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malignant melanoma prevention

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28211077/severe-bullous-pemphigoid-associated-with-pembrolizumab-therapy-for-metastatic-melanoma-with-complete-regression
#1
O Rofe, G Bar-Sela, Z Keidar, T Sezin, C D Sadik, R Bergman
Bullous pemphigoid (BP) is considered to be a humorally mediated autoimmune disease, but autoreactive T-cells and T-regulatory cells (Tregs) have also been implicated in this disease. Tregs and the programmed death-1 (PD-1) : programmed death ligand (PD-L) pathway are both critical in terminating immune response, and elimination of either can result in breakdown of tolerance and development of autoimmunity. We report a patient with metastatic malignant melanoma (MM), who underwent pembrolizumab (anti-PD-1) therapy following unsuccessful treatment with ipilimumab [anti-cytotoxic T-lymphocyte-associated protein (CTLA)-4]...
February 16, 2017: Clinical and Experimental Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28160109/antimetastatic-pectic-polysaccharide-from-decalepis-hamiltonii-galectin-3-inhibition-and-immune-modulation
#2
Sathisha U Venkateshaiah, Mallikarjuna S Eswaraiah, Harish Nayaka M Annaiah, Shylaja M Dharmesh
Melanoma is a malignant neoplasm of major concern because of its high mortality rate and failure of chemotherapy. Previously we have shown that galectin-3, a galactose specific lectin, plays a pivotal role in the initiation of metastasis. It was hypothesized that blocking galectin-3 with galactose rich dietary pectic polymer would inhibit metastasis. The current study analyzes the preventive effect and mode of action of a pectic polymer from Swallow Root (Decalepis hamiltonii) in a preventative study of B16F10 cells lung colonization...
February 3, 2017: Clinical & Experimental Metastasis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28150105/skin-cancer-epidemiology-disease-burden-pathophysiology-diagnosis-and-therapeutic-approaches
#3
REVIEW
Zoe Apalla, Dorothée Nashan, Richard B Weller, Xavier Castellsagué
Skin cancer, including both melanoma and non-melanoma, is the most common type of malignancy in the Caucasian population. Firstly, we review the evidence for the observed increase in the incidence of skin cancer over recent decades, and investigate whether this is a true increase or an artefact of greater screening and over-diagnosis. Prevention strategies are also discussed. Secondly, we discuss the complexities and challenges encountered when diagnosing and developing treatment strategies for skin cancer...
January 2017: Dermatology and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28147380/promises-and-dangers-of-combination-therapy
#4
REVIEW
Wolfgang Kruis, Phuong G Nguyen, Julia Morgenstern
The efficiency of the existing methods of treating inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is limited. There are 2 ways to address this problem - either create new treatment modalities or optimize current therapies. Optimisation may be accomplished by using combinations of established therapeutic strategies. With regard to topically acting compounds such as 5-aminosalicylic acid, combining oral and rectal preparations is a commonly used method. Another commonly used combination is anti-tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α antibody modalities together with immunosuppressants (thiopurines, methotrexate)...
2017: Digestive Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28125434/vitamin-d-status-and-risk-for-malignant-cutaneous-melanoma-recent-advances
#5
Maria N Ombra, Panagiotis Paliogiannis, Valentina Doneddu, Maria C Sini, Maria Colombino, Carla Rozzo, Ignazio Stanganelli, Francesco Tanda, Antonio Cossu, Giuseppe Palmieri
Cutaneous malignant melanoma, whose incidence is increasing steadily worldwide, is the result of complex interactions between individual genetic factors and environmental risk factors. Ultraviolet radiation represents the most important environmental risk factor for the development of skin cancers, including melanoma. Sun exposure and early sunburn during childhood are the principal causes of cutaneous melanoma insurgence in adults, with double the risk relative to a nonexposed population. Consequently, ultraviolet protection has long been recognized as an important measure to prevent such a malignancy...
January 25, 2017: European Journal of Cancer Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28118455/trends-and-patterns-of-disparities-in-cancer-mortality-among-us-counties-1980-2014
#6
Ali H Mokdad, Laura Dwyer-Lindgren, Christina Fitzmaurice, Rebecca W Stubbs, Amelia Bertozzi-Villa, Chloe Morozoff, Raghid Charara, Christine Allen, Mohsen Naghavi, Christopher J L Murray
Introduction: Cancer is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in the United States and results in a high economic burden. Objective: To estimate age-standardized mortality rates by US county from 29 cancers. Design and Setting: Deidentified death records from the National Center for Health Statistics (NCHS) and population counts from the Census Bureau, the NCHS, and the Human Mortality Database from 1980 to 2014 were used. Validated small area estimation models were used to estimate county-level mortality rates from 29 cancers: lip and oral cavity; nasopharynx; other pharynx; esophageal; stomach; colon and rectum; liver; gallbladder and biliary; pancreatic; larynx; tracheal, bronchus, and lung; malignant skin melanoma; nonmelanoma skin cancer; breast; cervical; uterine; ovarian; prostate; testicular; kidney; bladder; brain and nervous system; thyroid; mesothelioma; Hodgkin lymphoma; non-Hodgkin lymphoma; multiple myeloma; leukemia; and all other cancers combined...
24, 2017: JAMA: the Journal of the American Medical Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28112098/primary-cutaneous-malignancies-in-the-northern-cape-province-of-south-africa-a-retrospective-histopathological-review
#7
K York, N C Dlova, C Y Wright, N P Khumalo, P E Kellett, R Kassanjee, A Mosam
BACKGROUND: Excessive sun exposure and a high prevalence of HIV increase skin cancer risk in South Africa (SA). OBJECTIVE: To describe the nature and extent of skin cancers presenting in the public and private health sectors of the Northern Cape Province of SA. METHODS: A retrospective analysis of histologically confirmed new primary cutaneous malignancies from 1 January 2008 to 31 December 2012 was conducted using public and private health sector databases...
December 21, 2016: South African Medical Journal, Suid-Afrikaanse Tydskrif Vir Geneeskunde
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28097368/incidence-of-and-risk-factors-for-skin-cancer-in-organ-transplant-recipients-in-the-united-states
#8
Giorgia L Garrett, Paul D Blanc, John Boscardin, Amanda Abramson Lloyd, Rehana L Ahmed, Tiffany Anthony, Kristin Bibee, Andrew Breithaupt, Jennifer Cannon, Amy Chen, Joyce Y Cheng, Zelma Chiesa-Fuxench, Oscar R Colegio, Clara Curiel-Lewandrowski, Christina A Del Guzzo, Max Disse, Margaret Dowd, Robert Eilers, Arisa Elena Ortiz, Caroline Morris, Spring K Golden, Michael S Graves, John R Griffin, R Samuel Hopkins, Conway C Huang, Gordon Hyeonjin Bae, Anokhi Jambusaria, Thomas A Jennings, Shang I Brian Jiang, Pritesh S Karia, Shilpi Khetarpal, Changhyun Kim, Goran Klintmalm, Kathryn Konicke, Shlomo A Koyfman, Charlene Lam, Peter Lee, Justin J Leitenberger, Tiffany Loh, Stefan Lowenstein, Reshmi Madankumar, Jacqueline F Moreau, Rajiv I Nijhawan, Shari Ochoa, Edit B Olasz, Elaine Otchere, Clark Otley, Jeremy Oulton, Parth H Patel, Vishal Anil Patel, Arpan V Prabhu, Melissa Pugliano-Mauro, Chrysalyne D Schmults, Sarah Schram, Allen F Shih, Thuzar Shin, Seaver Soon, Teresa Soriano, Divya Srivastava, Jennifer A Stein, Kara Sternhell-Blackwell, Stan Taylor, Allison Vidimos, Peggy Wu, Nicholas Zajdel, Daniel Zelac, Sarah T Arron
Importance: Skin cancer is the most common malignancy occurring after organ transplantation. Although previous research has reported an increased risk of skin cancer in solid organ transplant recipients (OTRs), no study has estimated the posttransplant population-based incidence in the United States. Objective: To determine the incidence and evaluate the risk factors for posttransplant skin cancer, including squamous cell carcinoma (SCC), melanoma (MM), and Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC) in a cohort of US OTRs receiving a primary organ transplant in 2003 or 2008...
January 11, 2017: JAMA Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28095280/relative-importance-of-traditional-risk-factors-for-malignant-melanoma-in-the-czech-population
#9
Lucie Rajská, Dana Göpfertová, Jana Hercogová, Anna Jiráková, Zuzana Sečníková, Filip Rob, Zdeněk Šmerhovský
AIM: The Czech Republic is one of the leading European countries in incident cases of malignant melanoma (MM), which is on the rise. The study objective was to assess the strength of associations between MM and the known generally accepted risk factors for MM in the population of the Czech Republic. METHODS: The study was designed as a case-control study where cases were incident cases of MM detected at the Department of Dermatology and Venereology of the Bulovka Hospital...
December 2016: Central European Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092363/mouse-models-of-uv-induced-melanoma-genetics-pathology-and-clinical-relevance
#10
Chi-Ping Day, Rachel Marchalik, Glenn Merlino, Helen Michael
Melanocytes, a neural crest cell derivative, produce pigment to protect keratinocytes from ultraviolet radiation (UVR). Although melanocytic lesions such as nevi and cutaneous malignant melanomas are known to be associated with sun exposure, the role of UVR in oncogenesis is complex and has yet to be clearly elucidated. UVR appears to have a direct mutational role in inducing or promoting melanoma formation as well as an indirect role through microenvironmental changes. Recent advances in the modeling of human melanoma in animals have built platforms upon which prospective studies can begin to investigate these questions...
January 16, 2017: Laboratory Investigation; a Journal of Technical Methods and Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28064232/primary-vaginal-melanoma-a-rare-and-aggressive-entity-a-case-report-and-review-of-the-literature
#11
Emmanouil Kalampokas, Theodoros Kalampokas, Christos Damaskos
: Malignant melanoma of the vagina is a rare, aggressive malignancy of poor prognosis. It principally affects post-menopausal women, with a mean age of 57 years, and the factors that contribute to its appearance are not well known. The first case of primary malignant vaginal melanoma was reported in 1887 and modern literature has noted about 500 cases, globally. Vaginal melanomas constitute 0.3% of all malignant melanomas and fewer than 3% of all vaginal carcinomas. To date there is no clear consensus regarding treatment...
January 2017: In Vivo
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28058215/more-than-skin-deep-potential-nicotinamide-treatment-applications-in-chronic-kidney-transplant-recipients
#12
REVIEW
Andrew G Bostom, Basma Merhi, Joanna Walker, Leslie Robinson-Bostom
Non-melanoma cutaneous carcinomas, or skin cancers, predominantly squamous cell carcinomas (SCCs), are the most common malignancies occurring in kidney transplant recipients (KTRs). Squamous cell carcinoma risk is dramatically elevated in KTRs, occurring at rates of up 45-250 times those reported in general populations. New non-melanoma skin cancers in KTRs with a prior non-melanoma skin cancer also develop at 3-times the rate reported in non-KTRs with the same clinical history. The unique aggressiveness of SCCs in KTRs increases patient morbidity, due to the high rate of new lesions requiring treatment, frequently surgical excision...
December 24, 2016: World Journal of Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28052407/p21-activated-kinase-1-regulates-resistance-to-braf-inhibition-in-human-cancer-cells
#13
Mahamat Babagana, Sydney Johnson, Hannah Slabodkin, Wiam Bshara, Carl Morrison, Eugene S Kandel
BRAF is a commonly mutated oncogene in various human malignancies and a target of a new class of anti-cancer agents, BRAF-inhibitors (BRAFi). The initial enthusiasm for these agents, based on the early successes in the management of metastatic melanoma, is now challenged by the mounting evidence of intrinsic BRAFi-insensitivity in many BRAF-mutated tumors, by the scarcity of complete responses, and by the inevitable emergence of drug resistance in initially responsive cases. These setbacks put an emphasis on discovering the means to increase the efficacy of BRAFi and to prevent or overcome BRAFi-resistance...
January 4, 2017: Molecular Carcinogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28017864/modifying-effects-of-carboxyl-group-on-the-interaction-of-recombinant-s100a8-a9-complex-with-tyrosinase
#14
Fatemeh NematiNiko, Koorosh Goodarzvand Chegini, Hamideh Asghari, Abbas Amini, Nematollah Gheibi
Tyrosinase is a determinant enzyme for modulating melanin production as its abnormal activity can result in an increased amount of melanin. Reduction of tyrosinase activity has been targeted for preventing and healing hyperpigmentation of skin, such as melanoma and age related spots. The aim of this systematic study is to investigate whether recombinant S100A8/A9 and its modified form reduce the activity of mushroom tyrosinase (MT) through changing its structure. Recombinant His-Tagged S100A8 and S100A9 are expressed in Escherichia coli BL21 (DE3) and modified using Woodward's reagent K which is a carboxyl group modifier...
March 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27999416/dermal-delivery-of-constructs-encoding-cre-recombinase-to-induce-skin-tumors-in-pten-loxp-loxp-braf-ca-mice
#15
Marcel A Deken, Ji-Ying Song, Jules Gadiot, Adriaan D Bins, Paula Kroon, Inge Verbrugge, Christian U Blank
Current genetically-engineered mouse melanoma models are often based on Tyr::CreER(T2)-controlled MAPK pathway activation by the BRAF(V600E) mutation and PI3K pathway activation by loss of PTEN. The major drawback of these models is the occurrence of spontaneous tumors caused by leakiness of the Tyr::CreER(T2) system, hampering long-term experiments. To address this problem, we investigated several approaches to optimally provide local delivery of Cre recombinase, including injection of lentiviral particles, DNA tattoo administration and particle-mediated gene transfer, to induce melanomas in Pten(LoxP/LoxP);Braf(CA/+) mice lacking the Tyr::CreER(T2) allele...
December 20, 2016: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27999230/melanoma-prevention-in-children-knowledge-attitudes-and-behaviors-of-pediatricians-in-italy
#16
Claudia Esposito, Laura Pezzulo, Francesco Napolitano, Gabriella Di Giuseppe
INTRODUCTION: The aims of this study were to assess the levels of knowledge, attitudes and behaviors of pediatricians about melanoma and to estimate any variables associated with this outcome of interest. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A cross-sectional survey was conducted on a sample of pediatricians using a questionnaire sent by postal mail. RESULTS: 40.8% and 41.6% of pediatricians respectively stated that they "often" and "always" carried out a full skin examination during routine checkups of children...
October 2016: Annali Dell'Istituto Superiore di Sanità
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27989229/-factors-influencing-early-detection-of-malignant-melanoma
#17
Irén Petrovszki, Ildikó Csányi, Mónika Szűcs, Henriette Ócsai, Nazanin Houshmand, Lajos Kemény, Judit Oláh, Eszter Baltás
INTRODUCTION AND AIM: Melanoma is a highly aggressive tumour with often unpredictable outcome. Our aim with this study was to determine factors influencing early detection of melanoma. METHOD: We analyzed 139 questionnaires completed by patients diagnosed with melanoma. RESULTS: We found that our patients are health-conscious regarding cardiovascular diseases and attend cancer screenings on recall. However, their knowledge about melanoma is insufficient...
December 2016: Orvosi Hetilap
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27926505/antitumor-effect-of-combination-of-the-inhibitors-of-two-new-oncotargets-proton-pumps-and-reverse-transcriptase
#18
Luana Lugini, Ilaria Sciamanna, Cristina Federici, Elisabetta Iessi, Enrico Pierluigi Spugnini, Stefano Fais
Tumor therapy needs new approaches in order to improve efficacy and reduce toxicity of the current treatments. The acidic microenvironment and the expression of high levels of endogenous non-telomerase reverse transcriptase (RT) are common features of malignant tumor cells. The anti-acidic proton pump inhibitor Lansoprazole (LAN) and the non-nucleoside RT inhibitor Efavirenz (EFV) have shown independent antitumor efficacy. LAN has shown to counteract drug tumor resistance. We tested the hypothesis that combination of LAN and EFV may improve the overall antitumor effects...
December 3, 2016: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27919746/fhod1-formin-is-upregulated-in-melanomas-and-modifies-proliferation-and-tumor-growth
#19
Minna Peippo, Maria Gardberg, Tarja Lamminen, Katja Kaipio, Olli Carpén, Vanina D Heuser
The functional properties of actin-regulating formin proteins are diverse and in many cases cell-type specific. FHOD1, a formin expressed predominantly in cells of mesenchymal lineage, bundles actin filaments and participates in maintenance of cell shape, migration and cellular protrusions. FHOD1 participates in cancer-associated epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT) in oral squamous cell carcinoma and breast cancer. The role of FHOD1 in melanomas has not been characterized. Here, we show that FHOD1 expression is typically strong in cutaneous melanomas and cultured melanoma cells while the expression is low or absent in benign nevi...
January 1, 2017: Experimental Cell Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911450/uveal-melanoma-relatively-rare-but-deadly-cancer
#20
REVIEW
S Kaliki, C L Shields
Although it is a relatively rare disease, primarily found in the Caucasian population, uveal melanoma is the most common primary intraocular tumor in adults with a mean age-adjusted incidence of 5.1 cases per million per year. Tumors are located either in iris (4%), ciliary body (6%), or choroid (90%). The host susceptibility factors for uveal melanoma include fair skin, light eye color, inability to tan, ocular or oculodermal melanocytosis, cutaneous or iris or choroidal nevus, and BRCA1-associated protein 1 mutation...
February 2017: Eye
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