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malignant melanoma prevention

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28441796/role-of-dietary-crocin-in-in-vivo-melanoma-tumor-remission
#1
Hamid A Bakshi, Faruck Lukmanul Hakkim, Smitha Sam, Farideh Javid
Background: Melanoma is a deadly form of malignancy. Early diagnosis might pave the way to cure but its aggressive nature leads to rapid dissemination and colonization of distant organs. Dietary herbs may play a significant role in prevention of cancer. In this study, we tested anti-tumor efficacy of the Crocus sativus derived active constituent crocin, well established to have anti-cancer properties in different cancer models by our group and other groups and other groups. Notably, crocin is reported to exert anti-proliferative effect on melanoma cells (B16F10) in vitro...
March 1, 2017: Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention: APJCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28399347/conjunctival-tumors-review-of-clinical-features-risks-biomarkers-and-outcomes-the-2017-j-donald-m-gass-lecture
#2
Carol L Shields, Jason L Chien, Thamolwan Surakiatchanukul, Kareem Sioufi, Sara E Lally, Jerry A Shields
Conjunctival tumors encompass a broad range of diagnoses. The 3 most important malignant tumors include ocular surface squamous neoplasia (OSSN) (14%), melanoma (12%), and lymphoma (7%). Conjunctival malignancies are rarely found in children. Regarding OSSN, pre-disposing conditions include chronic solar radiation, immune deficiency (HIV), organ transplant, autoimmune conditions, xeroderma pigmentosum, and chronic exposure to cigarette smoke. OSSN is managed surgically or with topical/injection immunotherapy or chemotherapy...
March 2017: Asia-Pacific Journal of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28389693/the-advantages-and-challenges-of-using-fdg-pet-ct-for-response-assessment-in-melanoma-in-the-era-of-targeted-agents-and-immunotherapy
#3
REVIEW
Annie N M Wong, Grant A McArthur, Michael S Hofman, Rodney J Hicks
The treatment of melanoma has been revolutionised in recent years by advances in the understanding of the genomic landscape of this disease, which has led to the development of new targeted therapeutic agents, and the ability to therapeutically manipulate the immune system through inhibition of cancer cell-T-cell interactions that prevent an adaptive immune response. While these therapeutic interventions have dramatically improved the prospects of survival for patients with advanced melanoma, they bring significant complexity to the interpretation of therapeutic response because their mechanisms and temporal profile of response vary considerably...
April 7, 2017: European Journal of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28378483/important-malignant-and-new-nail-tumors
#4
Eckart Haneke
The nail apparatus is an integral part of the functional unit of the digital tip. Although overall uncommon, all cells and tissues occurring in this area can give rise to neoplastic lesions. Given the special anatomical location, such tumors frequently show morphological and symptom-related differences compared to similar lesions located elsewhere on the skin. Though particularly threatening, there is often a substantial delay in the diagnosis of Bowen's disease, ungual squamous cell carcinoma, and melanoma...
April 2017: Journal der Deutschen Dermatologischen Gesellschaft, Journal of the German Society of Dermatology: JDDG
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28368402/sox2-is-not-required-for-melanomagenesis-melanoma-growth-and-melanoma-metastasis-in-vivo
#5
V Cesarini, E Guida, F Todaro, S Di Agostino, V Tassinari, S Nicolis, R Favaro, S Caporali, P M Lacal, E Botti, A Costanzo, P Rossi, E A Jannini, S Dolci
Melanoma is a dangerous form of skin cancer derived from the malignant transformation of melanocytes. The transcription factor SOX2 is not expressed in melanocytes, however, it has been shown to be differentially expressed between benign nevi and malignant melanomas and to be essential for melanoma stem cell maintenance and expansion in vitro and in xenograft models. By using a mouse model in which BRaf(V600E) mutation cooperates with Pten loss to induce the development of metastatic melanoma, we investigated if Sox2 is required during the process of melanomagenesis, melanoma growth and metastasis and in the acquisition of resistance to BRAF inhibitors (BRAFi) treatments...
April 3, 2017: Oncogene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28356946/ginsenoside-rh2-enhances-the-antitumor-immunological-response-of-a-melanoma-mice-model
#6
Meng Wang, Shi-Ju Yan, Hong-Tao Zhang, Nan Li, Tao Liu, Ying-Long Zhang, Xiao-Xiang Li, Qiong Ma, Xiu-Chun Qiu, Qing-Yu Fan, Bao-An Ma
The treatment of malignant tumors following surgery is important in preventing relapse. Among all the post-surgery treatments, immunomodulators have demonstrated satisfactory effects on preventing recurrence according to recent studies. Ginsenoside is a compound isolated from panax ginseng, which is a famous traditional Chinese medicine. Ginsenoside aids in killing tumor cells through numerous processes, including the antitumor processes of ginsenoside Rh2 and Rg1, and also affects the inflammatory processes of the immune system...
February 2017: Oncology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28329671/trends-of-skin-cancer-incidence-following-transplantation-in-the-united-states
#7
Sarah T Arron
BackgroundSkin cancer is the most common malignancy occurring after organ transplantation. Although previous research has reported an increased risk of skin cancer in solid organ transplant recipients (OTR), no study has estimated the post-transplant population-based incidence in the US. The objective of this study is to determine the incidence and evaluate the predictors of post-transplant skin cancer, including squamous cell carcinoma (SCC), melanoma (MM), and Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC) in a cohort of US OTR receiving a primary transplant in 2003 or 2008...
September 15, 2016: Dermatology Online Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28329136/chronic-resveratrol-treatment-inhibits-mrc5-fibroblast-sasp-related-protumoral-effects-on-melanoma-cells
#8
Beatrice Menicacci, Anna Laurenzana, Anastasia Chillà, Francesca Margheri, Silvia Peppicelli, Elisabetta Tanganelli, Gabriella Fibbi, Lisa Giovannelli, Mario Del Rosso, Alessandra Mocali
Cellular senescence is related to organismal aging and is observed after DNA damaging cancer therapies, that induce tumor-suppressive modifications, but it is characterized by a strong increase in secreted factors, termed the "senescence-associated secretory phenotype" (SASP). Particularly, SASP from stroma senescent fibroblasts creates a cancer-favoring microenvironment, providing targets for anti-cancer interventions. In the present article, chronic treatment (5 weeks) with 5 µM resveratrol has been used to modulate senescence-related protumoral features of MRC5 fibroblasts, reducing SASP-related interleukins IL1α, IL1β, IL6, and IL8; transforming-growth-factor-β (TGFβ); matrix metallo-proteinases MMP3 and MMP2; urokinase plasminogen activator (uPA); receptor proteins uPAR, IL6R, insulin growth factor receptor-1 (IGF-1R), TGFβ-R2, and CXCR4...
January 20, 2017: Journals of Gerontology. Series A, Biological Sciences and Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28325214/antibody-based-cancer-therapy-successful-agents-and-novel-approaches
#9
D Hendriks, G Choi, M de Bruyn, V R Wiersma, E Bremer
Since their discovery, antibodies have been viewed as ideal candidates or "magic bullets" for use in targeted therapy in the fields of cancer, autoimmunity, and chronic inflammatory disorders. A wave of antibody-dedicated research followed, which resulted in the clinical approval of a first generation of monoclonal antibodies for cancer therapy such as rituximab (1997) and cetuximab (2004), and infliximab (2002) for the treatment of autoimmune diseases. More recently, the development of antibodies that prevent checkpoint-mediated inhibition of T cell responses invigorated the field of cancer immunotherapy...
2017: International Review of Cell and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28319049/resisting-fatal-attraction-a-glioma-oncometabolite-prevents-cd8-t-cell-recruitment
#10
Liliana E Lucca, David A Hafler
Immunotherapy has emerged as a potent approach for treating aggressive cancers, such as non-small-cell lung tumors and metastatic melanoma. Clinical trials are now in progress for patients with malignant gliomas; however, a better understanding of how these tumors escape immune surveillance is required to enhance antitumor immune responses. With gliomas, the recruitment of CD8+ T cells to the tumor is impaired, in part preventing containment or elimination of the tumor. In this issue of the JCI, Kohanbash and colleagues present an elegant dissection of how gliomas exploit an enzymatic activity acquired through a common mutation to abrogate the migration of CD8+ T cells to the tumor...
April 3, 2017: Journal of Clinical Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28303962/identification-of-novel-chemotherapeutic-strategies-for-metastatic-uveal-melanoma
#11
Paolo Fagone, Rosario Caltabiano, Andrea Russo, Gabriella Lupo, Carmelina Daniela Anfuso, Maria Sofia Basile, Antonio Longo, Ferdinando Nicoletti, Rocco De Pasquale, Massimo Libra, Michele Reibaldi
Melanoma of the uveal tract accounts for approximately 5% of all melanomas and represents the most common primary intraocular malignancy. Despite improvements in diagnosis and more effective local therapies for primary cancer, the rate of metastatic death has not changed in the past forty years. In the present study, we made use of bioinformatics to analyze the data obtained from three public available microarray datasets on uveal melanoma in an attempt to identify novel putative chemotherapeutic options for the liver metastatic disease...
March 17, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28258545/the-role-of-immune-checkpoint-inhibition-in-the-treatment-of-brain-tumors
#12
REVIEW
Andrew S Luksik, Russell Maxwell, Tomas Garzon-Muvdi, Michael Lim
The standard of care for malignant gliomas of the brain has changed very little over the last few decades, and does not offer a cure for these rare, but fatal, tumors. The field of immunotherapy has brought potent new drugs into the oncological armamentarium, and is becoming recognized as a potentially important arm in the treatment of glioblastoma for adults. Immune checkpoints are inhibitory receptors found on immune cells that, when stimulated, cause those immune cells to become quiescent. While this is a natural mechanism to prevent excessive inflammatory damage and autoimmunity in otherwise healthy tissues, cancer cells may utilize this process to grow in the absence of targeted immune destruction...
March 3, 2017: Neurotherapeutics: the Journal of the American Society for Experimental NeuroTherapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28255537/the-molecular-mechanism-by-which-saturated-lysophosphatidylcholine-attenuates-the-metastatic-capacity-of-melanoma-cells
#13
Thomas Ross, Bastian Jakubzig, Manuel Grundmann, Ulrich Massing, Evi Kostenis, Martin Schlesinger, Gerd Bendas
Lysophophatidylcholine (LysoPC) is an abundant constituent in human plasma. Patients with malignant cancer diseases have attenuated LysoPC plasma levels, and thus LysoPC has been examined as a metabolic biomarker for cancer prediction. Preclinical studies have shown that solid tumor cells drastically degrade LysoPCs by incorporating their free fatty acids into cell membrane phospholipids. In this way, LysoPC C18:0 reduced the metastatic spread of murine melanoma B16.F10 cells in mice. Although membrane rigidification may have a key role in the attenuation of metastasis, evidence for this has yet to be shown...
December 2016: FEBS Open Bio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28222225/daylight-photodynamic-therapy-vs-conventional-photodynamic-therapy-as-skin-cancer-preventive-treatment-in-patients-with-face-and-scalp-cancerization-an-intra-individual-comparison-study
#14
Elena Sotiriou, Demetrios Ioannides, Fotini Vrani, Elizabeth Lazaridou, Efstratios Vakirlis, Aimilios Lallas, Zoe Apalla
BACKGROUND: Individuals with medical history of non-melanoma skin cancers (NMSCs) usually develop multiple and/or recurrent malignant lesions around the site of the primary neoplasm. The latter represents the clinical expression of the "field cancerization" theory; supporting the presence of multiple malignant clones of dysplastic keratinocytes over the entire epithelium that potentially can progress into clinical lesions. Taking into consideration that the burden of NMSCs on public health and health-care cost is high, adequate control of recurrences and management of field change is challenging...
February 21, 2017: Journal of the European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology: JEADV
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28216727/high-altitude-dermatology
#15
Lt Col G K Singh
Approximately, 140 million people worldwide live permanently at high altitudes (HAs) and approximately another 40 million people travel to HA area (HAA) every year for reasons of occupation, sports or recreation. In India, whole of Ladakh region, part of Northwest Kashmir, Northern part of Sikkim and Tenga valley of Arunachal are considered inhabited areas of HAA. The low quantity of oxygen, high exposure of ultraviolet (UV) light, very low humidity, extreme subzero temperature in winter, high wind velocity, make this region difficult for lowlanders as well as for tourists...
January 2017: Indian Journal of Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28211077/severe-bullous-pemphigoid-associated-with-pembrolizumab-therapy-for-metastatic-melanoma-with-complete-regression
#16
O Rofe, G Bar-Sela, Z Keidar, T Sezin, C D Sadik, R Bergman
Bullous pemphigoid (BP) is considered to be a humorally mediated autoimmune disease, but autoreactive T-cells and T-regulatory cells (Tregs) have also been implicated in this disease. Tregs and the programmed death-1 (PD-1) : programmed death ligand (PD-L) pathway are both critical in terminating immune response, and elimination of either can result in breakdown of tolerance and development of autoimmunity. We report a patient with metastatic malignant melanoma (MM), who underwent pembrolizumab (anti-PD-1) therapy following unsuccessful treatment with ipilimumab [anti-cytotoxic T-lymphocyte-associated protein (CTLA)-4]...
April 2017: Clinical and Experimental Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28160109/antimetastatic-pectic-polysaccharide-from-decalepis-hamiltonii-galectin-3-inhibition-and-immune-modulation
#17
Sathisha U Venkateshaiah, Mallikarjuna S Eswaraiah, Harish Nayaka M Annaiah, Shylaja M Dharmesh
Melanoma is a malignant neoplasm of major concern because of its high mortality rate and failure of chemotherapy. Previously we have shown that galectin-3, a galactose specific lectin, plays a pivotal role in the initiation of metastasis. It was hypothesized that blocking galectin-3 with galactose rich dietary pectic polymer would inhibit metastasis. The current study analyzes the preventive effect and mode of action of a pectic polymer from Swallow Root (Decalepis hamiltonii) in a preventative study of B16F10 cells lung colonization...
February 2017: Clinical & Experimental Metastasis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28150105/skin-cancer-epidemiology-disease-burden-pathophysiology-diagnosis-and-therapeutic-approaches
#18
REVIEW
Zoe Apalla, Dorothée Nashan, Richard B Weller, Xavier Castellsagué
Skin cancer, including both melanoma and non-melanoma, is the most common type of malignancy in the Caucasian population. Firstly, we review the evidence for the observed increase in the incidence of skin cancer over recent decades, and investigate whether this is a true increase or an artefact of greater screening and over-diagnosis. Prevention strategies are also discussed. Secondly, we discuss the complexities and challenges encountered when diagnosing and developing treatment strategies for skin cancer...
January 2017: Dermatology and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28147380/promises-and-dangers-of-combination-therapy
#19
REVIEW
Wolfgang Kruis, Phuong G Nguyen, Julia Morgenstern
The efficiency of the existing methods of treating inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is limited. There are 2 ways to address this problem - either create new treatment modalities or optimize current therapies. Optimisation may be accomplished by using combinations of established therapeutic strategies. With regard to topically acting compounds such as 5-aminosalicylic acid, combining oral and rectal preparations is a commonly used method. Another commonly used combination is anti-tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α antibody modalities together with immunosuppressants (thiopurines, methotrexate)...
2017: Digestive Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28125434/vitamin-d-status-and-risk-for-malignant-cutaneous-melanoma-recent-advances
#20
Maria N Ombra, Panagiotis Paliogiannis, Valentina Doneddu, Maria C Sini, Maria Colombino, Carla Rozzo, Ignazio Stanganelli, Francesco Tanda, Antonio Cossu, Giuseppe Palmieri
Cutaneous malignant melanoma, whose incidence is increasing steadily worldwide, is the result of complex interactions between individual genetic factors and environmental risk factors. Ultraviolet radiation represents the most important environmental risk factor for the development of skin cancers, including melanoma. Sun exposure and early sunburn during childhood are the principal causes of cutaneous melanoma insurgence in adults, with double the risk relative to a nonexposed population. Consequently, ultraviolet protection has long been recognized as an important measure to prevent such a malignancy...
January 25, 2017: European Journal of Cancer Prevention
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