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malignant melanoma prevention

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28319049/resisting-fatal-attraction-a-glioma-oncometabolite-prevents-cd8-t-cell-recruitment
#1
Liliana E Lucca, David A Hafler
Immunotherapy has emerged as a potent approach for treating aggressive cancers, such as non-small-cell lung tumors and metastatic melanoma. Clinical trials are now in progress for patients with malignant gliomas; however, a better understanding of how these tumors escape immune surveillance is required to enhance antitumor immune responses. With gliomas, the recruitment of CD8+ T cells to the tumor is impaired, in part preventing containment or elimination of the tumor. In this issue of the JCI, Kohanbash and colleagues present an elegant dissection of how gliomas exploit an enzymatic activity acquired through a common mutation to abrogate the migration of CD8+ T cells to the tumor...
March 20, 2017: Journal of Clinical Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28303962/identification-of-novel-chemotherapeutic-strategies-for-metastatic-uveal-melanoma
#2
Paolo Fagone, Rosario Caltabiano, Andrea Russo, Gabriella Lupo, Carmelina Daniela Anfuso, Maria Sofia Basile, Antonio Longo, Ferdinando Nicoletti, Rocco De Pasquale, Massimo Libra, Michele Reibaldi
Melanoma of the uveal tract accounts for approximately 5% of all melanomas and represents the most common primary intraocular malignancy. Despite improvements in diagnosis and more effective local therapies for primary cancer, the rate of metastatic death has not changed in the past forty years. In the present study, we made use of bioinformatics to analyze the data obtained from three public available microarray datasets on uveal melanoma in an attempt to identify novel putative chemotherapeutic options for the liver metastatic disease...
March 17, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28258545/the-role-of-immune-checkpoint-inhibition-in-the-treatment-of-brain-tumors
#3
REVIEW
Andrew S Luksik, Russell Maxwell, Tomas Garzon-Muvdi, Michael Lim
The standard of care for malignant gliomas of the brain has changed very little over the last few decades, and does not offer a cure for these rare, but fatal, tumors. The field of immunotherapy has brought potent new drugs into the oncological armamentarium, and is becoming recognized as a potentially important arm in the treatment of glioblastoma for adults. Immune checkpoints are inhibitory receptors found on immune cells that, when stimulated, cause those immune cells to become quiescent. While this is a natural mechanism to prevent excessive inflammatory damage and autoimmunity in otherwise healthy tissues, cancer cells may utilize this process to grow in the absence of targeted immune destruction...
March 3, 2017: Neurotherapeutics: the Journal of the American Society for Experimental NeuroTherapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28255537/the-molecular-mechanism-by-which-saturated-lysophosphatidylcholine-attenuates-the-metastatic-capacity-of-melanoma-cells
#4
Thomas Ross, Bastian Jakubzig, Manuel Grundmann, Ulrich Massing, Evi Kostenis, Martin Schlesinger, Gerd Bendas
Lysophophatidylcholine (LysoPC) is an abundant constituent in human plasma. Patients with malignant cancer diseases have attenuated LysoPC plasma levels, and thus LysoPC has been examined as a metabolic biomarker for cancer prediction. Preclinical studies have shown that solid tumor cells drastically degrade LysoPCs by incorporating their free fatty acids into cell membrane phospholipids. In this way, LysoPC C18:0 reduced the metastatic spread of murine melanoma B16.F10 cells in mice. Although membrane rigidification may have a key role in the attenuation of metastasis, evidence for this has yet to be shown...
December 2016: FEBS Open Bio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28222225/daylight-photodynamic-therapy-vs-conventional-photodynamic-therapy-as-skin-cancer-preventive-treatment-in-patients-with-face-and-scalp-cancerization-an-intra-individual-comparison-study
#5
Elena Sotiriou, Demetrios Ioannides, Fotini Vrani, Elizabeth Lazaridou, Efstratios Vakirlis, Aimilios Lallas, Zoe Apalla
BACKGROUND: Individuals with medical history of non-melanoma skin cancers (NMSCs) usually develop multiple and/or recurrent malignant lesions around the site of the primary neoplasm. The latter represents the clinical expression of the "field cancerization" theory; supporting the presence of multiple malignant clones of dysplastic keratinocytes over the entire epithelium that potentially can progress into clinical lesions. Taking into consideration that the burden of NMSCs on public health and health-care cost is high, adequate control of recurrences and management of field change is challenging...
February 21, 2017: Journal of the European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology: JEADV
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28216727/high-altitude-dermatology
#6
Lt Col G K Singh
Approximately, 140 million people worldwide live permanently at high altitudes (HAs) and approximately another 40 million people travel to HA area (HAA) every year for reasons of occupation, sports or recreation. In India, whole of Ladakh region, part of Northwest Kashmir, Northern part of Sikkim and Tenga valley of Arunachal are considered inhabited areas of HAA. The low quantity of oxygen, high exposure of ultraviolet (UV) light, very low humidity, extreme subzero temperature in winter, high wind velocity, make this region difficult for lowlanders as well as for tourists...
January 2017: Indian Journal of Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28211077/severe-bullous-pemphigoid-associated-with-pembrolizumab-therapy-for-metastatic-melanoma-with-complete-regression
#7
O Rofe, G Bar-Sela, Z Keidar, T Sezin, C D Sadik, R Bergman
Bullous pemphigoid (BP) is considered to be a humorally mediated autoimmune disease, but autoreactive T-cells and T-regulatory cells (Tregs) have also been implicated in this disease. Tregs and the programmed death-1 (PD-1) : programmed death ligand (PD-L) pathway are both critical in terminating immune response, and elimination of either can result in breakdown of tolerance and development of autoimmunity. We report a patient with metastatic malignant melanoma (MM), who underwent pembrolizumab (anti-PD-1) therapy following unsuccessful treatment with ipilimumab [anti-cytotoxic T-lymphocyte-associated protein (CTLA)-4]...
April 2017: Clinical and Experimental Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28160109/antimetastatic-pectic-polysaccharide-from-decalepis-hamiltonii-galectin-3-inhibition-and-immune-modulation
#8
Sathisha U Venkateshaiah, Mallikarjuna S Eswaraiah, Harish Nayaka M Annaiah, Shylaja M Dharmesh
Melanoma is a malignant neoplasm of major concern because of its high mortality rate and failure of chemotherapy. Previously we have shown that galectin-3, a galactose specific lectin, plays a pivotal role in the initiation of metastasis. It was hypothesized that blocking galectin-3 with galactose rich dietary pectic polymer would inhibit metastasis. The current study analyzes the preventive effect and mode of action of a pectic polymer from Swallow Root (Decalepis hamiltonii) in a preventative study of B16F10 cells lung colonization...
February 2017: Clinical & Experimental Metastasis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28150105/skin-cancer-epidemiology-disease-burden-pathophysiology-diagnosis-and-therapeutic-approaches
#9
REVIEW
Zoe Apalla, Dorothée Nashan, Richard B Weller, Xavier Castellsagué
Skin cancer, including both melanoma and non-melanoma, is the most common type of malignancy in the Caucasian population. Firstly, we review the evidence for the observed increase in the incidence of skin cancer over recent decades, and investigate whether this is a true increase or an artefact of greater screening and over-diagnosis. Prevention strategies are also discussed. Secondly, we discuss the complexities and challenges encountered when diagnosing and developing treatment strategies for skin cancer...
January 2017: Dermatology and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28147380/promises-and-dangers-of-combination-therapy
#10
REVIEW
Wolfgang Kruis, Phuong G Nguyen, Julia Morgenstern
The efficiency of the existing methods of treating inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is limited. There are 2 ways to address this problem - either create new treatment modalities or optimize current therapies. Optimisation may be accomplished by using combinations of established therapeutic strategies. With regard to topically acting compounds such as 5-aminosalicylic acid, combining oral and rectal preparations is a commonly used method. Another commonly used combination is anti-tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α antibody modalities together with immunosuppressants (thiopurines, methotrexate)...
2017: Digestive Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28125434/vitamin-d-status-and-risk-for-malignant-cutaneous-melanoma-recent-advances
#11
Maria N Ombra, Panagiotis Paliogiannis, Valentina Doneddu, Maria C Sini, Maria Colombino, Carla Rozzo, Ignazio Stanganelli, Francesco Tanda, Antonio Cossu, Giuseppe Palmieri
Cutaneous malignant melanoma, whose incidence is increasing steadily worldwide, is the result of complex interactions between individual genetic factors and environmental risk factors. Ultraviolet radiation represents the most important environmental risk factor for the development of skin cancers, including melanoma. Sun exposure and early sunburn during childhood are the principal causes of cutaneous melanoma insurgence in adults, with double the risk relative to a nonexposed population. Consequently, ultraviolet protection has long been recognized as an important measure to prevent such a malignancy...
January 25, 2017: European Journal of Cancer Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28118455/trends-and-patterns-of-disparities-in-cancer-mortality-among-us-counties-1980-2014
#12
Ali H Mokdad, Laura Dwyer-Lindgren, Christina Fitzmaurice, Rebecca W Stubbs, Amelia Bertozzi-Villa, Chloe Morozoff, Raghid Charara, Christine Allen, Mohsen Naghavi, Christopher J L Murray
Introduction: Cancer is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in the United States and results in a high economic burden. Objective: To estimate age-standardized mortality rates by US county from 29 cancers. Design and Setting: Deidentified death records from the National Center for Health Statistics (NCHS) and population counts from the Census Bureau, the NCHS, and the Human Mortality Database from 1980 to 2014 were used. Validated small area estimation models were used to estimate county-level mortality rates from 29 cancers: lip and oral cavity; nasopharynx; other pharynx; esophageal; stomach; colon and rectum; liver; gallbladder and biliary; pancreatic; larynx; tracheal, bronchus, and lung; malignant skin melanoma; nonmelanoma skin cancer; breast; cervical; uterine; ovarian; prostate; testicular; kidney; bladder; brain and nervous system; thyroid; mesothelioma; Hodgkin lymphoma; non-Hodgkin lymphoma; multiple myeloma; leukemia; and all other cancers combined...
January 24, 2017: JAMA: the Journal of the American Medical Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28112098/primary-cutaneous-malignancies-in-the-northern-cape-province-of-south-africa-a-retrospective-histopathological-review
#13
K York, N C Dlova, C Y Wright, N P Khumalo, P E Kellett, R Kassanjee, A Mosam
BACKGROUND: Excessive sun exposure and a high prevalence of HIV increase skin cancer risk in South Africa (SA). OBJECTIVE: To describe the nature and extent of skin cancers presenting in the public and private health sectors of the Northern Cape Province of SA. METHODS: A retrospective analysis of histologically confirmed new primary cutaneous malignancies from 1 January 2008 to 31 December 2012 was conducted using public and private health sector databases...
December 21, 2016: South African Medical Journal, Suid-Afrikaanse Tydskrif Vir Geneeskunde
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28097368/incidence-of-and-risk-factors-for-skin-cancer-in-organ-transplant-recipients-in-the-united-states
#14
Giorgia L Garrett, Paul D Blanc, John Boscardin, Amanda Abramson Lloyd, Rehana L Ahmed, Tiffany Anthony, Kristin Bibee, Andrew Breithaupt, Jennifer Cannon, Amy Chen, Joyce Y Cheng, Zelma Chiesa-Fuxench, Oscar R Colegio, Clara Curiel-Lewandrowski, Christina A Del Guzzo, Max Disse, Margaret Dowd, Robert Eilers, Arisa Elena Ortiz, Caroline Morris, Spring K Golden, Michael S Graves, John R Griffin, R Samuel Hopkins, Conway C Huang, Gordon Hyeonjin Bae, Anokhi Jambusaria, Thomas A Jennings, Shang I Brian Jiang, Pritesh S Karia, Shilpi Khetarpal, Changhyun Kim, Goran Klintmalm, Kathryn Konicke, Shlomo A Koyfman, Charlene Lam, Peter Lee, Justin J Leitenberger, Tiffany Loh, Stefan Lowenstein, Reshmi Madankumar, Jacqueline F Moreau, Rajiv I Nijhawan, Shari Ochoa, Edit B Olasz, Elaine Otchere, Clark Otley, Jeremy Oulton, Parth H Patel, Vishal Anil Patel, Arpan V Prabhu, Melissa Pugliano-Mauro, Chrysalyne D Schmults, Sarah Schram, Allen F Shih, Thuzar Shin, Seaver Soon, Teresa Soriano, Divya Srivastava, Jennifer A Stein, Kara Sternhell-Blackwell, Stan Taylor, Allison Vidimos, Peggy Wu, Nicholas Zajdel, Daniel Zelac, Sarah T Arron
Importance: Skin cancer is the most common malignancy occurring after organ transplantation. Although previous research has reported an increased risk of skin cancer in solid organ transplant recipients (OTRs), no study has estimated the posttransplant population-based incidence in the United States. Objective: To determine the incidence and evaluate the risk factors for posttransplant skin cancer, including squamous cell carcinoma (SCC), melanoma (MM), and Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC) in a cohort of US OTRs receiving a primary organ transplant in 2003 or 2008...
March 1, 2017: JAMA Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28095280/relative-importance-of-traditional-risk-factors-for-malignant-melanoma-in-the-czech-population
#15
Lucie Rajská, Dana Göpfertová, Jana Hercogová, Anna Jiráková, Zuzana Sečníková, Filip Rob, Zdeněk Šmerhovský
AIM: The Czech Republic is one of the leading European countries in incident cases of malignant melanoma (MM), which is on the rise. The study objective was to assess the strength of associations between MM and the known generally accepted risk factors for MM in the population of the Czech Republic. METHODS: The study was designed as a case-control study where cases were incident cases of MM detected at the Department of Dermatology and Venereology of the Bulovka Hospital...
December 2016: Central European Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092363/mouse-models-of-uv-induced-melanoma-genetics-pathology-and-clinical-relevance
#16
Chi-Ping Day, Rachel Marchalik, Glenn Merlino, Helen Michael
Melanocytes, a neural crest cell derivative, produce pigment to protect keratinocytes from ultraviolet radiation (UVR). Although melanocytic lesions such as nevi and cutaneous malignant melanomas are known to be associated with sun exposure, the role of UVR in oncogenesis is complex and has yet to be clearly elucidated. UVR appears to have a direct mutational role in inducing or promoting melanoma formation as well as an indirect role through microenvironmental changes. Recent advances in the modeling of human melanoma in animals have built platforms upon which prospective studies can begin to investigate these questions...
January 16, 2017: Laboratory Investigation; a Journal of Technical Methods and Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28064232/primary-vaginal-melanoma-a-rare-and-aggressive-entity-a-case-report-and-review-of-the-literature
#17
Emmanouil Kalampokas, Theodoros Kalampokas, Christos Damaskos
Malignant melanoma of the vagina is a rare, aggressive malignancy of poor prognosis. It principally affects post-menopausal women, with a mean age of 57 years, and the factors that contribute to its appearance are not well known. The first case of primary malignant vaginal melanoma was reported in 1887 and modern literature has noted about 500 cases, globally. Vaginal melanomas constitute 0.3% of all malignant melanomas and fewer than 3% of all vaginal carcinomas. To date there is no clear consensus regarding treatment...
January 2017: In Vivo
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28058215/more-than-skin-deep-potential-nicotinamide-treatment-applications-in-chronic-kidney-transplant-recipients
#18
REVIEW
Andrew G Bostom, Basma Merhi, Joanna Walker, Leslie Robinson-Bostom
Non-melanoma cutaneous carcinomas, or skin cancers, predominantly squamous cell carcinomas (SCCs), are the most common malignancies occurring in kidney transplant recipients (KTRs). Squamous cell carcinoma risk is dramatically elevated in KTRs, occurring at rates of up 45-250 times those reported in general populations. New non-melanoma skin cancers in KTRs with a prior non-melanoma skin cancer also develop at 3-times the rate reported in non-KTRs with the same clinical history. The unique aggressiveness of SCCs in KTRs increases patient morbidity, due to the high rate of new lesions requiring treatment, frequently surgical excision...
December 24, 2016: World Journal of Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28052407/p21-activated-kinase-1-regulates-resistance-to-braf-inhibition-in-human-cancer-cells
#19
Mahamat Babagana, Sydney Johnson, Hannah Slabodkin, Wiam Bshara, Carl Morrison, Eugene S Kandel
BRAF is a commonly mutated oncogene in various human malignancies and a target of a new class of anti-cancer agents, BRAF-inhibitors (BRAFi). The initial enthusiasm for these agents, based on the early successes in the management of metastatic melanoma, is now challenged by the mounting evidence of intrinsic BRAFi-insensitivity in many BRAF-mutated tumors, by the scarcity of complete responses, and by the inevitable emergence of drug resistance in initially responsive cases. These setbacks put an emphasis on discovering the means to increase the efficacy of BRAFi and to prevent or overcome BRAFi-resistance...
January 4, 2017: Molecular Carcinogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28017864/modifying-effects-of-carboxyl-group-on-the-interaction-of-recombinant-s100a8-a9-complex-with-tyrosinase
#20
Fatemeh NematiNiko, Koorosh Goodarzvand Chegini, Hamideh Asghari, Abbas Amini, Nematollah Gheibi
Tyrosinase is a determinant enzyme for modulating melanin production as its abnormal activity can result in an increased amount of melanin. Reduction of tyrosinase activity has been targeted for preventing and healing hyperpigmentation of skin, such as melanoma and age related spots. The aim of this systematic study is to investigate whether recombinant S100A8/A9 and its modified form reduce the activity of mushroom tyrosinase (MT) through changing its structure. Recombinant His-Tagged S100A8 and S100A9 are expressed in Escherichia coli BL21 (DE3) and modified using Woodward's reagent K which is a carboxyl group modifier...
March 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
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