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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29125427/the-surgical-treatment-of-metastatic-spine-tumors-within-the-intramedullary-compartment
#1
Ben A Strickland, Ian E McCutcheon, Indro Chakrabarti, Laurence D Rhines, Jeffrey S Weinberg
OBJECTIVE Metastasis to the spinal cord is rare, and optimal management of this disease is unclear. The authors investigated this issue by analyzing the results of surgical treatment of spinal intramedullary metastasis (IM) at a major cancer center. METHODS The authors retrospectively reviewed the medical records of 13 patients who underwent surgery for IM. Patients had renal cell carcinoma (n = 4), breast carcinoma (n = 3), melanoma (n = 2), non-small cell lung cancer (n = 1), sarcoma (n = 1), adenoid cystic carcinoma (n = 1), and cervical cancer (n = 1)...
November 10, 2017: Journal of Neurosurgery. Spine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29123966/pd-1-blockade-at-the-time-of-tumor-escape-potentiates-the-immune-mediated-antitumor-effects-of-a-melanoma-targeting-monoclonal-antibody
#2
Laetitia They, Henri-Alexandre Michaud, Ondine Becquart, Virginie Lafont, Bernard Guillot, Florence Boissière-Michot, Marta Jarlier, Caroline Mollevi, Jean-François Eliaou, Nathalie Bonnefoy, Laurent Gros
Tumor antigen-targeting monoclonal antibodies (TA-targeting mAbs) are used as therapeutics in many malignancies and their capacity to mobilize the host immunity puts them at the forefront of anti-cancer immunotherapies. Both innate and adaptive immune cells have been associated with the therapeutic activity of such antibodies, but tumor escape from mAb-induced tumor immune surveillance remains one of the main clinical issues. In this preclinical study, we grafted immunocompetent and immunocompromised mice with the B16F10 mouse melanoma cell line and treated them with the TA99 TA-targeting mAb to analyze the immune mechanisms associated with the tumor response and resistance to TA99 monotherapy...
2017: Oncoimmunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29121869/ablation-of-epidermal-rxr%C3%AE-in-cooperation-with-activated-cdk4-and-oncogenic-nras-generates-spontaneous-and-acute-neonatal-uvb-induced-malignant-metastatic-melanomas
#3
Sharmeen Chagani, Rong Wang, Evan L Carpenter, Christiane V Löhr, Gitali Ganguli-Indra, Arup K Indra
BACKGROUND: Understanding the underlying molecular mechanisms involved in the formation of cutaneous malignant melanoma is critical for improved diagnosis and treatment. Keratinocytic nuclear receptor Retinoid X Receptor α (RXRα) has a protective role against melanomagenesis and is involved in the regulation of keratinocyte and melanocyte homeostasis subsequent acute ultraviolet (UV) irradiation. METHODS: We generated a trigenic mouse model system (RXRα (ep-/-) | Tyr-NRAS (Q61K) | CDK4 (R24C/R24C) ) harboring an epidermal knockout of Retinoid X Receptor α (RXRα (ep-/-) ), combined with oncogenic NRAS (Q61K) (constitutively active RAS) and activated CDK4 (R24C/R24C) (constitutively active CDK4)...
November 9, 2017: BMC Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29104226/updates-on-the-management-of-non-melanoma-skin-cancer-nmsc
#4
REVIEW
Artur Fahradyan, Anna C Howell, Erik M Wolfswinkel, Michaela Tsuha, Parthiv Sheth, Alex K Wong
Non-melanoma skin cancers (NMSCs) are the most common malignancy worldwide, of which 99% are basal cell carcinomas (BCCs) and squamous cell carcinomas (SCCs) of skin. NMSCs are generally considered a curable diseases, yet they currently pose an increasing global healthcare problem due to rising incidence. This has led to a shift in emphasis on prevention of NMSCs with development of various skin cancer prevention programs worldwide. This article aims to summarize the most recent changes and advances made in NMSC management with a focus on prevention, screening, diagnosis, and staging...
November 1, 2017: Healthcare (Basel, Switzerland)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29100394/effects-of-photodynamic-therapy-on-dermal-fibroblasts-from-xeroderma-pigmentosum-and-gorlin-goltz-syndrome-patients
#5
Alicia Zamarrón, Marta García, Marcela Del Río, Fernando Larcher, Ángeles Juarranz
PDT is widely applied for the treatment of non-melanoma skin cancer pre-malignant and malignant lesions (actinic keratosis, basal cell carcinoma and in situ squamous cell carcinoma). In photodynamic therapy (PDT) the interaction of a photosensitizer (PS), light and oxygen leads to the formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and thus the selective tumor cells eradication. Xeroderma pigmentosum (XP) and Gorlin-Goltz Syndrome (GS) patients are at high risk of developing skin cancer in sun-exposed areas. Therefore, the use of PDT as a preventive treatment may constitute a very promising therapeutic modality for these syndromes...
September 29, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29097600/pd-l1
#6
REVIEW
Anthousa Kythreotou, Abdul Siddique, Francesco A Mauri, Mark Bower, David J Pinato
Programmed death ligand 1 (PD-L1) is the principal ligand of programmed death 1 (PD-1), a coinhibitory receptor that can be constitutively expressed or induced in myeloid, lymphoid, normal epithelial cells and in cancer. Under physiological conditions, the PD-1/PD-L1 interaction is essential in the development of immune tolerance preventing excessive immune cell activity that can lead to tissue destruction and autoimmunity. PD-L1 expression is an immune evasion mechanism exploited by various malignancies and is generally associated with poorer prognosis...
November 2, 2017: Journal of Clinical Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29076925/circulating-epithelial-tumor-cells-as-a-prognostic-tool-for-malignant-melanoma
#7
Katharina Pachmann, Regina Willecke-Hochmuth, Katrin Schneider, Martin Kaatz
Although immune therapies with checkpoint inhibitors have gained increasing attention in advanced and metastatic melanoma, interferon-α remains a standard therapy for nonmetastatic malignant melanoma with risk factors. Interferons can successfully prevent relapse; however, the response rate is still not as high as would be desired. Prognostic tools to predict the response are required, which could lead to more individualized treatment regimens. In numerous studies over the past decade, circulating epithelial tumor cells (CETCs) have been shown to be a promising biomarker for estimating the risk of metastatic relapse, and we sought to determine whether they can also be used for this purpose in malignant melanoma...
October 25, 2017: Melanoma Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29073846/the-incidence-of-non-melanoma-skin-cancer-and-post-transplant-lympho-proliferative-disorders-in-the-scottish-cardiac-transplant-population-and-the-provision-of-specialist-dermatological-follow-up
#8
Iain McPherson, Alan Kirk
Background Immunosuppression helps prevent acute rejection post-cardiac transplant but has been linked to malignancy development. This may be due to a reduction in T-lymphocyte function, a direct oncogenic effect or the increased impact of environmental carcinogens. There has been shown to be significant increases in non-melanoma skin cancers and post-transplant lympho-proliferative disorders, particularly in those treated with OKT3. Aim To investigate the survival and incidence of malignancy in the Scottish cardiac transplant population and whether rates of non-melanoma skin cancers justify the provision of specialist dermatological follow-up...
January 1, 2017: Scottish Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29063525/evaluation-of-the-national-skin-cancer-campaign-a-swiss-experience-of-euromelanoma
#9
Sven Lieberherr, S Morteza Seyed Jafari, Simone Cazzaniga, Enrica Bianchi, Bettina Schlagenhauff, Gion Tscharner, Jürg Hafner, Carlo Mainetti, Anne-Karine Lapointe, Robert E Hunger
AIMS OF THE STUDY: Skin cancer is a burden to healthcare and patients worldwide. The incidence of skin cancer has been rising during recent decades and this trend is expected to continue in the future. Numerous risk factors have been identified and prevention strategies developed. The Euromelanoma campaign is a pan-European skin cancer prevention programme, targeted to both primary and secondary prevention of malignant melanoma. The current study aimed to evaluate the results of the Swiss skin cancer screening day 2016...
October 24, 2017: Swiss Medical Weekly
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29058865/melanocortin-1-receptor-targeting-ultrasmall-silica-nanoparticles-for-dual-modality-human-melanoma-imaging
#10
Feng Chen, Xiuli Zhang, Kai Ma, Brian Madajewski, Miriam Benezra, Li Zhang, Evan Phillips, Melik Ziya Turker, Fabio Gallazzi, Michael Overholtzer, Mohan Pauliah, Mithat Gonen, Pat Zanzonico, Ulrich B Wiesner, Michelle S Bradbury, Thomas Quinn
The poor prognosis associated with malignant melanoma has not changed substantially over the past 30 years. Targeted molecular therapies, such as immunotherapy have shown promise, but suffer from resistance and off-target toxicities, underscoring the need for alternative therapeutic strategies that can be used in combination with existing protocols. Moreover, peptides targeting melanoma-specific markers, like the melanocortin-1 receptor (MC1-R), for imaging and therapy exhibit high renal uptake that limits clinical translation...
October 23, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29036257/improvement-of-actinic-keratoses-using-topical-dna-repair-enzymes-a-randomized-placebo-controlled-trial
#11
Marie Stoddard, Jennifer Herrmann, Lauren Moy, Ronald Moy
BACKGROUND: Actinic keratoses (AKs) are proliferations of abnormal keratinocytes, which may progress into non-melanoma skin cancers. Although multiple treatment modalities exist for AKs, their incidence continues to rise, making new methods of both prevention and treatment necessary. DNA repair enzymes have been shown to reverse sun-damage, resulting in reduced rates of AKs and non-melanoma skin cancer (NMSC) in specific patient populations. OBJECTIVE: We investigated the efficacy of a topical DNA repair enzyme lotion as a field therapy for AKs...
October 1, 2017: Journal of Drugs in Dermatology: JDD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29034706/chronic-lymphocytic-leukaemia-and-secondary-skin-malignancies
#12
Geraldine Kyle
Chronic lymphocytic leukaemia (CLL) is a non-Hodgkin lymphoma commonly occurring in older adults. Many people with CLL can go for years without requiring treatment. However, they have an increased risk of secondary cancers, specifically melanoma and non-melanoma skin cancers. Furthermore, these secondary cancers are frequently more aggressive in this cohort of patients. Health professionals working in haematology, dermatology and general practice have an opportunity to educate patients about risk factors and measures to aid prevention...
October 12, 2017: British Journal of Nursing: BJN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29018888/-non-melanoma-skin-cancer-pathogenesis-prevalence-and-prevention
#13
A Zink
Non-melanoma skin cancer (NMSC) is the most common malignancy of the light-skinned population with an enormous socioeconomic impact. Historically known as incurable under the term noli me tangere (transl. do not touch me), today various non-melanocytic cutaneous neoplasms are grouped as NMSC. The most common of these, basal cell carcinoma, squamous cell carcinoma and actinic keratoses as carcinomas in situ, are increasingly called keratinocyte carcinoma. Today, the pathogenesis and risk factors of NMSC are relatively well understood, which has led to multiple treatment options, the recognition of NMSC as an occupational disease in Germany and a variety of prevention approaches...
November 2017: Der Hautarzt; Zeitschrift Für Dermatologie, Venerologie, und Verwandte Gebiete
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28959646/neurotoxic-effect-of-active-ingredients-in-sunscreen-products-a-contemporary-review
#14
REVIEW
Joanna A Ruszkiewicz, Adi Pinkas, Beatriz Ferrer, Tanara V Peres, Aristides Tsatsakis, Michael Aschner
Sunscreen application is the main strategy used to prevent the maladies inflicted by ultraviolet (UV) radiation. Despite the continuously increasing frequency of sunscreen use worldwide, the prevalence of certain sun exposure-related pathologies, mainly malignant melanoma, is also on the rise. In the past century, a variety of protective agents against UV exposure have been developed. Physical filters scatter and reflect UV rays and chemical filters absorb those rays. Alongside the evidence for increasing levels of these agents in the environment, which leads to indirect exposure of wildlife and humans, recent studies suggest a toxicological nature for some of these agents...
2017: Toxicology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28910565/an-in-vivo-study-adjuvant-activity-of-poly-n-vinyl-2-pyrrolidone-co-acrylic-acid-on-immune-responses-against-melanoma-synthetic-peptide
#15
Kadriye Kızılbey, Banu Mansuroğlu, Serap Derman, Zeynep Mustafaeva Akdeste
INTRODUCTION: Peptides have been studied as an important class of components in medicine to control many major diseases with vaccination. Polymers as adjuvants are capable of enhancing the vaccine potential against various diseases by improving the delivery of antigens, and they reduce the booster doses of vaccines. In brief, polymers are promising candidates for peptide-based vaccine delivery platforms. The purpose of the present study was to create a possible alternative approach in the treatment of malignant melanoma and/or to prevent metastasis of melanoma...
September 14, 2017: Bioengineered
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28893044/immuno-histochemical-and-quantitative-study-of-melanocytes-and-melanin-granules-in-oral-epithelial-dysplasia
#16
Swapna Honwad, S V Ravi, Mandana Donoghue, Manjiri Joshi
INTRODUCTION: Oral Epithelial dysplasia (OED) is a potentially malignant disorder that is characterized by the presence of architectural and cytological changes. One of the prime factors responsible for the development of these lesions is the usage of tobacco. A variety of factors provide protective mechanism in order to prevent the effects of chemotoxic agents including tobacco products of which, melanin pigmentation is one of the vital elements. AIM: Role of melanocytes in progression of OED has remained unclear, so the present study was done to evaluate density of melanocyte and melanin granules in different grades of epithelial dysplasia and to correlate both findings with different grades of epithelial dysplasia...
July 2017: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28887295/photoaging-mobile-apps-in-school-based-melanoma-prevention-pilot-study
#17
Titus Josef Brinker, Christian Martin Brieske, Christoph Matthias Schaefer, Fabian Buslaff, Martina Gatzka, Maximilian Philip Petri, Wiebke Sondermann, Dirk Schadendorf, Ingo Stoffels, Joachim Klode
BACKGROUND: Around 90% of melanomas are caused by exposure to ultraviolet (UV) radiation and are therefore eminently preventable. Tanning behavior is mostly initiated in early adolescence, often with the belief that it increases attractiveness; the problems related to malignant melanoma and other skin cancers are too far in the future to fathom. Given the substantial amount of time children and adolescents spend in schools, as well as with their mobile phones, addressing melanoma prevention via both of these ways is crucial...
September 8, 2017: Journal of Medical Internet Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28885974/melanoma-in-an-active-duty-marine
#18
Samantha J Bartling, Shayna C Rivard, Jon H Meyerle
Given that the majority of active duty service members are young and healthy, potentially malignant diagnoses such as skin cancer may be overlooked. Although melanoma accounts for only approximately 1% of skin cancers, it causes the greatest majority of skin cancer deaths. We present the case of a 27-year-old active duty Marine who presented with a hyperpigmented macule at his lateral neck that was a malignant melanoma in situ. This article reviews risk factors for the development of melanoma, offers guidelines for primary care providers, reviews resources for providers in a deployed or austere environment, offers recommendations for prevention and early diagnosis, and discusses follow up...
September 2017: Military Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28871357/-immunotherapy-as-modern-tumor-treatment
#19
REVIEW
C Grüllich
BACKGROUND: The specific immune system is capable of preventing the development of tumor diseases and stimulation of cytotoxic T‑lymphocytes can repress existing tumors. The activation of T‑lymphocytes is influenced by a new class of antibody-based medication, the immune checkpoint inhibitors. METHODS: Review of the scientific background and the published clinical trials on the activity and approval of immune checkpoint inhibitors for various tumor diseases...
October 2017: Der Radiologe
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28820514/topical-opioids-and-antimicrobials-for-the-management-of-pain-infection-and-infection-related-odors-in-malignant-wounds-a-systematic-review
#20
Kathleen Finlayson, Laisa Teleni, Alexandra L McCarthy
PROBLEM IDENTIFICATION: Patients with malignant wounds report pain, distress from odor and exudate, decreased self-esteem, and poor quality of life. This systematic review explores topical opioids, antimicrobials, and odor-reducing agents for preventing or managing malignant wound pain, infection, and odor.
. LITERATURE SEARCH: MEDLINE®, EMBASE, the Cochrane Library, CINAHL®, and reference lists were searched to identify relevant studies.
. DATA EVALUATION: Eligible study designs included interventions with pre- and postintervention data...
September 1, 2017: Oncology Nursing Forum
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