederic Mitri, Terence Colgan, Raymond H Kim
Gonadoblastomas are rare mixed gonadal tumors that are almost always found in individuals with 46, XY karyotype or some other form of Y chromosome mosaicism. It is extremely rare to diagnose gonadoblastoma in phenotypically normal 46, XX females. Herein, we present a 20-year-old 46, XX female diagnosed with gonadoblastoma and dysgerminoma. Use of cytogenetic and molecular analyses to identify the presence of Y chromosome material in peripheral blood, gonadal, and tumor tissue can exclude mosaicism to provide reassurance to undertake conservative surgical management and preserve fertility...
September 2017: International Journal of Gynecological Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28798399/sexual-conflict-and-the-evolution-of-genitalia-male-damselflies-remove-more-sperm-when-mating-with-a-heterospecific-female
#15
Adolfo Cordero-Rivera
In Calopteryx damselflies, males remove rivals' sperm stored by the female, thereby reducing sperm competition. This behaviour may create a sexual conflict, because females could lose the sperm stored in the spermatheca, used for long-term storage. Comparative evidence suggested antagonistic coevolution between sexes, which might prompt the evolution of narrow spermathecal ducts, or longer spermathecae, hindering sperm removal. Calopteryx haemorrhoidalis and C. splendens coexist and sometimes hybridize. Therefore, here I predicted that if females coevolve with conspecific males, heterospecific males should have an advantage when interspecific matings occur because females will show less resistance to them than to conspecific males...
August 10, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28797598/differential-behavioral-effects-of-ethanol-pre-exposure-in-male-and-female-zebrafish-danio-rerio
#16
Carly L Clayman, Elizabeth J Malloy, David N Kearns, Victoria P Connaughton
Alcohol exposure in adolescence is a contributing factor toward reward-seeking behavior in adulthood. This reward-seeking behavior is assessed in animal models using the conditioned place preference (CPP) paradigm. In this study, ethanol-induced change in time spent by zebrafish on the initially non-preferred tank side was studied by conditioning adult zebrafish to ethanol dissolved in water (0.00% 1.00%; 1.25%; 1.50%; 1.60%; 1.75% vol/vol) paired with an initially non-preferred environment. Following a single conditioning cycle, fish swam unrestricted in the CPP chamber to assess changes in preference...
August 7, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28797084/the-endogenous-transposable-element-tgm9-is-suitable-for-generating-knockout-mutants-for-functional-analyses-of-soybean-genes-and-genetic-improvement-in-soybean
#17
Devinder Sandhu, Jayadri Ghosh, Callie Johnson, Jordan Baumbach, Eric Baumert, Tyler Cina, David Grant, Reid G Palmer, Madan K Bhattacharyya
In soybean, variegated flowers can be caused by somatic excision of the CACTA-type transposable element Tgm9 from Intron 2 of the DFR2 gene encoding dihydroflavonol-4-reductase of the anthocyanin pigment biosynthetic pathway. DFR2 was mapped to the W4 locus, where the allele containing Tgm9 was termed w4-m. In this study we have demonstrated that previously identified morphological mutants (three chlorophyll deficient mutants, one male sterile-female fertile mutant, and three partial female sterile mutants) were caused by insertion of Tgm9 following its excision from DFR2...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28796235/development-of-fertile-mouse-oocytes-from-mitotic-germ-cells-in-vitro
#18
Kanako Morohaku, Yuji Hirao, Yayoi Obata
Mammalian fetal ovaries contain numerous primordial germ cells (PGCs), although few mature oocytes are obtained from females, owing to apoptosis and follicle atresia. The regulatory mechanisms underlying oogenesis/folliculogenesis remain unknown. Development of methods for obtaining mature oocytes from PGCs in fetal ovaries in vitro could contribute to clarifying these mechanisms. The failure of follicle assembly has been found to be the most challenging aspect in conventional culture conditions. Recently, we established novel culture conditions that enable successful follicle assembly, sustaining interactions between the oocyte and somatic cells, and, in turn, promoting oocyte growth and maturation...
September 2017: Nature Protocols
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28795047/influence-of-the-insemination-method-on-the-outcomes-of-elective-blastocyst-culture
#19
Caizhu Wang, Guixue Feng, Bo Zhang, Jinhui Shu, Hong Zhou, Xianyou Gan, Ruoyun Lin
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to explore the effects of the insemination method on the outcomes of elective blastocyst culture. METHODS: We retrospectively analyzed the outcomes of elective blastocyst culture performed between January 2011 and December 2014. RESULTS: There were 2,003 cycles of conventional in vitro fertilization (IVF) and 336 cycles of intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI), including 25,652 and 4,164 embryos that underwent sequential blastocyst culture, respectively...
June 2017: Clinical and Experimental Reproductive Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28794429/sexual-dimorphism-in-the-genetic-influence-on-human-childlessness
#20
Renske M Verweij, Melinda C Mills, Felix C Tropf, René Veenstra, Anastasia Nyman, Harold Snieder
Previous research has found a genetic component of human reproduction and childlessness. Others have argued that the heritability of reproduction is counterintuitive due to a frequent misinterpretation that additive genetic variance in reproductive fitness should be close to zero. Yet it is plausible that different genetic loci operate in male and female fertility in the form of sexual dimorphism and that these genes are passed on to the next generation. This study examines the extent to which genetic factors influence childlessness and provides an empirical test of genetic sexual dimorphism...
September 2017: European Journal of Human Genetics: EJHG
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