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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28069292/microbial-dysbiosis-in-bronchiectasis-and-cystic-fibrosis
#1
Alison J Dicker, James D Chalmers
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 6, 2017: Archivos de Bronconeumología
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27960211/the-modern-diagnostic-approach-to-community-acquired-pneumonia-in-adults
#2
James D Chalmers
Respiratory tract infections, the majority of which are community acquired, are among the leading causes of death worldwide and a leading indication for hospital admission. The burden of disease demonstrates a "U"-shaped distribution, primarily affecting young children as the immune system matures, and older adults as the process of immunosenescence and accumulation of comorbidities leads to increased susceptibility to infection. Diagnosis of community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) is traditionally based on demonstration of a new infiltrate on a chest radiograph in a patient presenting with an acute respiratory illness or sepsis...
December 2016: Seminars in Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27960203/community-acquired-pneumonia-a-global-perspective
#3
Charles Feldman, James D Chalmers
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 2016: Seminars in Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911604/neutrophil-elastase-activity-is-associated-with-exacerbations-and-lung-function-decline-in-bronchiectasis
#4
James D Chalmers, Kelly L Moffitt, Guillermo Suarez-Cuartin, Oriol Sibila, Simon Finch, Elizabeth Furrie, Alison Dicker, Karolina Wrobel, J Stuart Elborn, Brian Walker, S Lorraine Martin, Sara E Marshall, Jeffrey T-J Huang, Thomas C Fardon
RATIONALE: Sputum neutrophil elastase and serum desmosine, a linked marker of endogenous elastin degradation, are possible biomarkers of disease severity and progression in bronchiectasis. This study aimed to determine the association of elastase activity and desmosine with exacerbations and lung function decline in bronchiectasis. METHODS: This was a single-centre prospective cohort study using the TAYBRIDGE registry in Dundee, UK. 433 patients with HRCT-confirmed bronchiectasis provided blood samples for desmosine measurement and 381 provided sputum for baseline elastase activity measurements using an activity based immunosassay and fluorometric substrate assay...
December 2, 2016: American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27898680/a-core-outcome-set-for-the-benefits-and-adverse-events-of-bariatric-and-metabolic-surgery-the-bariact-project
#5
Karen D Coulman, James Hopkins, Sara T Brookes, Katy Chalmers, Barry Main, Amanda Owen-Smith, Robert C Andrews, James Byrne, Jenny L Donovan, Graziella Mazza, Barnaby C Reeves, Chris A Rogers, Janice L Thompson, Richard Welbourn, Sarah Wordsworth, Jane M Blazeby
BACKGROUND: Bariatric and metabolic surgery is used as a treatment for patients with severe and complex obesity. However, there is a need to improve outcome selection and reporting in bariatric surgery trials. A Core Outcome Set (COS), an agreed minimum set of outcomes reported in all studies of a specific condition, may achieve this. Here, we present the development of a COS for BARIAtric and metabolic surgery Clinical Trials-the BARIACT Study. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Outcomes identified from systematic reviews and patient interviews informed a questionnaire survey...
November 2016: PLoS Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27864036/comorbidities-and-the-risk-of-mortality-in-patients-with-bronchiectasis-an-international-multicentre-cohort-study
#6
Melissa J McDonnell, Stefano Aliberti, Pieter C Goeminne, Marcos I Restrepo, Simon Finch, Alberto Pesci, Lieven J Dupont, Thomas C Fardon, Robert Wilson, Michael R Loebinger, Dusan Skrbic, Dusanka Obradovic, Anthony De Soyza, Chris Ward, John G Laffey, Robert M Rutherford, James D Chalmers
BACKGROUND: Patients with bronchiectasis often have concurrent comorbidities, but the nature, prevalence, and impact of these comorbidities on disease severity and outcome are poorly understood. We aimed to investigate comorbidities in patients with bronchiectasis and establish their prognostic value on disease severity and mortality rate. METHODS: An international multicentre cohort analysis of outpatients with bronchiectasis from four European centres followed up for 5 years was done for score derivation...
November 15, 2016: Lancet Respiratory Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27854334/characterizing-non-tuberculous-mycobacteria-infection-in-bronchiectasis
#7
Paola Faverio, Anna Stainer, Giulia Bonaiti, Stefano C Zucchetti, Edoardo Simonetta, Giuseppe Lapadula, Almerico Marruchella, Andrea Gori, Francesco Blasi, Luigi Codecasa, Alberto Pesci, James D Chalmers, Michael R Loebinger, Stefano Aliberti
Chronic airway infection is a key aspect of the pathogenesis of bronchiectasis. A growing interest has been raised on non-tuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) infection. We aimed at describing the clinical characteristics, diagnostic process, therapeutic options and outcomes of bronchiectasis patients with pulmonary NTM (pNTM) disease. This was a prospective, observational study enrolling 261 adult bronchiectasis patients during the stable state at the San Gerardo Hospital, Monza, Italy, from 2012 to 2015. Three groups were identified: pNTM disease; chronic P...
November 16, 2016: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27845581/microbial-dysbiosis-after-lung-transplantation
#8
James D Chalmers
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 15, 2016: American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27831804/reply-measuring-airway-mucin-2-in-patients-with-severe-chronic-obstructive-pulmonary-disease-with-bacterial-colonization
#9
Oriol Sibila, Eder F Mateus, Marcos I Restrepo, James D Chalmers, Silvia Vidal
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 2016: Annals of the American Thoracic Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27810544/evaluation-of-the-effect-of-water-type-on-the-toxicity-of-nitrate-to-aquatic-organisms
#10
Josh A Baker, Guy Gilron, Ben A Chalmers, James R Elphick
A suite of acute and chronic toxicity tests were conducted to evaluate the sensitivity of freshwater organisms to nitrate (as sodium nitrate). Acute exposures with rainbow trout (Onchorhynchus mykiss) and amphipods (Hyalella azteca), as well as chronic exposures with H. azteca (14-d survival and growth), midges (Chironomus dilutus; 10-d survival and growth), daphnids (Ceriodaphnia dubia; 7-d survival and reproduction), and fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas; 7-d survival and growth) were used to determine sublethal and lethal effect concentrations...
February 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27730179/the-embarc-european-bronchiectasis-registry-protocol-for-an-international-observational-study
#11
James D Chalmers, Stefano Aliberti, Eva Polverino, Montserrat Vendrell, Megan Crichton, Michael Loebinger, Katerina Dimakou, Ian Clifton, Menno van der Eerden, Gernot Rohde, Marlene Murris-Espin, Sarah Masefield, Eleanor Gerada, Michal Shteinberg, Felix Ringshausen, Charles Haworth, Wim Boersma, Jessica Rademacher, Adam T Hill, Timothy Aksamit, Anne O'Donnell, Lucy Morgan, Branislava Milenkovic, Leandro Tramma, Joao Neves, Rosario Menendez, Perluigi Paggiaro, Victor Botnaru, Sabina Skrgat, Robert Wilson, Pieter Goeminne, Anthony De Soyza, Tobias Welte, Antoni Torres, J Stuart Elborn, Francesco Blasi
Bronchiectasis is one of the most neglected diseases in respiratory medicine. There are no approved therapies and few large-scale, representative epidemiological studies. The EMBARC (European Multicentre Bronchiectasis Audit and Research Collaboration) registry is a prospective, pan-European observational study of patients with bronchiectasis. The inclusion criterion is a primary clinical diagnosis of bronchiectasis consisting of: 1) a clinical history consistent with bronchiectasis; and 2) computed tomography demonstrating bronchiectasis...
January 2016: ERJ Open Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27723728/the-type-vii-secretion-system-of-staphylococcus-aureus-secretes-a-nuclease-toxin-that-targets-competitor-bacteria
#12
Zhenping Cao, M Guillermina Casabona, Holger Kneuper, James D Chalmers, Tracy Palmer
The type VII protein secretion system (T7SS) plays a critical role in the virulence of human pathogens including Mycobacterium tuberculosis and Staphylococcus aureus. Here, we report that the S. aureus T7SS secretes a large nuclease toxin, EsaD. The toxic activity of EsaD is neutralized during its biosynthesis through complex formation with an antitoxin, EsaG, which binds to its C-terminal nuclease domain. The secretion of EsaD is dependent on a further accessory protein, EsaE, that does not interact with the nuclease domain, but instead binds to the EsaD N-terminal region...
October 10, 2016: Nature Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27701021/endothelial-adhesion-molecules-and-multiple-organ-failure-in-patients-with-severe-sepsis
#13
Bravein Amalakuhan, Sheila A Habib, Mandeep Mangat, Luis F Reyes, Alejandro H Rodriguez, Cecilia A Hinojosa, Nilam J Soni, Ryan P Gilley, Carlos A Bustamante, Antonio Anzueto, Stephanie M Levine, Jay I Peters, Stefano Aliberti, Oriol Sibila, James D Chalmers, Antoni Torres, Grant W Waterer, Ignacio Martin-Loeches, Jose Bordon, Jose Blanquer, Francisco Sanz, Pedro J Marcos, Jordi Rello, Julio Ramirez, Jordi Solé-Violán, Carlos M Luna, Charles Feldman, Martin Witzenrath, Richard G Wunderink, Daiana Stolz, Tim L Wiemken, Yuichiro Shindo, Charles S Dela Cruz, Carlos J Orihuela, Marcos I Restrepo
OBJECTIVE: To determine if serum levels of endothelial adhesion molecules were associated with the development of multiple organ failure (MOF) and in-hospital mortality in adult patients with severe sepsis. DESIGN: This study was a secondary data analysis of a prospective cohort study. SETTING: Patients were admitted to two tertiary intensive care units in San Antonio, TX, between 2007 and 2012. PATIENTS: Patients with severe sepsis at the time of intensive care unit (ICU) admission were enrolled...
December 2016: Cytokine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27694410/corticosteroids-for-community-acquired-pneumonia-a-critical-view-of-the-evidence
#14
EDITORIAL
James D Chalmers
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 2016: European Respiratory Journal: Official Journal of the European Society for Clinical Respiratory Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27692133/characterization-of-bronchiectasis-in-the-elderly
#15
Giuseppe Bellelli, James D Chalmers, Giovanni Sotgiu, Simone Dore, Melissa J McDonnell, Pieter C Goeminne, Katerina Dimakou, Dusan Skrbic, Andrea Lombi, Federico Pane, Dusanka Obradovic, Thomas C Fardon, Robert M Rutherford, Alberto Pesci, Stefano Aliberti
INTRODUCTION: Although bronchiectasis particularly affects people ≥65 years of age, data describing clinical characteristics of the disease in this population are lacking. This study aimed at evaluating bronchiectasis features in older adults and elderly, along with their clinical outcomes. METHODS: This was a secondary analysis of six European databases of prospectively enrolled adult outpatients with bronchiectasis. Bronchiectasis characteristics were compared across three study groups: younger adults (18-65 years), older adults (66-75 years), and elderly (and ≥76 years)...
October 2016: Respiratory Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27671167/targeted-next-generation-sequencing-identifies-markers-of-response-to-pd-1-blockade
#16
Douglas B Johnson, Garrett M Frampton, Matthew J Rioth, Erik Yusko, Yaomin Xu, Xingyi Guo, Riley C Ennis, David Fabrizio, Zachary R Chalmers, Joel Greenbowe, Siraj M Ali, Sohail Balasubramanian, James X Sun, Yuting He, Dennie T Frederick, Igor Puzanov, Justin M Balko, Justin M Cates, Jeffrey S Ross, Catherine Sanders, Harlan Robins, Yu Shyr, Vincent A Miller, Philip J Stephens, Ryan J Sullivan, Jeffrey A Sosman, Christine M Lovly
Therapeutic antibodies blocking programmed death-1 and its ligand (PD-1/PD-L1) induce durable responses in a substantial fraction of melanoma patients. We sought to determine whether the number and/or type of mutations identified using a next-generation sequencing (NGS) panel available in the clinic was correlated with response to anti-PD-1 in melanoma. Using archival melanoma samples from anti-PD-1/PD-L1-treated patients, we performed hybrid capture-based NGS on 236-315 genes and T-cell receptor (TCR) sequencing on initial and validation cohorts from two centers...
November 2016: Cancer Immunology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27659735/role-of-cephalosporins-in-the-era-of-clostridium-difficile-infection
#17
REVIEW
Mark H Wilcox, James D Chalmers, Carl E Nord, Jane Freeman, Emilio Bouza
The incidence of Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) in Europe has increased markedly since 2000. Previous meta-analyses have suggested a strong association between cephalosporin use and CDI, and many national programmes on CDI control have focused on reducing cephalosporin usage. Despite reductions in cephalosporin use, however, rates of CDI have continued to rise. This review examines the potential association of CDI with cephalosporins, and considers other factors that influence CDI risk. EUCLID (the EUropean, multicentre, prospective biannual point prevalence study of CLostridium difficile Infection in hospitalized patients with Diarrhoea) reported an increase in the annual incidence of CDI from 6...
January 2017: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27557914/improving-quality-in-dentistry-an-imperative-for-the-profession
#18
Natalia I Chalmers, Richard Scoville, Adam Richman, James J Crall, Krishna Aravamudhan, Man Wai Ng
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2016: Pediatric Dentistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27422009/structure-activity-studies-of-%C3%AE-hairpin-peptide-inhibitors-of-the-plasmodium-falciparum-ama1-ron2-interaction
#19
Geqing Wang, Nyssa Drinkwater, Damien R Drew, Christopher A MacRaild, David K Chalmers, Biswaranjan Mohanty, San Sui Lim, Robin F Anders, James G Beeson, Philip E Thompson, Sheena McGowan, Jamie S Simpson, Raymond S Norton, Martin J Scanlon
The interaction between apical membrane antigen 1 (AMA1) and rhoptry neck protein 2 (RON2) plays a key role in the invasion of red blood cells by Plasmodium parasites. Disruption of this critical protein-protein interaction represents a promising avenue for antimalarial drug discovery. In this work, we exploited a 13-residue β-hairpin based on the C-terminal loop of RON2 to probe a conserved binding site on P. falciparum AMA1. A series of mutations was synthetically engineered into β-hairpin peptides to establish structure-activity relationships...
July 12, 2016: Journal of Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27401243/integrated-analysis-of-multiple-biomarkers-from-circulating-tumor-cells-enabled-by-exclusion-based-analyte-isolation
#20
Jamie M Sperger, Lindsay N Strotman, Allison Welsh, Benjamin P Casavant, Zachery Chalmers, Sacha Horn, Erika Heninger, Stephanie M Thiede, Jacob Tokar, Benjamin K Gibbs, David J Guckenberger, Lakeesha Carmichael, Scott M Dehm, Philip J Stephens, David J Beebe, Scott M Berry, Joshua M Lang
PURPOSE: There is a critical clinical need for new predictive and pharmacodynamic biomarkers that evaluate pathway activity in patients treated with targeted therapies. A microscale platform known as VERSA (versatile exclusion-based rare sample analysis) was developed to integrate readouts across protein, mRNA, and DNA in circulating tumor cells (CTC) for a comprehensive analysis of the androgen receptor (AR) signaling pathway. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: Utilizing exclusion-based sample preparation principles, a handheld chip was developed to perform CTC capture, enumeration, quantification, and subcellular localization of proteins and extraction of mRNA and DNA...
July 11, 2016: Clinical Cancer Research: An Official Journal of the American Association for Cancer Research
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