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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29447285/murine-cytomegalovirus-degrades-mhc-class-ii-to-colonize-the-salivary-glands
#1
Joseph Yunis, Helen E Farrell, Kimberley Bruce, Clara Lawler, Stine Sidenius, Orry Wyer, Nicholas Davis-Poynter, Philip G Stevenson
Cytomegaloviruses (CMVs) persistently and systemically infect the myeloid cells of immunocompetent hosts. Persistence implies immune evasion, and CMVs evade CD8+ T cells by inhibiting MHC class I-restricted antigen presentation. Myeloid cells can also interact with CD4+ T cells via MHC class II (MHC II). Human CMV (HCMV) attacks the MHC II presentation pathway in vitro, but what role this evasion might play in host colonization is unknown. We show that Murine CMV (MCMV) down-regulates MHC II via M78, a multi-membrane spanning viral protein that captured MHC II from the cell surface and was necessary although not sufficient for its degradation in low pH endosomes...
February 15, 2018: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29427611/imaging-pathological-activities-of-human-brain-tissue-in-organotypic-culture
#2
Caroline Le Duigou, Etienne Savary, Mélanie Morin-Brureau, Daniel Gomez-Dominguez, André Sobczyk, Farah Chali, Giampaolo Milior, Larissa Kraus, Jochen C Meier, Dimitri M Kullmann, Bertrand Mathon, Liset Menendez de la Prida, Georg Dorfmuller, Johan Pallud, Emmanuel Eugène, Stéphane Clemenceau, Richard Miles
BACKGROUND: Insights into human brain diseases may emerge from tissue obtained after operations on patients. However techniques requiring transduction of transgenes carried by viral vectors cannot be applied to acute human tissue. NEW METHOD: We show that organotypic culture techniques can be used to maintain tissue from patients with three different neurological syndromes for several weeks in vitro. Optimized viral vector techniques and promoters for transgene expression are described...
February 7, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29425830/metal-chelating-3-hydroxypyrimidine-2-4-diones-inhibit-human-cytomegalovirus-pul89-endonuclease-activity-and-virus-replication
#3
Yan Wang, Jing Tang, Zhengqiang Wang, Robert J Geraghty
Human cytomegalovirus terminase complex cleaves the concatemeric genomic viral DNA into unit lengths during genome packaging and particle assembly. Terminase complex ATPase and endonuclease activity is provided by the viral protein pUL89. pUL89 is an attractive drug target because its activities are required for infectious virus production. A domain located in the C-terminus of pUL89 has an RNase H/integrase-like fold and endonuclease activity that can be inhibited by compounds featuring a chelating triad motif...
February 6, 2018: Antiviral Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29423671/the-glycosyltransferase-st6gal-i-is-enriched-in-cancer-stem-like-cells-in-colorectal-carcinoma-and-contributes-to-their-chemo-resistance
#4
H Cui, S Yang, Y Jiang, C Li, Y Zhao, Y Shi, Y Hao, F Qian, B Tang, P Yu
PURPOSE: Presence of cancer stem cells (CSCs) contributes to tumor outgrowth, chemo-resistance and relapse in some cancers including colorectal carcinoma (CRC). The current characterization methods of CSCs in CRC only allows enrichment of CSCs but not their purification. Recent reports showed that ST6 beta-galactoside alpha-2,6-sialyltransferase 1 (ST6Gal-I) plays an essential role in protecting tumor cells against harsh environment like oxidative stress and nutrient deprivation. Therefore, whether ST6Gal-I may be highly expressed in CSCs or whether it may enhance resistance of tumor cells to chemotherapy deserves exploration...
February 8, 2018: Clinical & Translational Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29408860/human-cytomegalovirus-epidemiology-and-relationship-to-tuberculosis-and-cardiovascular-disease-risk-factors-in-a-rural-ugandan-cohort
#5
Lisa Stockdale, Stephen Nash, Angela Nalwoga, Hannah Painter, Gershim Asiki, Helen Fletcher, Robert Newton
Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) infection has been associated with increased mortality, specifically cardiovascular disease (CVD), in high-income countries (HICs). There is a paucity of data in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) where HCMV seropositivity is higher. Serum samples from 2,174 Ugandan individuals were investigated for HCMV antibodies and data linked to demographic information, co-infections and a variety of CVD measurements. HCMV seropositivity was 83% by one year of age, increasing to 95% by five years...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29407294/prevention-of-late-onset-cytomegalovirus-infection-and-disease-in-donor-positive-recipient-negative-kidney-transplant-recipients-using-low-dose-valganciclovir
#6
K Nanmoku, T Shinzato, T Kubo, T Shimizu, T Kimura, T Yagisawa
BACKGROUND: The main challenge with cytomegalovirus (CMV) prophylaxis in IgG donor-positive/recipient-negative (D+/R-) kidney transplant recipients is late-onset CMV disease. We evaluated a novel protocol for the prevention of late-onset CMV infection and disease in D+/R- organ recipients. METHODS: Our prospective, observational, cohort study included 100 adult kidney transplant recipients. Prophylaxis with low-dose valganciclovir (450 mg/d, 3 times a week for 6 months) was administered to D+/R- recipients...
January 2018: Transplantation Proceedings
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29405140/pre-transplant-cytomegalovirus-immunoglobulin-g-antibody-levels-could-prevent-severe-cytomegalovirus-infections-post-transplant-in-liver-transplant-recipients-experience-from-a-tertiary-care-liver-centre
#7
Ekta Gupta, Viniyendra Pamecha, Yogita Verma, Niteen Kumar, Archana Rastogi, Nadeem Hasnian, Ajeet Singh Bhadoria
BACKGROUND: Humoral immune responses in cytomegalovirus (CMV) are not studied well. Pre-transplant CMV immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibody levels (Pre-Tx IgG) could influence the occurrence of post-transplant CMV infections. OBJECTIVE: Correlation between pre-Tx IgG and post-Tx risk of acquiring CMV infection was investigated. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 146 liver Tx recipients, not on CMV prophylaxis, were included. Pre-Tx IgG in donor (D) and recipient (R) were estimated and all the recipients were followed up for 1 year for CMV infections...
October 2017: Indian Journal of Medical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29404743/no-evidence-of-obstetrical-adverse-events-after-hyperimmune-globulin-application-for-primary-cytomegalovirus-infection-in-pregnancy-experience-from-a-single-centre
#8
Loredana Delle Chiaie, Patrick Neuberger, Matthias Vochem, Angela Lihs, Ulrich Karck, Martin Enders
PURPOSE: To determine the frequency of obstetrical adverse events and clinical outcome in infants following antenatal hyperimmune globulin (HIG) treatment for primary cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection in pregnancy. METHODS: Data from 50 women including three twin pregnancies were retrospectively evaluated. Primary infection was defined by seroconversion or the presence of CMV-specific IgM and low IgG avidity. All women received two or more infusions of HIG (200 U/kg)...
February 5, 2018: Archives of Gynecology and Obstetrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29401303/contribution-of-breastfeeding-to-false-positive-saliva-pcr-for-newborn-congenital-cytomegalovirus-screening
#9
Shannon A Ross, Marian G Michaels, Amina Ahmed, April L Palmer, Pablo J Sánchez, David I Bernstein, Kristina Feja, Audra Stewart, Suresh B Boppana, Karen B Fowler
Real time PCR of saliva is highly sensitive for newborn congenital CMV screening. This study utilizes nationally published CMV seroprevalence and breastfeeding rates to estimate the contribution of CMV DNA in breast milk to false-positive saliva PCR results. The false positive rates adjusted for breast feeding ranged from 0.03% in white Hispanics to 0.14% in white non-Hispanics. Saliva CMV PCR for newborn screening is highly sensitive and the low false positive rates in this study suggest that saliva PCR results are unlikely to be significantly influenced by breastfeeding or other perinatal exposures...
February 1, 2018: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29399441/nk-cells-and-%C3%AE-%C3%AE-t-cells-for-relapse-protection-after-allogeneic-hematopoietic-cell-transplantation-hct
#10
Moniek A de Witte, Jürgen Kuball, Jeffrey S Miller
Purpose of review: The outcome of allogeneic stem cell transplantation (allo-HCT) is still compromised by relapse and complications. NK cells and γδT cells, effectors which both function through MHC-unrestricted mechanisms, can target transformed and infected cells without inducing Graft-versus-Host Disease (GVHD). Allo-HCT platforms based on CD34+ selection or αβ-TCR depletion result in low grades of GVHD, early immune reconstitution (IR) of NK and γδT cells and minimal usage of GVHD prophylaxis...
December 2017: Current Stem Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29399336/cardiovascular-characteristics-of-chronic-fatigue-syndrome
#11
Sara Bozzini, Andrea Albergati, Enrica Capelli, Lorenzo Lorusso, Carmine Gazzaruso, Gabriele Pelissero, Colomba Falcone
Patients with chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) commonly exhibit orthostatic intolerance. Abnormal sympathetic predominance in the autonomic cardiovascular response to gravitational stimuli was previously described in numerous studies. The aim of the current study was to describe cardiological and clinical characteristics of Italian patients with CFS. All of the patients were of Caucasian ethnicity and had been referred to our center, the Cardiology Department of the University Hospital of Pavia (Pavia, Italy) with suspected CFS...
January 2018: Biomedical Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29396078/detection-of-human-cytomegalovirus-in-malignant-and-benign-breast-tumors-in-egyptian-women
#12
Dalia F El Shazly, Abeer A Bahnassey, Omar S Omar, Elsayed T Elsayed, Ali Al-Hindawi, Eman El-Desouky, Hend Youssef, Abdel-Rahman N Zekri
INTRODUCTION: Previous studies have reported a role for human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) in breast carcinogenesis. We sought to assess the role of HCMV infection in the development and/or progression of breast cancer (BC) among Egyptian patients. PATIENTS AND METHODS: The study included 61 patients with BC cases. Of these 61 patients, 40 had been assessed for HCMV in the blood, BC tissue samples, and adjacent non-neoplastic tissue samples, and 21 had been assessed for HCMV in the tissue only...
November 7, 2017: Clinical Breast Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29394264/epstein-barr-virus-is-present-in-the-brain-of-most-cases-of-multiple-sclerosis-and-may-engage-more-than-just-b-cells
#13
Asma Hassani, John R Corboy, Suhail Al-Salam, Gulfaraz Khan
Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic neuroinflammatory condition of the central nervous system (CNS). It is a major cause of neurological disability in young adults, particularly women. What triggers the destruction of myelin sheaths covering nerve fibres is unknown. Both genetic and infectious agents have been implicated. Of the infectious agents, Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), a common herpesvirus, has the strongest epidemiological and serological evidence. However, the presence of EBV in the CNS and demonstration of the underlying mechanism(s) linking EBV to the pathogenesis of MS remain to be elucidated...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29377506/cmv-infected-kidney-grafts-drive-the-expansion-of-blood-borne-cmv-specific-t-cells-restricted-by-shared-class-i-hla-molecules-via-presentation-on-donor-cells
#14
Philippe Gatault, Sally Al-Hajj, Johan Noble, Eloi Chevallier, Marie Piollet, Catherine Forconi, Catherine Gaudy-Graffin, Gilles Thibault, Elodie Miquelestorena-Standley, Jean Michel Halimi, Matthias Büchler, Roxane Lemoine, Christophe Baron
We aimed to determine the role of cytomegalovirus (CMV)-infected donor cells in the development of a CMV-specific immune response in kidney transplant recipients. We assessed the CMV pp65-specific immune response by using interferon-ɣ ELISPOT and dextramers in peripheral blood mononuclear cells from 115 recipients (D+R- 31, D+R+ 44, D-R+ 40) late after transplantation (mean 59±42 months). Receiving a kidney from a D+ donor resulted in a higher number of IFN-ɣ-producing anti-CMV T-cells (p=0.004). This effect disappeared with the absence of shared HLA class I specificities between donors and recipients (p=0...
January 27, 2018: American Journal of Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29373759/results-of-a-targeted-screening-program-for-congenital-cytomegalovirus-infection-in-infants-who-fail-newborn-hearing-screening
#15
Emily Vancor, Eugene D Shapiro, Jaspreet Loyal
Background: Congenital cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection is a major cause of sensorineural hearing loss. By law, newborns in Connecticut who fail newborn hearing screening are tested for infection with CMV. This targeted screening is controversial, because most children with congenital CMV infection are asymptomatic, and CMV-related hearing loss can have a delayed onset. Our hospital uses a saliva polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay (confirmed by a urine PCR assay) to detect CMV. Here, we report the results of the first year of our screening program...
January 24, 2018: Journal of the Pediatric Infectious Diseases Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29369800/prognostic-factors-for-mortality-among-day-100-survivors-after-allogeneic-hematopoietic-cell-transplantation
#16
Sagar S Patel, Lisa A Rybicki, Donna Corrigan, Brian Bolwell, Robert Dean, Hien Liu, Aaron T Gerds, Rabi Hanna, Brian Hill, Deepa Jagadeesh, Matt Kalaycio, Brad Pohlman, Ronald Sobecks, Navneet S Majhail, Betty K Hamilton
Although day 100 survival among allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) recipients has improved over time, longer-term survival remains a challenge. The aim of this study was to identify prognostic factors for survival among patients surviving more than 100 days using baseline characteristics and factors identified within the first 100 days after transplantation. Of 413 patients undergoing a first allogeneic HCT from 2006 to 2014, 335 survived >100 days post-transplant. The majority underwent a myeloablative transplant (75%) with bone marrow (BM) (52%) graft source...
January 21, 2018: Biology of Blood and Marrow Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29360195/reduction-of-late-onset-cytomegalovirus-primary-disease-after-discontinuation-of-antiviral-prophylaxis-in-kidney-transplant-recipients-treated-with-de-novo-everolimus
#17
Arnaud Devresse, Marianne Leruez-Ville, Anne Scemla, Véronique Avettand-Fenoel, Lise Morin, Xavier Lebreton, Claire Tinel, Lucile Amrouche, Lionel Lamhaut, Marc Olivier Timsit, Julien Zuber, Christophe Legendre, Dany Anglicheau
BACKGROUND: donor (D)+/recipient (R)- serostatus is closely associated with a higher risk of cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection and disease. Antiviral prophylaxis is conventionally used in such patients, but late-onset CMV infection/disease still occurs after the discontinuation of prophylaxis. METHODS: we retrospectively analyzed the data of 215 low immunological risk patients who received kidney transplantation in our center between 2011 and 2016. RESULTS: ninety-seven patients received a combination of everolimus (EVL)/reduced doses of calcineurin inhibitors (CNI) (EVL group) de novo, and 118 received a combination of mycophenolic acid (MPA)/standard doses of CNI (MPA group) de novo...
January 23, 2018: Transplant Infectious Disease: An Official Journal of the Transplantation Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29359836/factors-and-outcomes-in-association-with-sepsis-differ-between-simultaneous-pancreas-kidney-and-single-kidney-transplant-recipients
#18
Thomas Schachtner, Marina Zaks, Natalie M Otto, Andreas Kahl, Petra Reinke
As immunosuppressive therapy has improved in simultaneous pancreas/kidney transplant recipients (SPKTRs), infection has become the major limitation of disease-free survival. We studied all SPKTRs and deceased-donor kidney transplant recipients (KTRs) between 2003 and 2015. 36/134 SPKTRs (26.9%) were diagnosed with sepsis among which 13/36 SPKTRs (36.1%) developed severe sepsis/septic shock. A control group of 98 SPKTRs without sepsis and 61/538 KTRs (11.3%) with sepsis were used for comparison. Among SPKTRs, female sex, low BMI, CMV-seronegativity, CMV-disease, and acute cellular rejection increased the risk for sepsis (p<0...
January 23, 2018: Transplant Infectious Disease: An Official Journal of the Transplantation Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29341396/pediatrics-and-donor-derived-disease-transmission-the-us-optn-experience
#19
Michael Green, Shandie Covington, Sarah Taranto, Marian G Michaels, Cameron Wolfe, Daniel R Kaul
PDDTE are tracked by the OPTN Ad Hoc DTAC. Specific evaluation of potential transmissions from pediatric deceased donors or the impact of donor-derived disease transmissions to pediatric organ recipients has not been previously undertaken. PDDTE reported to the DTAC between 2008 and 2013 were reviewed, characterized as proven, probable, possible, IWDT, unlikely, or excluded for both the whole event and each individual recipient. Pediatric donors and recipients were defined as being 0-17 years of age. Analysis was undertaken to characterize potential disease transmission from pediatric donors to adult or pediatric recipients and also to evaluate potential transmission from all donors to pediatric recipients...
January 17, 2018: Pediatric Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331844/assessing-the-risk-of-cmv-reactivation-and-reconstitution-of-antiviral-immune-response-post-bone-marrow-transplantation-by-the-quantiferon-cmv-assay-and-real-time-pcr
#20
Adalbert Krawczyk, Jessica Ackermann, Birgit Goitowski, Rudolf Trenschel, Markus Ditschkowski, Jörg Timm, Hellmut Ottinger, Dietrich W Beelen, Nico Grüner, Melanie Fiedler
BACKGROUND: CMV reactivation is a major cause of severe complications in allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplant (HSCT) recipients. The risk of CMV reactivation depends on the serostatus (+/-) of the donor (D) and recipient (R). The reconstitution of CMV-specific T-cell responses after transplantation is crucial for the control of CMV reactivation. OBJECTIVES: The study aimed to determine the cellular immune status correlating with protection from high-level CMV viremia (>5000 copies/ml) and disease...
January 9, 2018: Journal of Clinical Virology: the Official Publication of the Pan American Society for Clinical Virology
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