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james chalmers

Carol Kelly, James D Chalmers, Iain Crossingham, Nicola Relph, Lambert M Felix, David J Evans, Stephen J Milan, Sally Spencer
BACKGROUND: Bronchiectasis is a chronic respiratory disease characterised by abnormal and irreversible dilatation and distortion of the smaller airways. Bacterial colonisation of the damaged airways leads to chronic cough and sputum production, often with breathlessness and further structural damage to the airways. Long-term macrolide antibiotic therapy may suppress bacterial infection and reduce inflammation, leading to fewer exacerbations, fewer symptoms, improved lung function, and improved quality of life...
March 15, 2018: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
Carol A Gilchrist, James A Cotton, Cecelia Burkey, Tuhinur Arju, Allissia Gilmartin, Ye Lin, Emtiaz Ahmed, Kevin Steiner, Masud Alam, Shahnawaz Ahmed, Guy Robinson, Sultan Uz Zaman, Mamun Kabir, Mandy Sanders, Rachel M Chalmers, Tahmeed Ahmed, Jennie Z Ma, Rashidul Haque, A S G Faruque, Matthew Berriman, William A Petri
We studied the genetic diversity of Cryptosporidium hominis infections in slum dwelling infants from Dhaka over a two-year period. C. hominis infections were common during the monsoon, and were genetically diverse as measured by gp60 genotyping and whole genome resequencing. Recombination in the parasite was evidenced by the decay of linkage disequilibrium in the genome over less than 300 bp. Regions of the genome with high levels of polymorphism were also identified.  Yet to be determined is if genomic diversity is responsible in part for the high rate of reinfection, seasonality and varied clinical presentations of cryptosporidiosis in this population...
March 5, 2018: Journal of Infectious Diseases
Guillermo Suarez-Cuartin, Jordi Giner, José Luis Merino, Ana Rodrigo-Troyano, Anna Feliu, Lidia Perea, Ferran Sanchez-Reus, Diego Castillo, Vicente Plaza, James D Chalmers, Oriol Sibila
RATIONALE: Airway colonization by Potentially Pathogenic Microorganisms (PPM) in bronchiectasis is associated with worse clinical outcomes. The electronic nose is a non-invasive technology capable of distinguishing volatile organic compounds (VOC) in exhaled breath. We aim to explore if an electronic nose can reliably discriminate airway bacterial colonization in patients with bronchiectasis. METHODS: Seventy-three clinically stable bronchiectasis patients were included...
March 2018: Respiratory Medicine
James D Chalmers
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 2018: Annals of the American Thoracic Society
James D Chalmers, Sanjay H Chotirmall
European Respiratory Society guidelines for the management of adult bronchiectasis highlight the paucity of treatment options available for patients with this disorder. No treatments have been licensed by regulatory agencies worldwide, and most therapies used in clinical practice are based on very little evidence. Development of new treatments is needed urgently. We did a systematic review of scientific literature and clinical trial registries to identify agents in early-to-late clinical development for bronchiectasis in adults...
February 22, 2018: Lancet Respiratory Medicine
James D Chalmers
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 20, 2018: Chest
David Araújo, Michal Shteinberg, Stefano Aliberti, Pieter C Goeminne, Adam T Hill, Thomas C Fardon, Dusanka Obradovic, Glenda Stone, Marion Trautmann, Angela Davis, Katerina Dimakou, Eva Polverino, Anthony De Soyza, Melissa J McDonnell, James D Chalmers
Pseudomonas aeruginosa is responsible for chronic infection in many bronchiectasis patients but it is not known whether it is associated with worse clinical outcomes independent of the underlying severity of disease.This study analysed data from 2596 bronchiectasis patients included from 10 different bronchiectasis clinical centres across Europe and Israel, with a 5-year follow-up period. Prevalence of P. aeruginosa chronic infection and its independent impact on exacerbations, hospitalisations, quality of life and mortality was assessed...
February 2018: European Respiratory Journal: Official Journal of the European Society for Clinical Respiratory Physiology
Sanjay H Chotirmall, James D Chalmers
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 2018: European Respiratory Journal: Official Journal of the European Society for Clinical Respiratory Physiology
James D Chalmers, Stefano Aliberti, Anna Filonenko, Michal Shteinberg, Pieter C Goeminne, Adam T Hill, Thomas C Fardon, Dusanka Obradovic, Christoph Gerlinger, Giovanni Sotgiu, Elisabeth Operschall, Robert M Rutherford, Katerina Dimakou, Eva Polverino, Anthony De Soyza, Melissa J McDonnell
RATIONALE: Exacerbations are key events in the natural history of bronchiectasis, but clinical predictors and outcomes of frequently exacerbating patients are not well described. OBJECTIVES: To establish if there is a "frequent exacerbator phenotype" in bronchiectasis and the impact of exacerbations on long-term clinical outcomes. METHODS: We studied bronchiectasis patients enrolled from 10 clinical centres in Europe and Israel, with up to 5-years follow-up...
January 22, 2018: American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine
Jianxin Sun, L Moore, Wei Xue, James Kim, Maciej Zborowski, Jeffrey J Chalmers
Magnetic separation of cells has been, and continues to be, widely used in a variety of applications, ranging from healthcare diagnostics to detection of food contamination. Typical, these technologies require cells labeled with antibody magnetic particle conjugate and a high magnetic energy gradient created in the flow containing the labeled cells (i.e. a column packed with magnetically inducible material), or dense packing of magnetic particles next to the flow cell. Such designs while creating high magnetic energy gradients, are not amenable to easy, highly detailed, mathematic characterization...
January 16, 2018: Biotechnology and Bioengineering
James D Chalmers, Felix C Ringshausen, Bridget Harris, J Stuart Elborn, Annette Posthumus, Charles S Haworth, Nicola Pilkington, Eva Polverino, Thomas Ruddy, Stefano Aliberti, Pieter C Goeminne, Craig Winstanley, Anthony De Soyza
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 2018: European Respiratory Journal: Official Journal of the European Society for Clinical Respiratory Physiology
Martin Kolb, James D Chalmers
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 2018: European Respiratory Journal: Official Journal of the European Society for Clinical Respiratory Physiology
James D Chalmers, Marcos I Restrepo
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 2017: Chest
Clare Selden, James Bundy, Eloy Erro, Eva Puschmann, Malcolm Miller, Delawir Kahn, Humphrey Hodgson, Barry Fuller, Jordi Gonzalez-Molina, Aurelie Le Lay, Stephanie Gibbons, Sherri Chalmers, Sunil Modi, Amy Thomas, Peter Kilbride, Agnes Isaacs, Richard Ginsburg, Helen Ilsley, David Thomson, Galya Chinnery, Ncedile Mankahla, Lizel Loo, C Wendy Spearman
Liver failure, whether arising directly from acute liver failure or from decompensated chronic liver disease is an increasing problem worldwide and results in many deaths. In the UK only 10% of individuals requiring a liver transplant receive one. Thus the need for alternative treatments is paramount. A BioArtificial Liver machine could temporarily replace the functions of the liver, buying time for the patient's liver to repair and regenerate. We have designed, implemented and tested a clinical-scale BioArtificial Liver machine containing a biomass derived from a hepatoblastoma cell-line cultured as three dimensional organoids, using a fluidised bed bioreactor, together with single-use bioprocessing equipment, with complete control of nutrient provision with feedback BioXpert recipe processes, and yielding good phenotypic liver functions...
November 6, 2017: Scientific Reports
Alison J Dicker, Megan L Crichton, Andrew J Cassidy, Gill Brady, Adrian Hapca, Roger Tavendale, Gisli G Einarsson, Elizabeth Furrie, J Stuart Elborn, Stuart Schembri, Sara E Marshall, Colin N A Palmer, James D Chalmers
BACKGROUND: In cystic fibrosis and bronchiectasis, genetic mannose binding lectin (MBL) deficiency is associated with increased exacerbations and earlier mortality; associations in COPD are less clear. Preclinical data suggest MBL interferes with phagocytosis of Haemophilus influenzae, a key COPD pathogen. We investigated whether MBL deficiency impacted on clinical outcomes or microbiota composition in COPD. METHODS: Patients with COPD (n=1796) underwent MBL genotyping; linkage to health records identified exacerbations, lung function decline and mortality...
November 3, 2017: Thorax
James Chalmers, James Campling, Gillian Ellsbury, Peter M Hawkey, Harish Madhava, Mary Slack
Pneumococcal disease has a high burden in adults in the United Kingdom (UK); however, the total burden is underestimated, principally because most cases of community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) are non-invasive. Research into pneumonia receives poor funding relative to its disease burden (global mortality, disability-adjusted life years, and years lived with disability), ranking just 20 out of 25 for investment in infectious diseases in the UK. The current accuracy of data for establishing incidence rates is questionable, and it is a reflection of the paucity of research that much of the background information available derives from nearly 30 years ago...
2017: Pneumonia
James D Chalmers, Holly R Keir
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 2017: European Respiratory Journal: Official Journal of the European Society for Clinical Respiratory Physiology
M Osman Sheikh, David Thieker, Gordon Chalmers, Christopher M Schafer, Mayumi Ishihara, Parastoo Azadi, Robert J Woods, John N Glushka, Brad Bendiak, James H Prestegard, Christopher M West
Skp1 is a conserved protein linking cullin-1 to F-box proteins in SCF (<u>S</u>kp1/<u>C</u>ullin-1/<u>F</u>-box protein) E3 ubiquitin ligases, which modify protein substrates with polyubiquitin chains that typically target them for 26S proteasome-mediated degradation. In Dictyostelium (a social amoeba), Toxoplasma gondii (the agent for human toxoplasmosis), and other protists, Skp1 is regulated by a unique pentasaccharide attached to hydroxylated Pro-143 within its C-terminal F-box-binding domain...
November 17, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
Adrienne Johnson, Eric Severson, Laurie Gay, Jo-Anne Vergilio, Julia Elvin, James Suh, Sugganth Daniel, Mandy Covert, Garrett M Frampton, Sigmund Hsu, Glenn J Lesser, Kimberly Stogner-Underwood, Ryan T Mott, Sarah Z Rush, Jennifer J Stanke, Sonika Dahiya, James Sun, Prasanth Reddy, Zachary R Chalmers, Rachel Erlich, Yakov Chudnovsky, David Fabrizio, Alexa B Schrock, Siraj Ali, Vincent Miller, Philip J Stephens, Jeffrey Ross, John R Crawford, Shakti H Ramkissoon
BACKGROUND: Pediatric brain tumors are the leading cause of death for children with cancer in the U.S. Incorporating next-generation sequencing data for both pediatric low-grade (pLGGs) and high-grade gliomas (pHGGs) can inform diagnostic, prognostic, and therapeutic decision-making. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We performed comprehensive genomic profiling on 282 pediatric gliomas (157 pHGGs, 125 pLGGs), sequencing 315 cancer-related genes and calculating the tumor mutational burden (TMB; mutations per megabase [Mb])...
September 14, 2017: Oncologist
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