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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28749387/a-new-free-cost-e-service-supporting-clinicians-to-manage-their-difficult-to-treat-tuberculosis-cases-the-european-respiratory-society-world-health-organization-tuberculosis-consilium
#1
EDITORIAL
Lia D'Ambrosio, Marina Tadolini, Rosella Centis, James D Chalmers, Giovanni Battista Migliori
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 2017: Indian Journal of Medical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28738058/establishing-a-library-of-resources-to-help-people-understand-key-concepts-in-assessing-treatment-claims-the-critical-thinking-and-appraisal-resource-library-carl
#2
John C Castle, Iain Chalmers, Patricia Atkinson, Douglas Badenoch, Andrew D Oxman, Astrid Austvoll-Dahlgren, Lena Nordheim, L Kendall Krause, Lisa M Schwartz, Steven Woloshin, Amanda Burls, Paola Mosconi, Tammy Hoffmann, Leila Cusack, Loai Albarqouni, Paul Glasziou
BACKGROUND: People are frequently confronted with untrustworthy claims about the effects of treatments. Uncritical acceptance of these claims can lead to poor, and sometimes dangerous, treatment decisions, and wasted time and money. Resources to help people learn to think critically about treatment claims are scarce, and they are widely scattered. Furthermore, very few learning-resources have been assessed to see if they improve knowledge and behavior. OBJECTIVES: Our objectives were to develop the Critical thinking and Appraisal Resource Library (CARL)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28736342/tfos-dews-ii-diagnostic-methodology-report
#3
REVIEW
James S Wolffsohn, Reiko Arita, Robin Chalmers, Ali Djalilian, Murat Dogru, Kathy Dumbleton, Preeya Gupta, Paul Karpecki, Sihem Lazreg, Heiko Pult, Benjamin D Sullivan, Alan Tomlinson, Louis Tong, Edoardo Villani, Kyung Chul Yoon, Lyndon Jones, Jennifer Craig
The role of the Tear Film and Ocular Surface Society (TFOS) Dry Eye Workshop (DEWS) II Diagnostic Methodology Subcommittee was 1) to identify tests used to diagnose and monitor dry eye disease (DED), 2) to identify those most appropriate to fulfil the definition of DED and its sub-classifications, 3) to propose the most appropriate order and technique to conduct these tests in a clinical setting, and 4) to provide a differential diagnosis for DED and distinguish conditions where it is a comorbidity. Symptom screening with the DEQ-5 or OSDI confirms that a patient might have DED and triggers the diagnostic tests of (ideally non-invasive) breakup time, osmolarity and ocular surface staining with fluorescein and lissamine green (observing the cornea, conjunctiva and eyelid margin)...
May 4, 2017: Ocular Surface
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28702304/oral-versus-intravenous-clarithromycin-in-moderate-to-severe-community-acquired-pneumonia-an-observational-study
#4
Nikolas Rae, Aran Singanayagam, Stuart Schembri, James D Chalmers
OBJECTIVES: British Thoracic Society guidelines recommend clarithromycin in addition to beta-lactam antibiotics for patients with community-acquired pneumonia and CURB-65 score 2-5. Intravenous therapy is commonly used but there are few data on whether oral therapy is equally effective. METHODS: This observational study used propensity matching to compare two groups of patients with moderate to severe community-acquired pneumonia (CURB-65 score 2-5) treated with oral (n = 226) or intravenous (n = 226) clarithromycin on admission...
2017: Pneumonia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28663549/determinants-of-initial-inhaled-corticosteroid-use-in-patients-with-gold-a-b-copd-a-retrospective-study-of-uk-general-practice
#5
James D Chalmers, Abigail Tebboth, Alicia Gayle, Andrew Ternouth, Nick Ramscar
Initial use of inhaled corticosteroid therapy is common in patients with Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease (GOLD) A or B chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, contrary to GOLD guidelines. We investigated UK prescribing of inhaled corticosteroid therapy in these patients, to identify predictors of inhaled corticosteroid use in newly diagnosed chronic obstructive pulmonary disease patients. A cohort of newly diagnosed GOLD A/B chronic obstructive pulmonary disease patients was identified from the UK Clinical Practice Research Datalink (June 2005-June 2015)...
June 29, 2017: NPJ Primary Care Respiratory Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28657170/the-past-decade-in-bench-research-into-pulmonary-infectious-diseases-what-do-clinicians-need-to-know
#6
REVIEW
Simon Finch, Holly R Keir, Alison J Dicker, James D Chalmers
Respiratory infections are primarily treated with antibiotics, drugs that are mostly inexpensive and have been widely available since the 1940s and 1950s. Nevertheless, despite antibiotics, the burden of disease in pneumonia, bronchiectasis, cystic fibrosis, COPD and rare respiratory infections remains exceptionally high. There is an urgent need for translational studies to develop new treatments or new biomarkers to improve outcomes in these conditions. The 'translational gaps' between bench science and clinical practice are particularly challenging in respiratory infections...
June 28, 2017: Respirology: Official Journal of the Asian Pacific Society of Respirology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28653216/nmr-characterization-of-htpg-the-e-coli-hsp90-using-sparse-labeling-with-13-c-methyl-alanine
#7
Kari Pederson, Gordon R Chalmers, Qi Gao, Daniel Elnatan, Theresa A Ramelot, Li-Chung Ma, Gaetano T Montelione, Michael A Kennedy, David A Agard, James H Prestegard
A strategy for acquiring structural information from sparsely isotopically labeled large proteins is illustrated with an application to the E. coli heat-shock protein, HtpG (high temperature protein G), a 145 kDa dimer. It uses (13)C-alanine methyl labeling in a perdeuterated background to take advantage of the sensitivity and resolution of Methyl-TROSY spectra, as well as the backbone-centered structural information from (1)H-(13)C residual dipolar couplings (RDCs) of alanine methyl groups. In all, 40 of the 47 expected crosspeaks were resolved and 36 gave RDC data...
July 2017: Journal of Biomolecular NMR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28614669/severe-pneumococcal-pneumonia-causes-acute-cardiac-toxicity-and-subsequent-cardiac-remodeling
#8
Luis F Reyes, Marcos I Restrepo, Cecilia A Hinojosa, Nilam J Soni, Antonio Anzueto, Bettina L Babu, Norberto Gonzalez-Juarbe, Alejandro H Rodriguez, Alejandro Jimenez, James D Chalmers, Stefano Aliberti, Oriol Sibila, Vicki T Winter, Jacqueline J Coalson, Luis D Giavedoni, Charles S Dela Cruz, Grant W Waterer, Martin Witzenrath, Norbert Suttorp, Peter H Dube, Carlos J Orihuela
RATIONALE: Up to one-third of the patients hospitalized with pneumococcal pneumonia experience major adverse cardiac events (MACE) during or after pneumonia. In mice, Streptococcus pneumoniae can invade the myocardium, induce cardiomyocyte death, and disrupt cardiac function following bacteremia, but it is unknown whether the same occurs in humans with severe pneumonia. OBJECTIVE: We sought to determine whether S. pneumoniae can 1) translocate the heart, 2) induce cardiomyocyte death, 3) cause MACE, and 4) induce cardiac scar formation post-antibiotic treatment during severe pneumonia using a non-human primates (NHP) model...
June 14, 2017: American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28610665/anti-pseudomonas-aeruginosa-igg-antibodies-and-chronic-airway-infection-in-bronchiectasis
#9
Guillermo Suarez-Cuartin, Alex Smith, Hani Abo-Leyah, Ana Rodrigo-Troyano, Lidia Perea, Silvia Vidal, Vicente Plaza, Thomas C Fardon, Oriol Sibila, James D Chalmers
BACKGROUND: Identification of chronic Pseudomonas aeruginosa (PA) infection is important in the management of bronchiectasis, but requires repeated sputum sampling. We hypothesized that serum anti-PA IgG antibodies could diagnose chronic PA infection at a single visit. METHODS: Clinically stable bronchiectasis patients were studied prospectively. Chronic PA infection was defined as 2 or more positive sputum samples at least 3 months apart and/or failure to clear PA following eradication treatment...
July 2017: Respiratory Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28599926/bronchiectasis-and-copd-overlap-a-case-of-mistaken-identity
#10
EDITORIAL
James D Chalmers
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 2017: Chest
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28596426/pulmonary-exacerbation-in-adults-with-bronchiectasis-a-consensus-definition-for-clinical-research
#11
Adam T Hill, Charles S Haworth, Stefano Aliberti, Alan Barker, Francesco Blasi, Wim Boersma, James D Chalmers, Anthony De Soyza, Katerina Dimakou, J Stuart Elborn, Charles Feldman, Patrick Flume, Pieter C Goeminne, Michael R Loebinger, Rosario Menendez, Lucy Morgan, Marlene Murris, Eva Polverino, Alexandra Quittner, Felix C Ringshausen, Gregory Tino, Antoni Torres, Montserrat Vendrell, Tobias Welte, Rob Wilson, Conroy Wong, Anne O'Donnell, Timothy Aksamit
There is a need for a clear definition of exacerbations used in clinical trials in patients with bronchiectasis. An expert conference was convened to develop a consensus definition of an exacerbation for use in clinical research.A systematic review of exacerbation definitions used in clinical trials from January 2000 until December 2015 and involving adults with bronchiectasis was conducted. A Delphi process followed by a round-table meeting involving bronchiectasis experts was organised to reach a consensus definition...
June 2017: European Respiratory Journal: Official Journal of the European Society for Clinical Respiratory Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28554732/a-randomised-control-trial-of-atorvastatin-in-bronchiectasis-patients-infected-with-pseudomonas-aeruginosa-a-proof-of-concept-study
#12
Pallavi Bedi, James D Chalmers, Catriona Graham, Andrea Clarke, Samantha Donaldson, Catherine Doherty, John Rw Govan, Donald J Davidson, Adriano G Rossi, Adam T Hill
INTRODUCTION: There are no randomised control trials of statin therapy in patients with severe bronchiectasis, chronically infected with Pseudomonas aeruginosa. METHODS: 32 patients chronically infected with P. aeruginosa were recruited in this double blind cross over RCT. 16 patients were recruited in each arm, given atorvastatin 80mg or placebo for 3months, followed by a washout period for 6weeks, crossed over and administered the alternative therapy for 3months...
May 26, 2017: Chest
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28538734/zika-virus-evolution-and-spread-in-the-americas
#13
Hayden C Metsky, Christian B Matranga, Shirlee Wohl, Stephen F Schaffner, Catherine A Freije, Sarah M Winnicki, Kendra West, James Qu, Mary Lynn Baniecki, Adrianne Gladden-Young, Aaron E Lin, Christopher H Tomkins-Tinch, Simon H Ye, Daniel J Park, Cynthia Y Luo, Kayla G Barnes, Rickey R Shah, Bridget Chak, Giselle Barbosa-Lima, Edson Delatorre, Yasmine R Vieira, Lauren M Paul, Amanda L Tan, Carolyn M Barcellona, Mario C Porcelli, Chalmers Vasquez, Andrew C Cannons, Marshall R Cone, Kelly N Hogan, Edgar W Kopp, Joshua J Anzinger, Kimberly F Garcia, Leda A Parham, Rosa M Gélvez Ramírez, Maria C Miranda Montoya, Diana P Rojas, Catherine M Brown, Scott Hennigan, Brandon Sabina, Sarah Scotland, Karthik Gangavarapu, Nathan D Grubaugh, Glenn Oliveira, Refugio Robles-Sikisaka, Andrew Rambaut, Lee Gehrke, Sandra Smole, M Elizabeth Halloran, Luis Villar, Salim Mattar, Ivette Lorenzana, Jose Cerbino-Neto, Clarissa Valim, Wim Degrave, Patricia T Bozza, Andreas Gnirke, Kristian G Andersen, Sharon Isern, Scott F Michael, Fernando A Bozza, Thiago M L Souza, Irene Bosch, Nathan L Yozwiak, Bronwyn L MacInnis, Pardis C Sabeti
Although the recent Zika virus (ZIKV) epidemic in the Americas and its link to birth defects have attracted a great deal of attention, much remains unknown about ZIKV disease epidemiology and ZIKV evolution, in part owing to a lack of genomic data. Here we address this gap in knowledge by using multiple sequencing approaches to generate 110 ZIKV genomes from clinical and mosquito samples from 10 countries and territories, greatly expanding the observed viral genetic diversity from this outbreak. We analysed the timing and patterns of introductions into distinct geographic regions; our phylogenetic evidence suggests rapid expansion of the outbreak in Brazil and multiple introductions of outbreak strains into Puerto Rico, Honduras, Colombia, other Caribbean islands, and the continental United States...
June 15, 2017: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28538723/genomic-epidemiology-reveals-multiple-introductions-of-zika-virus-into-the-united-states
#14
Nathan D Grubaugh, Jason T Ladner, Moritz U G Kraemer, Gytis Dudas, Amanda L Tan, Karthik Gangavarapu, Michael R Wiley, Stephen White, Julien Thézé, Diogo M Magnani, Karla Prieto, Daniel Reyes, Andrea M Bingham, Lauren M Paul, Refugio Robles-Sikisaka, Glenn Oliveira, Darryl Pronty, Carolyn M Barcellona, Hayden C Metsky, Mary Lynn Baniecki, Kayla G Barnes, Bridget Chak, Catherine A Freije, Adrianne Gladden-Young, Andreas Gnirke, Cynthia Luo, Bronwyn MacInnis, Christian B Matranga, Daniel J Park, James Qu, Stephen F Schaffner, Christopher Tomkins-Tinch, Kendra L West, Sarah M Winnicki, Shirlee Wohl, Nathan L Yozwiak, Joshua Quick, Joseph R Fauver, Kamran Khan, Shannon E Brent, Robert C Reiner, Paola N Lichtenberger, Michael J Ricciardi, Varian K Bailey, David I Watkins, Marshall R Cone, Edgar W Kopp, Kelly N Hogan, Andrew C Cannons, Reynald Jean, Andrew J Monaghan, Robert F Garry, Nicholas J Loman, Nuno R Faria, Mario C Porcelli, Chalmers Vasquez, Elyse R Nagle, Derek A T Cummings, Danielle Stanek, Andrew Rambaut, Mariano Sanchez-Lockhart, Pardis C Sabeti, Leah D Gillis, Scott F Michael, Trevor Bedford, Oliver G Pybus, Sharon Isern, Gustavo Palacios, Kristian G Andersen
Zika virus (ZIKV) is causing an unprecedented epidemic linked to severe congenital abnormalities. In July 2016, mosquito-borne ZIKV transmission was reported in the continental United States; since then, hundreds of locally acquired infections have been reported in Florida. To gain insights into the timing, source, and likely route(s) of ZIKV introduction, we tracked the virus from its first detection in Florida by sequencing ZIKV genomes from infected patients and Aedes aegypti mosquitoes. We show that at least 4 introductions, but potentially as many as 40, contributed to the outbreak in Florida and that local transmission is likely to have started in the spring of 2016-several months before its initial detection...
June 15, 2017: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526802/macrolide-resistance-in-pseudomonas-aeruginosa-implications-for-practice
#15
EDITORIAL
James D Chalmers
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 2017: European Respiratory Journal: Official Journal of the European Society for Clinical Respiratory Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28506850/neutrophil-extracellular-traps-are-associated-with-disease-severity-and-microbiota-diversity-in-patients-with-chronic-obstructive-pulmonary-disease
#16
Alison J Dicker, Megan L Crichton, Eleanor G Pumphrey, Andrew J Cassidy, Guillermo Suarez-Cuartin, Oriol Sibila, Elizabeth Furrie, Christopher J Fong, Wasyla Ibrahim, Gill Brady, Gisli G Einarsson, J Stuart Elborn, Stuart Schembri, Sara E Marshall, Colin N A Palmer, James D Chalmers
BACKGROUND: Neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) have been observed in the airway in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), but their clinical and pathophysiologic implications have not been defined. OBJECTIVE: We sought to determine whether NETs are associated with disease severity in patients with COPD and how they are associated with microbiota composition and airway neutrophil function. METHODS: NET protein complexes (DNA-elastase and histone-elastase complexes), cell-free DNA, and neutrophil biomarkers were quantified in soluble sputum and serum from patients with COPD during periods of disease stability and during exacerbations and compared with clinical measures of disease severity and the sputum microbiome...
May 13, 2017: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28502416/the-heterogeneity-of-systemic-inflammation-in-bronchiectasis
#17
Aarash D Saleh, James D Chalmers, Anthony De Soyza, Thomas C Fardon, Spiro O Koustas, Jonathan Scott, A John Simpson, Jeremy S Brown, John R Hurst
BACKGROUND: Systemic inflammation in bronchiectasis is poorly studied in relation to aetiology and severity. We hypothesized that molecular patterns of inflammation may define particular aetiology and severity groups in bronchiectasis. METHOD: We assayed blood concentrations of 31 proteins from 90 bronchiectasis patients (derivation cohort) and conducted PCA to examine relationships between these markers, disease aetiology and severity. Key results were validated in two separate cohorts of 97 and 79 patients from other centres...
June 2017: Respiratory Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28481709/reply-to-a-chalmers-et-al
#18
William J Magnuson, Nataniel H Lester-Coll, James B Yu, Veronica L Chiang
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 10, 2017: Journal of Clinical Oncology: Official Journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28420421/analysis-of-100-000-human-cancer-genomes-reveals-the-landscape-of-tumor-mutational-burden
#19
Zachary R Chalmers, Caitlin F Connelly, David Fabrizio, Laurie Gay, Siraj M Ali, Riley Ennis, Alexa Schrock, Brittany Campbell, Adam Shlien, Juliann Chmielecki, Franklin Huang, Yuting He, James Sun, Uri Tabori, Mark Kennedy, Daniel S Lieber, Steven Roels, Jared White, Geoffrey A Otto, Jeffrey S Ross, Levi Garraway, Vincent A Miller, Phillip J Stephens, Garrett M Frampton
BACKGROUND: High tumor mutational burden (TMB) is an emerging biomarker of sensitivity to immune checkpoint inhibitors and has been shown to be more significantly associated with response to PD-1 and PD-L1 blockade immunotherapy than PD-1 or PD-L1 expression, as measured by immunohistochemistry (IHC). The distribution of TMB and the subset of patients with high TMB has not been well characterized in the majority of cancer types. METHODS: In this study, we compare TMB measured by a targeted comprehensive genomic profiling (CGP) assay to TMB measured by exome sequencing and simulate the expected variance in TMB when sequencing less than the whole exome...
April 19, 2017: Genome Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28406394/a-randomised-controlled-trial-to-compare-the-safety-effectiveness-and-cost-effectiveness-of-doxycycline-200%C3%A2-mg-day-with-that-of-oral-prednisolone-0-5%C3%A2-mg-kg-day-for-initial-treatment-of-bullous-pemphigoid-the-bullous-pemphigoid-steroids-and-tetracyclines-blister
#20
Joanne R Chalmers, Fenella Wojnarowska, Gudula Kirtschig, James Mason, Margaret Childs, Diane Whitham, Karen Harman, Anna Chapman, Shernaz Walton, Enno Schmidt, Thomas R Godec, Andrew J Nunn, Hywel C Williams
BACKGROUND: Bullous pemphigoid (BP) is an autoimmune blistering skin disorder with increased morbidity and mortality in the elderly. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the effectiveness, safety and cost-effectiveness of a strategy of initiating BP treatment with oral doxycycline or oral prednisolone. We hypothesised that starting treatment with doxycycline gives acceptable short-term blister control while conferring long-term safety advantages over starting treatment with oral prednisolone...
March 2017: Health Technology Assessment: HTA
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