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malignant melanoma prevention

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092363/mouse-models-of-uv-induced-melanoma-genetics-pathology-and-clinical-relevance
#1
Chi-Ping Day, Rachel Marchalik, Glenn Merlino, Helen Michael
Melanocytes, a neural crest cell derivative, produce pigment to protect keratinocytes from ultraviolet radiation (UVR). Although melanocytic lesions such as nevi and cutaneous malignant melanomas are known to be associated with sun exposure, the role of UVR in oncogenesis is complex and has yet to be clearly elucidated. UVR appears to have a direct mutational role in inducing or promoting melanoma formation as well as an indirect role through microenvironmental changes. Recent advances in the modeling of human melanoma in animals have built platforms upon which prospective studies can begin to investigate these questions...
January 16, 2017: Laboratory Investigation; a Journal of Technical Methods and Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28064232/primary-vaginal-melanoma-a-rare-and-aggressive-entity-a-case-report-and-review-of-the-literature
#2
Emmanouil Kalampokas, Theodoros Kalampokas, Christos Damaskos
: Malignant melanoma of the vagina is a rare, aggressive malignancy of poor prognosis. It principally affects post-menopausal women, with a mean age of 57 years, and the factors that contribute to its appearance are not well known. The first case of primary malignant vaginal melanoma was reported in 1887 and modern literature has noted about 500 cases, globally. Vaginal melanomas constitute 0.3% of all malignant melanomas and fewer than 3% of all vaginal carcinomas. To date there is no clear consensus regarding treatment...
January 2017: In Vivo
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28058215/more-than-skin-deep-potential-nicotinamide-treatment-applications-in-chronic-kidney-transplant-recipients
#3
REVIEW
Andrew G Bostom, Basma Merhi, Joanna Walker, Leslie Robinson-Bostom
Non-melanoma cutaneous carcinomas, or skin cancers, predominantly squamous cell carcinomas (SCCs), are the most common malignancies occurring in kidney transplant recipients (KTRs). Squamous cell carcinoma risk is dramatically elevated in KTRs, occurring at rates of up 45-250 times those reported in general populations. New non-melanoma skin cancers in KTRs with a prior non-melanoma skin cancer also develop at 3-times the rate reported in non-KTRs with the same clinical history. The unique aggressiveness of SCCs in KTRs increases patient morbidity, due to the high rate of new lesions requiring treatment, frequently surgical excision...
December 24, 2016: World Journal of Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28052407/p21-activated-kinase-1-regulates-resistance-to-braf-inhibition-in-human-cancer-cells
#4
Mahamat Babagana, Sydney Johnson, Hannah Slabodkin, Wiam Bshara, Carl Morrison, Eugene S Kandel
BRAF is a commonly mutated oncogene in various human malignancies and a target of a new class of anti-cancer agents, BRAF-inhibitors (BRAFi). The initial enthusiasm for these agents, based on the early successes in the management of metastatic melanoma, is now challenged by the mounting evidence of intrinsic BRAFi-insensitivity in many BRAF-mutated tumors, by the scarcity of complete responses, and by the inevitable emergence of drug resistance in initially responsive cases. These setbacks put an emphasis on discovering the means to increase the efficacy of BRAFi and to prevent or overcome BRAFi-resistance...
January 4, 2017: Molecular Carcinogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28017864/modifying-effects-of-carboxyl-group-on-the-interaction-of-recombinant-s100a8-a9-complex-with-tyrosinase
#5
Fatemeh NematiNiko, Koorosh Goodarzvand Chegini, Hamideh Asghari, Abbas Amini, Nematollah Gheibi
Tyrosinase is a determinant enzyme for modulating melanin production as its abnormal activity can result in an increased amount of melanin. Reduction of tyrosinase activity has been targeted for preventing and healing hyperpigmentation of skin, such as melanoma and age related spots. The aim of this systematic study is to investigate whether recombinant S100A8/A9 and its modified form reduce the activity of mushroom tyrosinase (MT) through changing its structure. Recombinant His-Tagged S100A8 and S100A9 are expressed in Escherichia coli BL21 (DE3) and modified using Woodward's reagent K which is a carboxyl group modifier...
December 23, 2016: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27999416/dermal-delivery-of-constructs-encoding-cre-recombinase-to-induce-skin-tumors-in-pten-loxp-loxp-braf-ca-mice
#6
Marcel A Deken, Ji-Ying Song, Jules Gadiot, Adriaan D Bins, Paula Kroon, Inge Verbrugge, Christian U Blank
Current genetically-engineered mouse melanoma models are often based on Tyr::CreER(T2)-controlled MAPK pathway activation by the BRAF(V600E) mutation and PI3K pathway activation by loss of PTEN. The major drawback of these models is the occurrence of spontaneous tumors caused by leakiness of the Tyr::CreER(T2) system, hampering long-term experiments. To address this problem, we investigated several approaches to optimally provide local delivery of Cre recombinase, including injection of lentiviral particles, DNA tattoo administration and particle-mediated gene transfer, to induce melanomas in Pten(LoxP/LoxP);Braf(CA/+) mice lacking the Tyr::CreER(T2) allele...
December 20, 2016: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27999230/melanoma-prevention-in-children-knowledge-attitudes-and-behaviors-of-pediatricians-in-italy
#7
Claudia Esposito, Laura Pezzulo, Francesco Napolitano, Gabriella Di Giuseppe
INTRODUCTION: The aims of this study were to assess the levels of knowledge, attitudes and behaviors of pediatricians about melanoma and to estimate any variables associated with this outcome of interest. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A cross-sectional survey was conducted on a sample of pediatricians using a questionnaire sent by postal mail. RESULTS: 40.8% and 41.6% of pediatricians respectively stated that they "often" and "always" carried out a full skin examination during routine checkups of children...
October 2016: Annali Dell'Istituto Superiore di Sanità
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27989229/-factors-influencing-early-detection-of-malignant-melanoma
#8
Irén Petrovszki, Ildikó Csányi, Mónika Szűcs, Henriette Ócsai, Nazanin Houshmand, Lajos Kemény, Judit Oláh, Eszter Baltás
INTRODUCTION AND AIM: Melanoma is a highly aggressive tumour with often unpredictable outcome. Our aim with this study was to determine factors influencing early detection of melanoma. METHOD: We analyzed 139 questionnaires completed by patients diagnosed with melanoma. RESULTS: We found that our patients are health-conscious regarding cardiovascular diseases and attend cancer screenings on recall. However, their knowledge about melanoma is insufficient...
December 2016: Orvosi Hetilap
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27926505/antitumor-effect-of-combination-of-the-inhibitors-of-two-new-oncotargets-proton-pumps-and-reverse-transcriptase
#9
Luana Lugini, Ilaria Sciamanna, Cristina Federici, Elisabetta Iessi, Enrico Pierluigi Spugnini, Stefano Fais
Tumor therapy needs new approaches in order to improve efficacy and reduce toxicity of the current treatments. The acidic microenvironment and the expression of high levels of endogenous non-telomerase reverse transcriptase (RT) are common features of malignant tumor cells. The anti-acidic proton pump inhibitor Lansoprazole (LAN) and the non-nucleoside RT inhibitor Efavirenz (EFV) have shown independent antitumor efficacy. LAN has shown to counteract drug tumor resistance. We tested the hypothesis that combination of LAN and EFV may improve the overall antitumor effects...
December 3, 2016: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27919746/fhod1-formin-is-upregulated-in-melanomas-and-modifies-proliferation-and-tumor-growth
#10
Minna Peippo, Maria Gardberg, Tarja Lamminen, Katja Kaipio, Olli Carpén, Vanina D Heuser
The functional properties of actin-regulating formin proteins are diverse and in many cases cell-type specific. FHOD1, a formin expressed predominantly in cells of mesenchymal lineage, bundles actin filaments and participates in maintenance of cell shape, migration and cellular protrusions. FHOD1 participates in cancer-associated epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT) in oral squamous cell carcinoma and breast cancer. The role of FHOD1 in melanomas has not been characterized. Here, we show that FHOD1 expression is typically strong in cutaneous melanomas and cultured melanoma cells while the expression is low or absent in benign nevi...
January 1, 2017: Experimental Cell Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911450/uveal-melanoma-relatively-rare-but-deadly-cancer
#11
REVIEW
S Kaliki, C L Shields
Although it is a relatively rare disease, primarily found in the Caucasian population, uveal melanoma is the most common primary intraocular tumor in adults with a mean age-adjusted incidence of 5.1 cases per million per year. Tumors are located either in iris (4%), ciliary body (6%), or choroid (90%). The host susceptibility factors for uveal melanoma include fair skin, light eye color, inability to tan, ocular or oculodermal melanocytosis, cutaneous or iris or choroidal nevus, and BRCA1-associated protein 1 mutation...
December 2, 2016: Eye
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27896891/stat3-targeting-by-polyphenols-novel-therapeutic-strategy-for-melanoma
#12
REVIEW
Saeideh Momtaz, Kamal Niaz, Faheem Maqbool, Mohammad Abdollahi, Luca Rastrelli, Seyed Mohammad Nabavi
Melanoma or malignant melanocytes appear with the low incidence rate, but very high mortality rate worldwide. Epidemiological studies suggest that polyphenolic compounds contribute for prevention or treatment of several cancers particularly melanoma. Such findings motivate to dig out novel therapeutic strategies against melanoma, including research toward the development of new chemotherapeutic and biologic agents that can target the tumor cells by different mechanisms. Recently, it has been found that signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) is activated in many cancer cases surprisingly...
November 29, 2016: BioFactors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27890240/melanocytic-nevi-and-the-genetic-and-epigenetic-control-of-oncogene-induced-senescence
#13
REVIEW
Jennifer M Huang, Ijeuru Chikeka, Thomas J Hornyak
Melanocytic nevi represent benign clonal proliferations of the melanocytes in the skin that usually remain stable in size and behavior or disappear during life. Infrequently, melanocytic nevi undergo malignant transformation to melanoma. Understanding molecular and cellular mechanisms underlying oncogene-induced senescence should help identify pathways underlying melanoma development, leading to the development of new strategies for melanoma prevention and early detection.
January 2017: Dermatologic Clinics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27881235/elucidating-the-role-of-the-foxo3a-transcription-factor-in-the-igf-1-induced-migration-and-invasion-of-uveal-melanoma-cancer-cells
#14
Fengxia Yan, Rifang Liao, Mohd Farhan, Tinghuai Wang, Jiashu Chen, Zhong Wang, Peter J Little, Wenhua Zheng
Uveal melanoma (UM) is the most common primary intraocular malignant tumor of adults. It has high mortality rate due to liver metastasis. However, the epidemiology and pathogenesis of liver metastasis in UM are not elucidated and there is no effective therapy available for preventing the development of this disease. IGF-1 is a growth factor involved in cell proliferation, malignant transformation and inhibition of apoptosis. In previous report, IGF-1 receptor was found to be highly expressed in UM and this was related to tumor prognosis...
December 2016: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27875372/cutaneous-malignancies-in-hiv
#15
Aileen Y Chang, Phil Doiron, Toby Maurer
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: As patients with HIV infection are living longer with their disease, we have seen the evolution of skin cancer in this population. Cancer registries have not documented the incidence and prevalence of these cancers but we do have relevant data from cohorts. This article attempts to bring to light the extent to which skin cancer is an issue in HIV disease both domestically and internationally. RECENT FINDINGS: Squamous cell cancer is increasing in incidence in the United States and elsewhere...
January 2017: Current Opinion in HIV and AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27872007/the-role-of-pde5-inhibitors-and-the-no-cgmp-pathway-in-cancer
#16
REVIEW
Taylor C Peak, Ashley Richman, Serap Gur, Faysal A Yafi, Wayne J G Hellstrom
INTRODUCTION: Phosphodiesterase 5 (PDE5) inhibitors (PDE5i) have been used clinically for the treatment of erectile dysfunction, acting on the nitric oxide/cyclic guanosine monophosphate (NO/cGMP) signaling pathway. Simultaneously, researchers have elucidated the roles that this pathway plays in the regulation of cell proliferation, tumor development, and progression. As a result, our knowledge of PDE5i and cancer biology has expanded and provides an integration that holds great promise for some, but concern for others...
January 2016: Sexual Medicine Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27868187/basic-aspects-of-the-pathogenesis-and-prevention-of-non-melanoma-skin-cancer-in-solid-organ-transplant-recipients-a-review
#17
REVIEW
Héctor C Perez, Xiomara Benavides, Juan S Perez, Maria A Pabon, Jaime Tschen, Silvia J Maradei-Anaya, Luis Lopez, Eyner Lozano
INTRODUCTION: As numbers of transplant recipients and survival rates increase, the vulnerability of this population to several malignancies also rises. Non-melanoma skin cancer (NMSC) carries the highest rates of morbidity and mortality in this population. To avoid these malignancies, it is necessary to identify particular risk factors in transplant recipients and to follow preventive protocols. METHODS: The MEDLINE and EMBASE databases were reviewed using as keywords the medical subject headings (MeSH) "transplantation", "skin neoplasm" and "prevention"...
November 21, 2016: International Journal of Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27857118/lineage-specific-roles-of-the-cytoplasmic-polyadenylation-factor-cpeb4-in-the-regulation-of-melanoma-drivers
#18
Eva Pérez-Guijarro, Panagiotis Karras, Metehan Cifdaloz, Raúl Martínez-Herranz, Estela Cañón, Osvaldo Graña, Celia Horcajada-Reales, Direna Alonso-Curbelo, Tonantzin G Calvo, Gonzalo Gómez-López, Nicolas Bellora, Erica Riveiro-Falkenbach, Pablo L Ortiz-Romero, José L Rodríguez-Peralto, Lorena Maestre, Giovanna Roncador, Juan C de Agustín Asensio, Colin R Goding, Eduardo Eyras, Diego Megías, Raúl Méndez, María S Soengas
Nuclear 3'-end-polyadenylation is essential for the transport, stability and translation of virtually all eukaryotic mRNAs. Poly(A) tail extension can also occur in the cytoplasm, but the transcripts involved are incompletely understood, particularly in cancer. Here we identify a lineage-specific requirement of the cytoplasmic polyadenylation binding protein 4 (CPEB4) in malignant melanoma. CPEB4 is upregulated early in melanoma progression, as defined by computational and histological analyses. Melanoma cells are distinct from other tumour cell types in their dependency on CPEB4, not only to prevent mitotic aberrations, but to progress through G1/S cell cycle checkpoints...
November 18, 2016: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27843913/quercetin-as-an-emerging-anti-melanoma-agent-a-four-focus-area-therapeutic-development-strategy
#19
REVIEW
Zoey Harris, Micah G Donovan, Gisele Morais Branco, Kirsten H Limesand, Randy Burd
Replacing current refractory treatments for melanoma with new prevention and therapeutic approaches is crucial in order to successfully treat this aggressive cancer form. Melanoma develops from neural crest cells, which express tyrosinase - a key enzyme in the pigmentation pathway. The tyrosinase enzyme is highly active in melanoma cells and metabolizes polyphenolic compounds; tyrosinase expression thus makes feasible a target for polyphenol-based therapies. For example, quercetin (3,3',4',5,7-pentahydroxyflavone) is a highly ubiquitous and well-classified dietary polyphenol found in various fruits, vegetables, and other plant products including onions, broccoli, kale, oranges, blueberries, apples, and tea...
2016: Frontiers in Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27827301/validation-and-development-of-mth1-inhibitors-for-treatment-of-cancer
#20
U Warpman Berglund, K Sanjiv, H Gad, C Kalderén, T Koolmeister, T Pham, C Gokturk, R Jafari, G Maddalo, B Seashore-Ludlow, A Chernobrovkin, A Manoilov, I S Pateras, A Rasti, A-S Jemth, I Almlöf, O Loseva, T Visnes, B O Einarsdottir, F Z Gaugaz, A Saleh, B Platzack, O A Wallner, K S A Vallin, M Henriksson, P Wakchaure, S Borhade, P Herr, Y Kallberg, P Baranczewski, E J Homan, E Wiita, V Nagpal, T Meijer, N Schipper, S G Rudd, L Bräutigam, A Lindqvist, A Filppula, T-C Lee, P Artursson, J A Nilsson, V G Gorgoulis, J Lehtiö, R A Zubarev, M Scobie, T Helleday
BACKGROUND: Previously, we showed cancer cells rely on the MTH1 protein to prevent incorporation of otherwise deadly oxidised nucleotides into DNA and we developed MTH1 inhibitors which selectively kill cancer cells. Recently, several new and potent inhibitors of MTH1 were demonstrated to be non-toxic to cancer cells, challenging the utility of MTH1 inhibition as a target for cancer treatment. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Human cancer cell lines were exposed in vitro to MTH1 inhibitors or depleted of MTH1 by siRNA or shRNA...
December 2016: Annals of Oncology: Official Journal of the European Society for Medical Oncology
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