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james chalmers

James D Chalmers, Stefano Aliberti, Eva Polverino, Montserrat Vendrell, Megan Crichton, Michael Loebinger, Katerina Dimakou, Ian Clifton, Menno van der Eerden, Gernot Rohde, Marlene Murris-Espin, Sarah Masefield, Eleanor Gerada, Michal Shteinberg, Felix Ringshausen, Charles Haworth, Wim Boersma, Jessica Rademacher, Adam T Hill, Timothy Aksamit, Anne O'Donnell, Lucy Morgan, Branislava Milenkovic, Leandro Tramma, Joao Neves, Rosario Menendez, Perluigi Paggiaro, Victor Botnaru, Sabina Skrgat, Robert Wilson, Pieter Goeminne, Anthony De Soyza, Tobias Welte, Antoni Torres, J Stuart Elborn, Francesco Blasi
Bronchiectasis is one of the most neglected diseases in respiratory medicine. There are no approved therapies and few large-scale, representative epidemiological studies. The EMBARC (European Multicentre Bronchiectasis Audit and Research Collaboration) registry is a prospective, pan-European observational study of patients with bronchiectasis. The inclusion criterion is a primary clinical diagnosis of bronchiectasis consisting of: 1) a clinical history consistent with bronchiectasis; and 2) computed tomography demonstrating bronchiectasis...
January 2016: ERJ Open Research
Zhenping Cao, M Guillermina Casabona, Holger Kneuper, James D Chalmers, Tracy Palmer
The type VII protein secretion system (T7SS) plays a critical role in the virulence of human pathogens including Mycobacterium tuberculosis and Staphylococcus aureus. Here, we report that the S. aureus T7SS secretes a large nuclease toxin, EsaD. The toxic activity of EsaD is neutralized during its biosynthesis through complex formation with an antitoxin, EsaG, which binds to its C-terminal nuclease domain. The secretion of EsaD is dependent on a further accessory protein, EsaE, that does not interact with the nuclease domain, but instead binds to the EsaD N-terminal region...
October 10, 2016: Nature Microbiology
Bravein Amalakuhan, Sheila A Habib, Mandeep Mangat, Luis F Reyes, Alejandro H Rodriguez, Cecilia A Hinojosa, Nilam J Soni, Ryan P Gilley, Carlos A Bustamante, Antonio Anzueto, Stephanie M Levine, Jay I Peters, Stefano Aliberti, Oriol Sibila, James D Chalmers, Antoni Torres, Grant W Waterer, Ignacio Martin-Loeches, Jose Bordon, Jose Blanquer, Francisco Sanz, Pedro J Marcos, Jordi Rello, Julio Ramirez, Jordi Solé-Violán, Carlos M Luna, Charles Feldman, Martin Witzenrath, Richard G Wunderink, Daiana Stolz, Tim L Wiemken, Yuichiro Shindo, Charles S Dela Cruz, Carlos J Orihuela, Marcos I Restrepo
OBJECTIVE: To determine if serum levels of endothelial adhesion molecules were associated with the development of multiple organ failure (MOF) and in-hospital mortality in adult patients with severe sepsis. DESIGN: This study was a secondary data analysis of a prospective cohort study. SETTING: Patients were admitted to two tertiary intensive care units in San Antonio, TX, between 2007 and 2012. PATIENTS: Patients with severe sepsis at the time of intensive care unit (ICU) admission were enrolled...
December 2016: Cytokine
James D Chalmers
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 2016: European Respiratory Journal: Official Journal of the European Society for Clinical Respiratory Physiology
Giuseppe Bellelli, James D Chalmers, Giovanni Sotgiu, Simone Dore, Melissa J McDonnell, Pieter C Goeminne, Katerina Dimakou, Dusan Skrbic, Andrea Lombi, Federico Pane, Dusanka Obradovic, Thomas C Fardon, Robert M Rutherford, Alberto Pesci, Stefano Aliberti
INTRODUCTION: Although bronchiectasis particularly affects people ≥65 years of age, data describing clinical characteristics of the disease in this population are lacking. This study aimed at evaluating bronchiectasis features in older adults and elderly, along with their clinical outcomes. METHODS: This was a secondary analysis of six European databases of prospectively enrolled adult outpatients with bronchiectasis. Bronchiectasis characteristics were compared across three study groups: younger adults (18-65 years), older adults (66-75 years), and elderly (and ≥76 years)...
October 2016: Respiratory Medicine
Douglas B Johnson, Garrett M Frampton, Matthew J Rioth, Erik Yusko, Yaomin Xu, Xingyi Guo, Riley C Ennis, David Fabrizio, Zachary R Chalmers, Joel Greenbowe, Siraj M Ali, Sohail Balasubramanian, James X Sun, Yuting He, Dennie T Frederick, Igor Puzanov, Justin M Balko, Justin M Cates, Jeffrey S Ross, Catherine Sanders, Harlan Robins, Yu Shyr, Vincent Miller, Philip J Stephens, Ryan J Sullivan, Jeffrey A Sosman, Christine M Lovly
Therapeutic antibodies blocking programmed death-1 and its ligand (PD-1/PD-L1) induce durable responses in a substantial fraction of melanoma patients. We sought to determine whether the number and/or type of mutations identified using a next generation sequencing (NGS) panel available in the clinic were correlated with response to anti-PD-1 in melanoma. Using archival melanoma samples from anti-PD-1/PD-L1-treated patients, we performed hybrid capture-based NGS on 236-315 genes and T-cell receptor (TCR) sequencing on initial and validation cohorts from two centers...
September 26, 2016: Cancer Immunology Research
Mark H Wilcox, James D Chalmers, Carl E Nord, Jane Freeman, Emilio Bouza
The incidence of Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) in Europe has increased markedly since 2000. Previous meta-analyses have suggested a strong association between cephalosporin use and CDI, and many national programmes on CDI control have focused on reducing cephalosporin usage. Despite reductions in cephalosporin use, however, rates of CDI have continued to rise. This review examines the potential association of CDI with cephalosporins, and considers other factors that influence CDI risk. EUCLID (the EUropean, multicentre, prospective biannual point prevalence study of CLostridium difficile Infection in hospitalized patients with Diarrhoea) reported an increase in the annual incidence of CDI from 6...
September 22, 2016: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
Natalia I Chalmers, Richard Scoville, Adam Richman, James J Crall, Krishna Aravamudhan, Man Wai Ng
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2016: Pediatric Dentistry
Geqing Wang, Nyssa Drinkwater, Damien R Drew, Christopher A MacRaild, David K Chalmers, Biswaranjan Mohanty, San Sui Lim, Robin F Anders, James G Beeson, Philip E Thompson, Sheena McGowan, Jamie S Simpson, Raymond S Norton, Martin J Scanlon
The interaction between apical membrane antigen 1 (AMA1) and rhoptry neck protein 2 (RON2) plays a key role in the invasion of red blood cells by Plasmodium parasites. Disruption of this critical protein-protein interaction represents a promising avenue for antimalarial drug discovery. In this work, we exploited a 13-residue β-hairpin based on the C-terminal loop of RON2 to probe a conserved binding site on P. falciparum AMA1. A series of mutations was synthetically engineered into β-hairpin peptides to establish structure-activity relationships...
July 12, 2016: Journal of Molecular Biology
Jame M Sperger, Lindsay N Strotman, Allison Welsh, Benjamin P Casavant, Zachary Chalmers, Sacha Horn, Erika Heninger, Stephanie Thiede, Jacob Tokar, Benjamin K Gibbs, David J Guckenberger, Lakeesha Carmichael, Scott M Dehm, Philip J Stephens, David J Beebe, Scott M Berry, Joshua M Lang
PURPOSE: There is a critical clinical need for new predictive and pharmacodynamic biomarkers that evaluate pathway activity in patients treated with targeted therapies. A microscale platform known as VERSA (Versatile Exclusion-based Rare Sample Analysis) was developed to integrate readouts across protein, mRNA and DNA in Circulating Tumor Cells (CTCs) for a comprehensive analysis of the Androgen Receptor (AR) signaling pathway. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: Utilizing exclusion based sample preparation principles, a handheld chip was developed to perform CTC capture, enumeration, quantification and subcellular localization of proteins and extraction of mRNA and DNA...
July 11, 2016: Clinical Cancer Research: An Official Journal of the American Association for Cancer Research
Alexa B Schrock, Garrett M Frampton, James Suh, Zachary R Chalmers, Mark Rosenzweig, Rachel L Erlich, Balazs Halmos, Jonathan Goldman, Patrick Forde, Kurt Leuenberger, Nir Peled, Gregory P Kalemkerian, Jeffrey S Ross, Philip J Stephens, Vincent A Miller, Siraj M Ali, Sai-Hong Ignatius Ou
BACKGROUND: The hepatocyte growth factor receptor gene (MET) exon 14 skipping (METex14) has recently been described a potential driver alteration in lung cancer targetable by mesenchymal-to-epithelial transition factor (MET) tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs). METHODS: Well-validated hybrid capture-based comprehensive genomic profiling was performed at the request of individual treating physicians. RESULTS: Of 11,205 lung cancers profiled by comprehensive genomic profiling, 298 (2...
September 2016: Journal of Thoracic Oncology
Ana Rodrigo-Troyano, Guillermo Suarez-Cuartin, Meritxell Peiró, Silvia Barril, Diego Castillo, Ferran Sanchez-Reus, Vicente Plaza, Marcos I Restrepo, James D Chalmers, Oriol Sibila
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Acute exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (AECOPD) due to Pseudomonas aeruginosa (PA) are associated with worse outcomes. PA antibiotic resistance is important to determine treatment and may influence clinical outcomes. The aim was to study clinical characteristics and outcomes in patients with AECOPD associated with PA based on their antibiotic resistance. METHODS: This was a prospective observational study including all patients with AECOPD and positive PA sputum culture admitted in a respiratory ward in a tertiary hospital in Barcelona during 2013-2014...
October 2016: Respirology: Official Journal of the Asian Pacific Society of Respirology
Guillermo Suarez-Cuartin, James D Chalmers, Oriol Sibila
Bronchiectasis is a condition of increasing incidence and prevalence around the world. Many different diseases have been associated with bronchiectasis, and their treatment can differ widely. Recent guidelines have helped to approach aetiological diagnosis but it is still a complex process. Identifying the cause of the bronchiectasis may determine a change in the treatment of a large group of subjects. That is one of the main reasons why the aetiological diagnosis is crucial in the proper management of bronchiectasis patients...
July 2016: Respiratory Medicine
Stefano Aliberti, Sarah Masefield, Eva Polverino, Anthony De Soyza, Michael R Loebinger, Rosario Menendez, Felix C Ringshausen, Montserrat Vendrell, Pippa Powell, James D Chalmers
Bronchiectasis is a disease of renewed interest in light of an increase in prevalence and increasing burden on international healthcare systems. There are no licensed therapies, and large gaps in knowledge in terms of epidemiology, pathophysiology and therapy. The European Multicentre Bronchiectasis Audit and Research Collaboration (EMBARC) is a European Respiratory Society (ERS) Clinical Research Collaboration, funded by ERS to promote high-quality research in bronchiectasis. The objective of this consensus statement was to define research priorities in bronchiectasis...
September 2016: European Respiratory Journal: Official Journal of the European Society for Clinical Respiratory Physiology
Catia Cillóniz, Antoni Torres, Michael Niederman, Menno van der Eerden, James Chalmers, Tobias Welte, Francesco Blasi
Community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) is associated with high rates of morbidity and mortality worldwide; the annual incidence of CAP among adults in Europe has ranged from 1.5 to 1.7 per 1000 population. Intracellular bacteria are common causes of CAP. However, there is considerable variation in the reported incidence between countries and change over time. The intracellular pathogens that are well established as causes of pneumonia are Legionella pneumophila, Mycoplasma pneumoniae, Chlamydophila pneumoniae, Chlamydophila psittaci, and Coxiella burnetii...
September 2016: Intensive Care Medicine
James Ritchie, Darren Green, Tina Chrysochou, Janet Hegarty, Kelly Handley, Natalie Ives, Keith Wheatley, Graeme Houston, Julian Wright, Ludwig Neyses, Nicholas Chalmers, Patrick Mark, Rajan Patel, Jon Moss, Giles Roditi, David Eadington, Elena Lukaschuk, John Cleland, Philip A Kalra
BACKGROUND: Cardiac abnormalities are frequent in patients with atherosclerotic renovascular disease (ARVD). The Angioplasty and Stenting for Renal Artery Lesions (ASTRAL) trial studied the effect of percutaneous renal revascularization combined with medical therapy compared with medical therapy alone in 806 patients with ARVD. METHODS: This was a pre-specified sub-study of ASTRAL (clinical trials registration, current controlled trials number: ISRCTN59586944), designed to consider the effect of percutaneous renal artery angioplasty and stenting on change in cardiac structure and function, measured using cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) imaging...
June 2, 2016: Nephrology, Dialysis, Transplantation
John A Chalmers, James A J Heathers, Maree J Abbott, Andrew H Kemp, Daniel S Quintana
BACKGROUND: Individuals with anxiety disorders display reduced resting-state heart rate variability (HRV), although findings have been contradictory and the role of specific symptoms has been less clear. It is possible that HRV reductions may transcend diagnostic categories, consistent with dimensional-trait models of psychopathology. Here we investigated whether anxiety disorders or symptoms of anxiety, stress, worry and depression are more strongly associated with resting-state HRV...
2016: BMC Psychology
Jeffrey L Bada, John H Chalmers, H James Cleaves
From a geochemical perspective, significant amounts of pure formamide (HCONH2) would have likely been rare on the early Earth. There may have been mixed formamide-water solutions, but even in the presence of catalyst, solutions with >20 weight% water in formamide would not have produced significant amounts of prebiotic compounds. It might be feasible to produce relatively pure formamide by a rare occurrence of freezing formamide/water mixtures at temperatures lower than formamide's freezing point (2.55 °C) but greater than the freezing point of water...
July 27, 2016: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
Siraj M Ali, Thomas Hensing, Alexa B Schrock, Justin Allen, Eric Sanford, Kyle Gowen, Atul Kulkarni, Jie He, James H Suh, Doron Lipson, Julia A Elvin, Roman Yelensky, Zachary Chalmers, Juliann Chmielecki, Nir Peled, Samuel J Klempner, Kashif Firozvi, Garrett M Frampton, Julian R Molina, Smitha Menon, Julie R Brahmer, Heber MacMahon, Jan Nowak, Sai-Hong Ignatius Ou, Marjorie Zauderer, Marc Ladanyi, Maureen Zakowski, Neil Fischbach, Jeffrey S Ross, Phil J Stephens, Vincent A Miller, Heather Wakelee, Shridar Ganesan, Ravi Salgia
INTRODUCTION: For patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) to benefit from ALK inhibitors, sensitive and specific detection of ALK genomic rearrangements is needed. ALK break-apart fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) is the U.S. Food and Drug Administration approved and standard-of-care diagnostic assay, but identification of ALK rearrangements by other methods reported in NSCLC cases that tested negative for ALK rearrangements by FISH suggests a significant false-negative rate...
June 2016: Oncologist
Ricky A Sharma, Ruth Plummer, Julie K Stock, Tessa A Greenhalgh, Ozlem Ataman, Stephen Kelly, Robert Clay, Richard A Adams, Richard D Baird, Lucinda Billingham, Sarah R Brown, Sean Buckland, Helen Bulbeck, Anthony J Chalmers, Glen Clack, Aaron N Cranston, Lars Damstrup, Roberta Ferraldeschi, Martin D Forster, Julian Golec, Russell M Hagan, Emma Hall, Axel-R Hanauske, Kevin J Harrington, Tom Haswell, Maria A Hawkins, Tim Illidge, Hazel Jones, Andrew S Kennedy, Fiona McDonald, Thorsten Melcher, James P B O'Connor, John R Pollard, Mark P Saunders, David Sebag-Montefiore, Melanie Smitt, John Staffurth, Ian J Stratford, Stephen R Wedge
In countries with the best cancer outcomes, approximately 60% of patients receive radiotherapy as part of their treatment, which is one of the most cost-effective cancer treatments. Notably, around 40% of cancer cures include the use of radiotherapy, either as a single modality or combined with other treatments. Radiotherapy can provide enormous benefit to patients with cancer. In the past decade, significant technical advances, such as image-guided radiotherapy, intensity-modulated radiotherapy, stereotactic radiotherapy, and proton therapy enable higher doses of radiotherapy to be delivered to the tumour with significantly lower doses to normal surrounding tissues...
October 2016: Nature Reviews. Clinical Oncology
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