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malignant melanoma prevention

Xia Zhang, Jingyu Hu, Yan Chen
Betulinic acid (BA), a lupane-type pentacyclic triterpenoid saponin from tree bark, has the potential to induce the apoptosis of cancer cells without toxicity towards normal cells in vitro and in vivo. The antitumor pharmacological effects of BA consist of triggering apoptosis via the mitochondrial pathway, regulating the cell cycle and the angiogenic pathway via factors, including specificity protein transcription factors, cyclin D1 and epidermal growth factor receptor, inhibiting the signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 and nuclear factor‑κB signaling pathways, preventing the invasion and metastasis of tumor cells, and affecting the expression of topoisomerase I, p53 and lamin B1...
October 4, 2016: Molecular Medicine Reports
Katrin Anne Becker, Nadine Beckmann, Constantin Adams, Gabriele Hessler, Melanie Kramer, Erich Gulbins, Alexander Carpinteiro
Metastatic dissemination of cancer cells is one of the hallmarks of malignancy and accounts for approximately 90 % of human cancer deaths. Within the blood vasculature, tumor cells may aggregate with platelets to form clots, adhere to and spread onto endothelial cells, and finally extravasate to form metastatic colonies. We have previously shown that sphingolipids play a central role in the interaction of tumor cells with platelets; this interaction is a prerequisite for hematogenous tumor metastasis in at least some tumor models...
October 15, 2016: Clinical & Experimental Metastasis
Hidekazu Itamura, Takero Shindo, Isao Tawara, Yasushi Kubota, Ryusho Kariya, Seiji Okada, Krishna V Komanduri, Shinya Kimura
The efficacy of allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation for hematologic malignancies is limited by the difficulty in suppressing graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) without compromising graft-versus-tumor (GVT) effects. We previously showed that RAS/MEK/ERK signaling depends on memory differentiation in human T cells, which confers susceptibility to selective inhibition of naive T cells. Actually, antineoplastic MEK inhibitors selectively suppress alloreactive T cells, sparing virus-specific T cells in vitro...
July 7, 2016: JCI Insight
D W Donnelly, A T Gavin
ABSTRACT: Whilst survival rates for childhood cancers are excellent, it is known that these patients have an increased risk of death from disease recurrence and other causes. We investigate patterns, trends and survival of cancers in children and young adults in N. Ireland. MATERIALS AND METHODS: 21 years (1993-2013) of cancer incidence data including non-malignant brain tumours from the N. Ireland Cancer Registry for persons aged 0-24 years was analysed using Joinpoint regresssion for trend and the Kaplan Meier method for survival analysis up to end 2013 with excess mortality calculated at one and five years after first cancer diagnosis using standardised mortality ratios...
September 2016: Ulster Medical Journal
Lorna G Keenan, Siobhra O'Sullivan, Aisling Glynn, Martin Higgins, Aileen Flavin, Sinead Brennan
INTRODUCTION: Adjuvant radiotherapy is proven to prevent lymph node field relapse after therapeutic lymphadenectomy for melanoma, but does not improve overall survival based on current data. There remains a high rate of distant relapse. This study reports patterns of failure in patients treated with adjuvant radiotherapy, looking at factors associated with distant metastasis and comparing this to recent literature. METHODS: This retrospective study included patients treated with adjuvant nodal irradiation after lymphadenectomy between June 2012 and March 2015...
September 25, 2016: Journal of Medical Imaging and Radiation Oncology
Jessica Mounessa, Talayesa Buntinx-Krieg, Rosie Qin, Cory A Dunnick, Robert P Dellavalle
The incidence of malignant melanoma (MM) continues to rise in the United States. While sun protection and full body skin examinations remain the mainstay of preventative care, chemoprevention of the deadly disease has become an increasingly popular field of study. In this focused review, we discuss current findings and analyze the risks and benefits of various agents investigated for the primary and secondary chemoprevention of MM. Such agents include topical retinoids, vitamins, and supplements, Polypodium leucotomas extracts, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory agents (NSAIDs), statins, sunscreens, and field therapy with topical imiquimod for primary and secondary chemoprevention...
September 24, 2016: American Journal of Clinical Dermatology
Venkata S Katabathina, Christine O Menias, Varaha S Tammisetti, Meghan G Lubner, Ania Kielar, Akram Shaaban, Joseph Mansour, Venkateshwar R Surabhi, Amy K Hara
Life expectancies for solid organ recipients as well as graft survival rates for these patients have improved over the years because of advanced immunosuppressive therapies; however, with chronic use of these drugs, posttransplant malignancy has become one of the leading causes of morbidity for them. The risk of carcinogenesis in transplant recipients is significantly higher than for the general population and cancers tend to manifest at an advanced stage. Posttransplant malignancies are thought to develop by three mechanisms: de novo development, donor-related transmission, and recurrence of a recipient's pretransplant malignancy...
September 2016: Radiographics: a Review Publication of the Radiological Society of North America, Inc
Bilal Sula, Feyzullah Uçmak, Mehmet Ali Kaplan, Zuhat Urakçi, Mustafa Arica, Abdurrahman Isikdogan
INTRODUCTION: The present study aimed to establish the epidemiological and clinical characteristics of patients who were histopathologically diagnosed with malignant melanoma (MM). METHODS: The present study retrospectively analyzed the data of 78 patients who were histopathologically diagnosed with MM in Dicle University Medical Faculty, Dermatology and Medical Oncology departments between 2005 and 2014. RESULTS: The study included 78 patients in total with 44 (56...
2016: Pan African Medical Journal
Xuan Yin, Xiong-Wei Yu, Pan Zhu, Yuan-Ming Zhang, Xiao-Hong Zhang, Feng Wang, Jin-Jie Zhang, Wang Yan, Yang Xi, Jian-Bo Wan, Jing-Xuan Kang, Zu-Quan Zou, Shi-Zhong Bu
Malignant melanoma is the most lethal form of skin cancer. Although preclinical studies have shown that n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) are beneficial for prevention of melanoma, the molecular mechanisms underlying the protective effects of n‑3 PUFAs on melanoma remain largely unknown. In the present study, endogenously increased levels of n-3 PUFAs in the tumor tissues of omega‑3 fatty acid desaturase (fat‑1) transgenic mice was associated with a reduction in the growth rate of melanoma xenografts...
October 2016: Molecular Medicine Reports
Eiji Nakano, Taro Masaki, Fumio Kanda, Ryusuke Ono, Seiji Takeuchi, Shinichi Moriwaki, Chikako Nishigori
Xeroderma pigmentosum (XP) is a rare autosomal recessive hereditary disease. Patients with XP have severe hypersensitivity to sunlight, resulting in skin cancers, and some patients have neurological symptoms. In Japan, XP complementation group A (XP-A) is the most common form, and it is associated with severe neurological symptoms. We performed a nationwide survey on XP to determine the present status of XP in Japan. The distribution of complementation groups in Japan was considerably different from that in other countries, but there was a higher frequency in group A and the variant type, which is similar to previous reports in Japan...
August 2016: Experimental Dermatology
Tianhui Niu, Yan Tian, Zhusong Mei, Guangjin Guo
Malignant melanoma is the most aggressive form of skin carcinoma, which possesses fast propagating and highly invasive characteristics. Curcumin is a natural phenol compound that has various biological activities, such as anti-proliferative and apoptosis-accelerating impacts on tumor cells. Unfortunately, the therapeutical activities of Cur are severely hindered due to its extremely low bioavailability. In this study, a cooperative therapy of low concentration Cur combined with red united blue light irradiation was performed to inspect the synergistic effects on the apoptosis, proliferation and autophagy in human melanoma A375 cell...
2016: Scientific Reports
Aaron M Mullane, Alexis Ricci, Subhasis Misra, Nail Aydin
INTRODUCTION: Dermatofibrosarcoma protuberans (DFSP) is a rare, malignant, soft tissue neoplasm of the dermis. Tumor recurrence is common following resection, and can be locally devastating if not identified in a timely manner. We report a unique case of this rare tumor. This case poses the question of an association between basal cell carcinoma (BCC) and DFSP, and presents the possible need for increased awareness of DFSP for healthcare providers and patients with a history of non-melanoma skin cancers as well as surgical or burn scars...
2016: International Journal of Surgery Case Reports
Zhijuan Lin, Xing Chen, Zhifeng Li, Yiming Luo, Zhihong Fang, Bing Xu, Mingzhe Han
Antibodies targeting programmed death 1 (PD-1) help prevent tumor cells from escaping immune-mediated destruction. We conducted this systematic review and meta-analysis to gain insight into the efficacy of PD-1 antibodies for the treatment of melanoma. Five trials involving 2,828 adult patients were included in this meta-analysis. In patients with previously untreated or refractory melanoma, treatment with PD-1 antibodies significantly improved the six-month progression-free survival (PFS) (HR 0.55, 95% CI 0...
2016: PloS One
R Czerninski
Diagnosis and management of lip pathologies should be part of the dentists' responsibilities. Lip pathologies might affect patient's function, appearance and quality of life. The routine clinical examination of the oral cavity includes lip examination--changes in lip color, size or texture should be recognized during the examination, as well as noticing any habit such as lip licking or mouth breathing.The aim of the review is to present common external lip lesions. Color changes--oral melanotic macule is a localized benign pigmented lesion...
April 2016: Journal of the Israel Dental Association
Alexander L Fogel, Maria Miyar, Joyce M C Teng
Pediatric organ transplant recipients (POTRs) are at risk of developing malignancies due to a combination of immunosuppression, impaired DNA damage repair, and infection with oncogenic viruses. The most commonly developed malignancies in this population are skin cancers, which include nonmelanoma skin cancer, melanoma, Kaposi's sarcoma, and anogenital carcinoma. The literature shows that skin cancers account for 13% to 55% of all cancers that occur after transplantation. Given the increasing number and life expectancy of POTRs, prevention and management of skin cancer in these patients is essential, but there is a substantial knowledge gap in our understanding of the differences in skin cancer development, prevention, and management between POTRs and adult organ transplant recipients (AOTRs), for whom more data are available...
July 28, 2016: Pediatric Dermatology
Sara Gandini, Ignazio Stanganelli, Domenico Palli, Vincenzo De Giorgi, Giovanna Masala, Saverio Caini
BACKGROUND: The risk of skin malignancy among atopic dermatitis (AD) patients is not well established. OBJECTIVE: We reviewed the epidemiological evidence on the association between AD, naevi count, and the risk of cutaneous melanoma and keratinocyte skin cancer (KSC). METHODS: We included all studies that compared the naevi count and the risk of skin cancer (melanoma and/or KSC) between AD patients and unaffected individuals. We calculated summary relative risks (SRRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) through random effects models; explored correlates of between-studies heterogeneity using sub-group and sensitivity analysis; and assessed publication bias using a funnel-plot-based approach...
July 16, 2016: Journal of Dermatological Science
Marina Montagnani Marelli, Monica Marzagalli, Roberta M Moretti, Giangiacomo Beretta, Lavinia Casati, Raffaella Comitato, Giovanni L Gravina, Claudio Festuccia, Patrizia Limonta
Malignant melanoma is the leading cause of death from skin cancer. Drug toxicity and resistance represent a serious challange for melanoma treatments. Evidence demonstrates that natural compounds may play a crucial role in cancer prevention, growth and progression. Vitamin E tocotrienols (TT) were shown to possess antitumor activity. Here, we analyzed the effects of δ-TT on melanoma cell growth and the involvement of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress in this activity. The experiments were performed on human melanoma cell lines, BLM and A375...
2016: Scientific Reports
R N Balaeva, E M Kasimov
UNLABELLED: Conjunctival nevi are the most common tumors of this location. They are usually unilateral, although bilateral cases may also be met. As to clinical presentation, all nevi are divided into: stationary or progressive nevi, blue nevi, and primary acquired melanosis. Color changes are acceptable, if they occur during pregnancy or puberty. However, if postpubertal, such changes should be considered alarming, as to possible malignization. Histopathologically, nevi are composed of melanocyte clusters in the skin stroma next to the basal layer of the epidermis...
May 2016: Vestnik Oftalmologii
Guillermo Sánchez, John Nova, Andrea Esperanza Rodriguez-Hernandez, Roger David Medina, Carolina Solorzano-Restrepo, Jenny Gonzalez, Miguel Olmos, Kathie Godfrey, Ingrid Arevalo-Rodriguez
BACKGROUND: 'Keratinocyte cancer' is now the preferred term for the most commonly identified skin cancers basal cell carcinoma (BCC) and cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma (cSCC), which were previously commonly categorised as non-melanoma skin cancers (NMSC). Keratinocyte cancer (KC) represents about 95% of malignant skin tumours. Lifestyle changes have led to increased exposure to the sun, which has, in turn, led to a significant increase of new cases of KC, with a worldwide annual incidence of between 3% and 8%...
2016: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
Tommaso Azzarito, Luana Lugini, Enrico Pierluigi Spugnini, Rossella Canese, Alessio Gugliotta, Stefano Fidanza, Stefano Fais
Tumor extracellular acidity is a hallmark of malignant cancers. Thus, in this study we evaluated the effects of the oral administration of a commercially available water alkalizer (Basenpulver®) (BP) on tumor growth in a syngenic melanoma mouse model. The alkalizer was administered daily by oral gavage starting one week after tumor implantation in CB57/BL mice. Tumors were calipered and their acidity measured by in vivo MRI guided 31P MRS. Furthermore, urine pH was monitored for potential metabolic alkalosis...
2016: PloS One
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