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Felicia Goodrum, Shannon McWeeney
Herpesvirus latency has been difficult to understand molecularly due to low levels of viral genomes and gene expression. In the case of the betaherpesvirus human cytomegalovirus (HCMV), this is further complicated by the heterogeneity inherent to hematopoietic subpopulations harboring genomes and, as a consequence, the various patterns of infection that simultaneously exist in a host, ranging from latent to lytic. Single-cell RNA sequencing (scRNA-seq) provides tremendous potential in measuring the gene expression profiles of heterogeneous cell populations for a wide range of applications, including in studies of cancer, immunology, and infectious disease...
June 12, 2018: MBio
Torpong Thongngarm, Adhiratha Boonyasiri, Panitan Pradubpongsa, Nattaporn Tesavibul, Tauangtham Anekpuritanang, Piyawut Kreetapirom, Mongkhon Sompornrattanaphan
BACKGROUND: Good syndrome (GS) is an adult-onset immunodeficiency characterized by coexisting thymoma and hypogammaglobulinemia. Clinical course after treatment with intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIg) has rarely been reported. OBJECTIVE: To investigate and report the clinical course and outcomes of GS patients after treatment with IVIg at Thailand's largest national tertiary referral hospital METHODS: This retrospective chart review included patients diagnosed with GS and treated with IVIg during the 1 January 2005 to 31 December 2015 study period...
June 11, 2018: Asian Pacific Journal of Allergy and Immunology
Corentin Tanné, Pascal Roy, Émilie Frobert, Anita Duncan, Audrey Laurent, Pierre Cochat
Cytomegalovirus is common in adult recipients (prevalence of 40-90%). Children are typically seronegative but immunosuppression may prone to primary-infection or viral reactivation, with potentially severe consequences. CMV infection incidence in pediatric kidney transplant recipients has seldom been investigated. The aim of our study was to evaluate the incidence and timing of CMV infection during the first year after renal transplantation. We assembled a retrospective cohort of 136 children who had received a kidney transplant between 2003 and 2014 with a year follow-up...
June 7, 2018: Néphrologie & Thérapeutique
Jun Li, Martina Koch, Kathrin Kramer, Katja Kloth, Abd El Rahman Abu Ganim, Silke Scheidat, Franz Rinninger, Friedrich Thaiss, Amit Gulati, Uta Herden, Eike Achilles, Lutz Fischer, Bjoern Nashan
BACKGROUND: To be an optimal immunosuppressive regimen after simultaneous pancreas kidney transplantation (SPK), low dose calcineurin inhibitor and early withdrawal of corticosteroids are desired. METHODS: Immunosuppressive regimen as such has been conducted consecutively in SPK recipients since 2009 in authors' institute. In addition to tacrolimus in low trough level and early corticosteroid withdraw, dual induction with basiliximab and low-dose thymoglobulin in combination with everolimus are the important components of the protocol...
June 6, 2018: Transplant Immunology
Udit Chaddha, Pradnya D Patil, Ashraf Omar, Rajat Walia, Tanmay S Panchabhai
A 47-year-old man who was a redo double lung transplant recipient (cytomegalovirus [CMV] status: donor positive/recipient positive; Epstein-Barr virus status: donor positive/recipient positive) presented to the hospital with 1 week of generalized malaise, low-grade fevers, and dry cough. His redo lung transplantation was necessitated by bronchiolitis obliterans syndrome, and his previous lung transplantation 5 years earlier was for silicosis-related progressive massive fibrosis. He denied any difficulty breathing or chest pain...
June 2018: Chest
H Lee, S Lee, J S Jeon, S H Kwon, H Noh, D C Han, S Yun, D Song
BACKGROUND: The Kidney Disease: Improving Global Outcomes (KDIGO) guidelines recommend that T-cell-depleting agents should be used only for kidney transplant (KT) recipients at high immunologic risk. However, the effects of thymoglobulin induction therapy in low-immunologic risk KT recipients on tacrolimus, mycophenolic acid, and steroid have not been elucidated yet. METHODS: We retrospectively collected 6 months postoperative clinical data, for low-immunologic risk KT recipients at Soonchunhyang University Hospital...
June 2018: Transplantation Proceedings
Ashrit Multani, Carlos A Gomez, Jose G Montoya
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Good syndrome is a profoundly immunocompromising condition with heterogeneous immune deficits characterized by the presence of thymoma, low-to-absent B-lymphocyte counts, hypogammaglobulinemia, and impaired cell-mediated immunity. Opportunistic infectious diseases associated with Good syndrome represent a diagnostic and therapeutic challenge, given their protean clinical manifestations. Although these infectious complications have been reviewed in prior publications, recommendations regarding their prevention have been lacking...
June 6, 2018: Current Opinion in Infectious Diseases
Chung Hee Baek, Hyosang Kim, Won Seok Yang, Duck Jong Han, Su-Kil Park
AIM: ABO-incompatible (ABOi) kidney transplantation (KT) has become a routine procedure with graft survival rates comparable to those of ABO-compatible KT. However, the clinical significance of the isoagglutinin titer in ABOi KT remains uncertain. Therefore, in this study, we analyzed the clinical outcomes of ABOi KT according to the baseline and postoperative isoagglutinin titer. METHODS: All patients who received ABOi KT between 2009 and 2013 were reviewed and followed up until December 2016...
June 7, 2018: Nephrology
I P Lodding, C da Cunha Bang, S S Sørensen, F Gustafsson, M Iversen, N Kirkby, M Perch, A Rasmussen, H Sengeløv, A Mocroft, J D Lundgren
Background: Transplant recipients presenting with cytomegalovirus (CMV) disease at the time of diagnosis of CMV DNAemia pose a challenge to a preemptive CMV management strategy. However, the rate and risk factors of such failure remain uncertain. Methods: Solid organ transplantation (SOT) and hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) recipients with a first episode of CMV polymerase chain reaction (PCR) DNAemia within the first year posttransplantation were evaluated (n = 335)...
May 2018: Open Forum Infectious Diseases
S D Hwang, J H Lee, S W Lee, J K Kim, M-J Kim, J H Song
BACKGROUND: Valganciclovir is widely used to prevent post-transplant cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection in kidney transplant patients. However, the currently used dose remains controversial because the continuous use of this drug decreases kidney function and can induce leukopenia. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to measure the appropriate dose of valganciclovir required to prevent CMV infection. METHODS: A systematic review and meta-analysis were performed by using a random effects model...
June 2, 2018: Transplantation Proceedings
Letizia Muccio, Michela Falco, Alice Bertaina, Franco Locatelli, Francesco Frassoni, Simona Sivori, Lorenzo Moretta, Alessandro Moretta, Mariella Della Chiesa
In human natural killer (NK) cells, human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) has been shown to be a driving force capable of inducing the expansion of a highly differentiated NKG2C+ CD57+ subset, persisting over time in both HCMV+ healthy subjects and umbilical cord blood transplantation (UCBT) recipients experiencing HCMV viral reactivation. In HCMV+ healthy subjects, such expanded NK-cells are characterized by epigenetic modifications that modulate their phenotypic and functional characteristics. In particular, an enhanced ADCC activity is detectable in NK cells lacking the signaling protein FcεRγ...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
Cristina Capuano, Simone Battella, Chiara Pighi, Lavinia Franchitti, Ombretta Turriziani, Stefania Morrone, Angela Santoni, Ricciarda Galandrini, Gabriella Palmieri
Natural killer (NK) cells represent a pivotal player of innate anti-tumor immune responses. The impact of environmental factors in shaping the representativity of different NK cell subsets is increasingly appreciated. Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) infection profoundly affects NK cell compartment, as documented by the presence of a CD94/NKG2C+ FcεRIγ- long-lived "memory" NK cell subset, endowed with enhanced CD16-dependent functional capabilities, in a fraction of HCMV-seropositive subjects. However, the requirements for memory NK cell pool establishment/maintenance and activation have not been fully characterized yet...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
Yan-Long Jia, Xiao Guo, Jiang-Tao Lu, Xiao-Yin Wang, Le-Le Qiu, Tian-Yun Wang
CHO cells are the preferred host for the production of complex pharmaceutical proteins in the biopharmaceutical industry, and genome engineering of CHO cells would benefit product yield and stability. Here, we demonstrated the efficacy of a Dnmt3a-deficient CHO cell line created by CRISPR/Cas9 genome editing technology through gene disruptions in Dnmt3a, which encode the proteins involved in DNA methyltransferases. The transgenes, which were driven by the 2 commonly used CMV and EF1α promoters, were evaluated for their expression level and stability...
May 30, 2018: Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine
Lavinia Maria Saraca, Ludovico Lazzari, Cinzia di Giuli, Alessandro Lavagna, Paola Mezzetti, Daniela Bovelli, Enrico Boschetti, Daniela Francisci
Myocarditis is an inflammatory disease of the myocardium. Viruses, such as enterovirus, adenovirus, parvovirus B19, HHV6 or cytomegalovirus (CMV) and autoimmune diseases are recognized causes of myocarditis. We describe the clinical case of a young Indian woman with SLE and a concomitant acute CMV related myocarditis with favourable outcome after ganciclovir therapy. CMV myocarditis may range from being a subclinical infection with incidental findings on ECG to a life threating presentation. There are no trials demonstrating the efficacy of antiviral therapy in myocarditis...
2018: IDCases
Jose O Reusing, Emanoela B Feitosa, Fabiana Agena, Lígia C Pierroti, Luiz S F Azevedo, Camille N Kotton, Elias David-Neto
BACKGROUND: Anti-thymocyte globulin (ATG) therapy is a risk factor for CMV disease in renal transplant (RTx) recipients and therefore antiviral prophylaxis is commonly used. We evaluated the outcome of our current policy of 90 days of CMV prophylaxis in seropositive recipients given ATG and the risk factors for the occurrence of CMV disease after prophylaxis. METHODS: We studied a retrospective cohort of 423 RTx (2010-2014) CMV-seropositive adults given ATG induction therapy...
May 29, 2018: Transplant Infectious Disease: An Official Journal of the Transplantation Society
Daniele Lilleri, Paola Zelini, Chiara Fornara, Federica Zavaglio, Teresa Rampino, Laurent Perez, Elisa Gabanti, Giuseppe Gerna
Immune correlates of protection against human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) infection are still debated. This study aimed to investigate which arm of the immune response plays a major role in protection against HCMV infection in kidney (KTR, n=40) and heart transplant recipients (HTR, n= 12). Overall, patients were divided into two groups: one including 37 patients with low viral load (LVL), and the other including 15 patients with high viral load (HVL). All LVL patients resolved the infection spontaneously, whereas HVL patients were all treated with one or more courses of antivirals...
May 24, 2018: Journal of Medical Virology
Susanne Dam Nielsen, Vibe Ballegaard, Karin Kaereby Pedersen, Maria Pedersen, Peter Brændstrup, Nikolai Kirkby, Anette Stryhn Buus, Lars P Ryder, Jan Gerstoft
BACKGROUND: Mechanisms leading to neurocognitive impairment (NCI) in people living with HIV (PLWHIV) on stable antiretroviral therapy (cART) remain unknown. We investigated the association between CMV immunity, HIV-specific variables and NCI in PLWHIV on stable cART and with low comorbidity. METHODS: 52 PLWHIV on stable cART and 31 HIV-uninfected controls matched on age, gender, education and comorbidity were tested with a neurocognitive test-battery and CMV-immunoglobulin G (CMV-IgG) levels were measured...
May 16, 2018: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
C Liang, E L Jiang, J F Yao, Q L Ma, W H Zhai, A M Pang, Y Huang, J L Wei, S Z Feng, M Z Han
Objective: To explore the effectiveness of a novel GVHD prophylaxis regimen containing low-dose anti-T lymphocyte globulin (ATG) in patients undergoing peripheral blood stem cell transplantation (PBSCT) from HLA-matched sibling donors (MSD) given both the patients and donors were aged over forty years old. Methods: From March 2013 to April 2017, 98 patients with hematologic malignancies were enrolled in the study. Standard GVHD prophylaxis consisted of the administration of cyclosporine A/tacrolimus and a short course of methotrexate...
April 14, 2018: Zhonghua Xue Ye Xue za Zhi, Zhonghua Xueyexue Zazhi
Hilalion Ahn, Jason Tay, Beverley Shea, Brian Hutton, Risa Shorr, Greg A Knoll, Donald William Cameron, Juthaporn Cowan
BACKGROUND: Prophylactic immunoglobulin has been used with varying efficacy to reduce complications in hematopoietic stem cell transplant recipients. STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS: A systematic review and meta-analysis was conducted of randomized controlled trials that assessed clinical outcomes (overall survival, transplant-related mortality, graft-versus-host disease [GVHD], veno-occlusive disease [VOD], interstitial pneumonitis, disease relapse, cytomegalovirus [CMV] infection and disease, non-CMV infection) of immunoglobulin prophylaxis versus placebo in hematopoietic stem cell transplant recipients...
May 16, 2018: Transfusion
Aubaneide Batista Guerra, Leonardo Quintão Siravenha, Rogério Valois Laurentino, Rosimar Neris Martins Feitosa, Vânia Nakauth Azevedo, Antonio Carlos Rosário Vallinoto, Ricardo Ishak, Luiz Fernando Almeida Machado
BACKGROUND: Prenatal tests are important for prevention of vertical transmission of various infectious agents. The objective of this study was to describe the prevalence of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), human T-lymphotropic virus (HTLV), hepatitis B virus (HBV), cytomegalovirus (CMV), rubella virus and vaccination coverage against HBV in pregnant adolescents who received care in the city of Belém, Pará, Brazil. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was performed with 324 pregnant adolescents from 2009 to 2010...
May 16, 2018: BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth
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