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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911450/uveal-melanoma-relatively-rare-but-deadly-cancer
#1
REVIEW
S Kaliki, C L Shields
Although it is a relatively rare disease, primarily found in the Caucasian population, uveal melanoma is the most common primary intraocular tumor in adults with a mean age-adjusted incidence of 5.1 cases per million per year. Tumors are located either in iris (4%), ciliary body (6%), or choroid (90%). The host susceptibility factors for uveal melanoma include fair skin, light eye color, inability to tan, ocular or oculodermal melanocytosis, cutaneous or iris or choroidal nevus, and BRCA1-associated protein 1 mutation...
December 2, 2016: Eye
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27896891/stat3-targeting-by-polyphenols-novel-therapeutic-strategy-for-melanoma
#2
REVIEW
Saeideh Momtaz, Kamal Niaz, Faheem Maqbool, Mohammad Abdollahi, Luca Rastrelli, Seyed Mohammad Nabavi
Melanoma or malignant melanocytes appear with the low incidence rate, but very high mortality rate worldwide. Epidemiological studies suggest that polyphenolic compounds contribute for prevention or treatment of several cancers particularly melanoma. Such findings motivate to dig out novel therapeutic strategies against melanoma, including research toward the development of new chemotherapeutic and biologic agents that can target the tumor cells by different mechanisms. Recently, it has been found that signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) is activated in many cancer cases surprisingly...
November 29, 2016: BioFactors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27890240/melanocytic-nevi-and-the-genetic-and-epigenetic-control-of-oncogene-induced-senescence
#3
REVIEW
Jennifer M Huang, Ijeuru Chikeka, Thomas J Hornyak
Melanocytic nevi represent benign clonal proliferations of the melanocytes in the skin that usually remain stable in size and behavior or disappear during life. Infrequently, melanocytic nevi undergo malignant transformation to melanoma. Understanding molecular and cellular mechanisms underlying oncogene-induced senescence should help identify pathways underlying melanoma development, leading to the development of new strategies for melanoma prevention and early detection.
January 2017: Dermatologic Clinics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27881235/elucidating-the-role-of-the-foxo3a-transcription-factor-in-the-igf-1-induced-migration-and-invasion-of-uveal-melanoma-cancer-cells
#4
Fengxia Yan, Rifang Liao, Mohd Farhan, Tinghuai Wang, Jiashu Chen, Zhong Wang, Peter J Little, Wenhua Zheng
Uveal melanoma (UM) is the most common primary intraocular malignant tumor of adults. It has high mortality rate due to liver metastasis. However, the epidemiology and pathogenesis of liver metastasis in UM are not elucidated and there is no effective therapy available for preventing the development of this disease. IGF-1 is a growth factor involved in cell proliferation, malignant transformation and inhibition of apoptosis. In previous report, IGF-1 receptor was found to be highly expressed in UM and this was related to tumor prognosis...
November 20, 2016: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27875372/cutaneous-malignancies-in-hiv
#5
Aileen Y Chang, Phil Doiron, Toby Maurer
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: As patients with HIV infection are living longer with their disease, we have seen the evolution of skin cancer in this population. Cancer registries have not documented the incidence and prevalence of these cancers but we do have relevant data from cohorts. This article attempts to bring to light the extent to which skin cancer is an issue in HIV disease both domestically and internationally. RECENT FINDINGS: Squamous cell cancer is increasing in incidence in the United States and elsewhere...
January 2017: Current Opinion in HIV and AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27872007/the-role-of-pde5-inhibitors-and-the-no-cgmp-pathway-in-cancer
#6
REVIEW
Taylor C Peak, Ashley Richman, Serap Gur, Faysal A Yafi, Wayne J G Hellstrom
INTRODUCTION: Phosphodiesterase 5 (PDE5) inhibitors (PDE5i) have been used clinically for the treatment of erectile dysfunction, acting on the nitric oxide/cyclic guanosine monophosphate (NO/cGMP) signaling pathway. Simultaneously, researchers have elucidated the roles that this pathway plays in the regulation of cell proliferation, tumor development, and progression. As a result, our knowledge of PDE5i and cancer biology has expanded and provides an integration that holds great promise for some, but concern for others...
January 2016: Sexual Medicine Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27868187/basic-aspects-of-the-pathogenesis-and-prevention-of-non-melanoma-skin-cancer-in-solid-organ-transplant-recipients-a-review
#7
REVIEW
Héctor C Perez, Xiomara Benavides, Juan S Perez, Maria A Pabon, Jaime Tschen, Silvia J Maradei-Anaya, Luis Lopez, Eyner Lozano
INTRODUCTION: As numbers of transplant recipients and survival rates increase, the vulnerability of this population to several malignancies also rises. Non-melanoma skin cancer (NMSC) carries the highest rates of morbidity and mortality in this population. To avoid these malignancies, it is necessary to identify particular risk factors in transplant recipients and to follow preventive protocols. METHODS: The MEDLINE and EMBASE databases were reviewed using as keywords the medical subject headings (MeSH) "transplantation", "skin neoplasm" and "prevention"...
November 21, 2016: International Journal of Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27857118/lineage-specific-roles-of-the-cytoplasmic-polyadenylation-factor-cpeb4-in-the-regulation-of-melanoma-drivers
#8
Eva Pérez-Guijarro, Panagiotis Karras, Metehan Cifdaloz, Raúl Martínez-Herranz, Estela Cañón, Osvaldo Graña, Celia Horcajada-Reales, Direna Alonso-Curbelo, Tonantzin G Calvo, Gonzalo Gómez-López, Nicolas Bellora, Erica Riveiro-Falkenbach, Pablo L Ortiz-Romero, José L Rodríguez-Peralto, Lorena Maestre, Giovanna Roncador, Juan C de Agustín Asensio, Colin R Goding, Eduardo Eyras, Diego Megías, Raúl Méndez, María S Soengas
Nuclear 3'-end-polyadenylation is essential for the transport, stability and translation of virtually all eukaryotic mRNAs. Poly(A) tail extension can also occur in the cytoplasm, but the transcripts involved are incompletely understood, particularly in cancer. Here we identify a lineage-specific requirement of the cytoplasmic polyadenylation binding protein 4 (CPEB4) in malignant melanoma. CPEB4 is upregulated early in melanoma progression, as defined by computational and histological analyses. Melanoma cells are distinct from other tumour cell types in their dependency on CPEB4, not only to prevent mitotic aberrations, but to progress through G1/S cell cycle checkpoints...
November 18, 2016: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27843913/quercetin-as-an-emerging-anti-melanoma-agent-a-four-focus-area-therapeutic-development-strategy
#9
REVIEW
Zoey Harris, Micah G Donovan, Gisele Morais Branco, Kirsten H Limesand, Randy Burd
Replacing current refractory treatments for melanoma with new prevention and therapeutic approaches is crucial in order to successfully treat this aggressive cancer form. Melanoma develops from neural crest cells, which express tyrosinase - a key enzyme in the pigmentation pathway. The tyrosinase enzyme is highly active in melanoma cells and metabolizes polyphenolic compounds; tyrosinase expression thus makes feasible a target for polyphenol-based therapies. For example, quercetin (3,3',4',5,7-pentahydroxyflavone) is a highly ubiquitous and well-classified dietary polyphenol found in various fruits, vegetables, and other plant products including onions, broccoli, kale, oranges, blueberries, apples, and tea...
2016: Frontiers in Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27827301/validation-and-development-of-mth1-inhibitors-for-treatment-of-cancer
#10
U Warpman Berglund, K Sanjiv, H Gad, C Kalderén, T Koolmeister, T Pham, C Gokturk, R Jafari, G Maddalo, B Seashore-Ludlow, A Chernobrovkin, A Manoilov, I S Pateras, A Rasti, A-S Jemth, I Almlöf, O Loseva, T Visnes, B O Einarsdottir, F Z Gaugaz, A Saleh, B Platzack, O A Wallner, K S A Vallin, M Henriksson, P Wakchaure, S Borhade, P Herr, Y Kallberg, P Baranczewski, E J Homan, E Wiita, V Nagpal, T Meijer, N Schipper, S G Rudd, L Bräutigam, A Lindqvist, A Filppula, T-C Lee, P Artursson, J A Nilsson, V G Gorgoulis, J Lehtiö, R A Zubarev, M Scobie, T Helleday
BACKGROUND: Previously, we showed cancer cells rely on the MTH1 protein to prevent incorporation of otherwise deadly oxidised nucleotides into DNA and we developed MTH1 inhibitors which selectively kill cancer cells. Recently, several new and potent inhibitors of MTH1 were demonstrated to be non-toxic to cancer cells, challenging the utility of MTH1 inhibition as a target for cancer treatment. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Human cancer cell lines were exposed in vitro to MTH1 inhibitors or depleted of MTH1 by siRNA or shRNA...
November 8, 2016: Annals of Oncology: Official Journal of the European Society for Medical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27800275/uveal-melanoma-current-trends-in-diagnosis-and-management
#11
REVIEW
Berçin Tarlan, Hayyam Kıratlı
Uveal melanoma, which is the most common primary intraocular malignancy in adults, arises from melanocytes within the iris, ciliary body and choroid. The diagnosis is based principally on clinical examination of the tumor with biomicroscopy and indirect ophthalmoscopy and confirmed by diagnostic techniques such as ultrasonography, fundus fluorescein angiography and optical coherence tomography. The clinical diagnosis of posterior uveal melanomas can be made when the classical appearance of a pigmented dome-shaped mass is detected on dilated fundus exam...
June 2016: Turkish Journal of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27796021/-renal-transplantation-in-autosomal-dominant-polycystic-kidney-disease-adpkd
#12
Norberto Perico, Monica Cortinovis, Giuseppe Remuzzi
Transplantation is the optimal choice for renal replacement therapy in patients with autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD). However, some specific issues should be addressed before transplantation, including nephrectomy of native kidneys, cystic liver involvement, screening for intracranial aneurysms and living related-donor transplantation. After kidney transplantation, patient and graft survival rates are excellent and the size of native kidneys typically declines. Nevertheless, a number of renal and extrarenal complications have been documented in kidney transplant recipients with ADPKD...
September 2016: Giornale Italiano di Nefrologia: Organo Ufficiale Della Società Italiana di Nefrologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27782094/photodynamic-therapy-and-non-melanoma-skin-cancer
#13
REVIEW
Liezel L Griffin, John T Lear
Non-melanoma skin cancer (NMSC) is the most common malignancy among the Caucasian population. Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is gaining popularity for the treatment of basal cell carcinoma (BCC), Bowen's disease (BD) and actinic keratosis (AK). A topical or systemic exogenous photosensitiser, results in selective uptake by malignant cells. Protoporphyrin IX (PpIX) is produced then activated by the introduction of a light source. Daylight-mediated MAL (methyl aminolaevulinate) PDT for AKs has the advantage of decreased pain and better patient tolerance...
October 22, 2016: Cancers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27764776/igf-1-contributes-to-the-expansion-of-melanoma-initiating-cells-through-an-epithelial-mesenchymal-transition-process
#14
Vincent Le Coz, Chaobin Zhu, Aurore Devocelle, Aimé Vazquez, Claude Boucheix, Sandy Azzi, Cindy Gallerne, Pierre Eid, Séverine Lecourt, Julien Giron-Michel
Melanoma is a particularly virulent human cancer, due to its resistance to conventional treatments and high frequency of metastasis. Melanomas contain a fraction of cells, the melanoma-initiating cells (MICs), responsible for tumor propagation and relapse. Identification of the molecular pathways supporting MICs is, therefore, vital for the development of targeted treatments. One factor produced by melanoma cells and their microenvironment, insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF- 1), is linked to epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and stemness features in several cancers...
October 18, 2016: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27748864/betulinic-acid-and-the-pharmacological-effects-of-tumor-suppression-review
#15
Xia Zhang, Jingyu Hu, Yan Chen
Betulinic acid (BA), a lupane-type pentacyclic triterpenoid saponin from tree bark, has the potential to induce the apoptosis of cancer cells without toxicity towards normal cells in vitro and in vivo. The antitumor pharmacological effects of BA consist of triggering apoptosis via the mitochondrial pathway, regulating the cell cycle and the angiogenic pathway via factors, including specificity protein transcription factors, cyclin D1 and epidermal growth factor receptor, inhibiting the signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 and nuclear factor‑κB signaling pathways, preventing the invasion and metastasis of tumor cells, and affecting the expression of topoisomerase I, p53 and lamin B1...
October 4, 2016: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27744579/melanoma-cell-metastasis-via-p-selectin-mediated-activation-of-acid-sphingomyelinase-in-platelets
#16
Katrin Anne Becker, Nadine Beckmann, Constantin Adams, Gabriele Hessler, Melanie Kramer, Erich Gulbins, Alexander Carpinteiro
Metastatic dissemination of cancer cells is one of the hallmarks of malignancy and accounts for approximately 90 % of human cancer deaths. Within the blood vasculature, tumor cells may aggregate with platelets to form clots, adhere to and spread onto endothelial cells, and finally extravasate to form metastatic colonies. We have previously shown that sphingolipids play a central role in the interaction of tumor cells with platelets; this interaction is a prerequisite for hematogenous tumor metastasis in at least some tumor models...
October 15, 2016: Clinical & Experimental Metastasis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27699218/the-mek-inhibitor-trametinib-separates-murine-graft-versus-host-disease-from-graft-versus-tumor-effects
#17
Hidekazu Itamura, Takero Shindo, Isao Tawara, Yasushi Kubota, Ryusho Kariya, Seiji Okada, Krishna V Komanduri, Shinya Kimura
The efficacy of allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation for hematologic malignancies is limited by the difficulty in suppressing graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) without compromising graft-versus-tumor (GVT) effects. We previously showed that RAS/MEK/ERK signaling depends on memory differentiation in human T cells, which confers susceptibility to selective inhibition of naive T cells. Actually, antineoplastic MEK inhibitors selectively suppress alloreactive T cells, sparing virus-specific T cells in vitro...
July 7, 2016: JCI Insight
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27698517/mortality-among-children-and-young-people-who-survive-cancer-in-northern-ireland
#18
D W Donnelly, A T Gavin
ABSTRACT: Whilst survival rates for childhood cancers are excellent, it is known that these patients have an increased risk of death from disease recurrence and other causes. We investigate patterns, trends and survival of cancers in children and young adults in N. Ireland. MATERIALS AND METHODS: 21 years (1993-2013) of cancer incidence data including non-malignant brain tumours from the N. Ireland Cancer Registry for persons aged 0-24 years was analysed using Joinpoint regresssion for trend and the Kaplan Meier method for survival analysis up to end 2013 with excess mortality calculated at one and five years after first cancer diagnosis using standardised mortality ratios...
September 2016: Ulster Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27667733/clinical-review-of-treatment-outcomes-and-patterns-of-failure-with-adjuvant-radiotherapy-in-node-positive-malignant-melanoma
#19
Lorna G Keenan, Siobhra O'Sullivan, Aisling Glynn, Martin Higgins, Aileen Flavin, Sinead Brennan
INTRODUCTION: Adjuvant radiotherapy is proven to prevent lymph node field relapse after therapeutic lymphadenectomy for melanoma, but does not improve overall survival based on current data. There remains a high rate of distant relapse. This study reports patterns of failure in patients treated with adjuvant radiotherapy, looking at factors associated with distant metastasis and comparing this to recent literature. METHODS: This retrospective study included patients treated with adjuvant nodal irradiation after lymphadenectomy between June 2012 and March 2015...
September 25, 2016: Journal of Medical Imaging and Radiation Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27665299/primary-and-secondary-chemoprevention-of-malignant-melanoma
#20
REVIEW
Jessica Mounessa, Talayesa Buntinx-Krieg, Rosie Qin, Cory A Dunnick, Robert P Dellavalle
The incidence of malignant melanoma (MM) continues to rise in the United States. While sun protection and full body skin examinations remain the mainstay of preventative care, chemoprevention of the deadly disease has become an increasingly popular field of study. In this focused review, we discuss current findings and analyze the risks and benefits of various agents investigated for the primary and secondary chemoprevention of MM. Such agents include topical retinoids, vitamins, and supplements, Polypodium leucotomas extracts, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory agents (NSAIDs), statins, sunscreens, and field therapy with topical imiquimod for primary and secondary chemoprevention...
December 2016: American Journal of Clinical Dermatology
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