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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28719361/effectiveness-of-valganciclovir-900mg-versus-450mg-for-cytomegalovirus-prophylaxis-in-renal-transplantation-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#1
Wang Xin, Yang Hui, Zhang Xiaodong, Cui Xiangli, Wang Shihui, Liu Lihong
OBJECTIVES: Valganciclovir 900 mg/day is approved for cytomegalovirus (CMV) prophylaxis, but 450 mg/day is seems also effective. We systematically reviewed the efficacy and safety of low-dose versus high-dose valganciclovir prophylaxis in renal transplantation recipients. METHODS: An electronic search was conducted up to November 29, 2016. The primary outcomes were incidences of CMV, CMV disease, mortality and opportunistic infection. The second outcomes were acute rejection, allograft loss, adverse drug reaction (ADR)...
2017: Journal of Pharmacy & Pharmaceutical Sciences: a Publication of the Canadian Society for Pharmaceutical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28695489/lack-of-human-cytomegalovirus-expression-in-single-cells-from-glioblastoma-tumors-and-cell-lines
#2
Travis S Johnson, Zachary B Abrams, Xiaokui Mo, Yan Zhang, Kun Huang
The relationship between human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) and glioblastoma (GBM) is an ongoing debate with extensive evidence supporting or refuting its existence through molecular assays, pre-clinical studies, and clinical trials. We focus primarily on the crux of the debate, detection of HCMV in GBM samples using molecular assays. We propose that these differences in detection could be affected by cellular heterogeneity. To take this into account, we align the single-cell RNA sequencing (scRNA-seq) reads from five GBM tumors and two cell lines to HCMV and analyze the alignments for evidence of (i) complete viral transcripts and (ii) low-abundance viral reads...
July 10, 2017: Journal of Neurovirology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28694811/latent-cytomegalovirus-cmv-infection-does-not-detrimentally-alter-t-cell-responses-in-the-healthy-old-but-increased-latent-cmv-carriage-is-related-to-expanded-cmv-specific-t-cells
#3
Sarah E Jackson, George X Sedikides, Georgina Okecha, Emma L Poole, John H Sinclair, Mark R Wills
Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) primary infection and periodic reactivation of latent virus is generally well controlled by T-cell responses in healthy people. In older donors, overt HCMV disease is not generally seen despite the association of HCMV infection with increased risk of mortality. However, increases in HCMV DNA in urine of older people suggest that, although the immune response retains functionality, immunomodulation of the immune response due to lifelong viral carriage may alter its efficacy. Viral transcription is limited during latency to a handful of viral genes and there is both an IFNγ and cellular IL-10 CD4(+) T-cell response to HCMV latency-associated proteins...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28682067/expanding-the-antiviral-spectrum-of-3-fluoro-2-phosphonomethoxy-propyl-acyclic-nucleoside-phosphonates-diamyl-aspartate-amidate-prodrugs
#4
Min Luo, Elisabetta Groaz, Graciela Andrei, Robert Snoeck, Raj Kalkeri, Roger G Ptak, Tracy Hartman, Robert W Buckheit, Dominique Schols, Steven De Jonghe, Piet Herdewijn
Acyclic nucleosides containing a 3-fluoro-2-(phosphonomethoxy)propyl (FPMP) side chain are known to be moderately potent antihuman immunodeficiency virus (HIV) agents, while being completely devoid of antiviral activity against a wide range of DNA viruses. The derivatization of the phosphonic acid functionality of FPMPs with a diamyl aspartate phenoxyamidate group led to a novel generation of compounds that not only demonstrate drastically improved antiretroviral potency but also are characterized by an expanded spectrum of activity that also covers hepatitis B and herpes viruses...
July 6, 2017: Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28676560/congenital-microcephaly-in-quebec-baseline-prevalence-risk-factors-and-outcomes-in-a-large-cohort-of-neonates
#5
Nathalie Auger, Caroline Quach, Jessica Healy-Profitós, Anne-Marie Lowe, Laura Arbour
OBJECTIVE: We assessed baseline prevalence, risk factors and outcomes of microcephaly in a large population of neonates. DESIGN: Retrospective cohort study. SETTING: All hospitals in the province of Quebec, Canada. PARTICIPANTS: 794 microcephalic and 1 944 010 non-microcephalic infants born between 1989 and 2012. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Baseline prevalence of microcephaly and occurrence of other congenital anomalies...
July 4, 2017: Archives of Disease in Childhood. Fetal and Neonatal Edition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28674718/seroprevalence-of-toxoplasma-gondii-rubella-virus-and-cytomegalovirus-among-pregnant-women-and-the-importance-of-avidity-assays
#6
Mumtaz C Sirin, Neval Agus, Nisel Yilmaz, Arzu Bayram, Yeser K Derici, Pinar Samlioglu, Sevgi Y Hanci, Guliz Dogan
OBJECTIVES: To determine the seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii (T. gondii), Rubella virus, and Cytomegalovirus (CMV) among pregnant women in Izmir, Turkey. METHODS: Medical records of pregnant women attending Izmir Tepecik Training and Research Hospital, Izmir, Turkey between January 2014 and January 2016 were analyzed in this retrospective cross-sectional study. The 7513 T. gondii IgM/IgG results, 7189 Rubella IgM/IgG results, 906 CMV IgM/IgG results and 146 avidity test results were evaluated...
July 2017: Saudi Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28674683/infusion-of-sibling-marrow-in-a-patient-with-purine-nucleoside-phosphorylase-deficiency-leads-to-split-mixed-donor-chimerism-and-normal-immunity
#7
Laura Yeates, Mary A Slatter, Andrew R Gennery
Purine nucleoside phosphorylase (PNP) deficiency, a rare autosomal recessive metabolic disease causes combined immunodeficiency and developmental delay, hypotonia, and spasticity. Patients present with recurrent infections associated with T-lymphocytopenia, characteristically presenting later than patients with classical severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID). PNP, with adenosine deaminase (ADA), is part of the purine salvage pathway. The only curative therapy is hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. Myeloablative conditioning is recommended to prevent rejection caused by residual immune function...
2017: Frontiers in Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28671330/cytomegaloviral-hypophysitis-in-a-simian-immunodeficiency-virus-infected-rhesus-macaque-macacca-mulatta
#8
Melissa R Berg, Michael A Owston, Marie-Claire Gauduin, Basel T Assaf, Anne D Lewis, Edward J Dick
Rhesus macaques experimentally infected with Simian Immunodeficiency Virus (SIV) experience immunosuppression and often opportunistic infection. Among the most common opportunistic infections are rhesus cytomegalovirus (RhCMV), a ubiquitous betaherpesvirus that undergoes continuous low-level replication in immunocompetent monkeys. Upon SIV-mediated immunodeficiency, RhCMV reactivates and results in lesions in numerous organ systems including the nervous and reproductive systems. We report the first case of cytomegaloviral hypophysitis in a SIV-immunocompromised rhesus macaque...
July 3, 2017: Journal of Medical Primatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28667764/human-polyomavirus-9-in-immunocompromised-patients-in-the-university-hospital-in-hradec-kralove-czech-republic
#9
Fajfr Miroslav, Pliskova Lenka, Kutova Radka, Matyskova-Kubisova Michaela, Navratil Pavel, Radocha Jakub, Valenta Zbynek, Dusilova-Sulkova Sylvie
INTRODUCTION: Human polyomaviruses such as JC polyomavirus and BK polyomavirus have long been well known pathogens of immunocompromised patients. Several new members of this viral family have been described during the last decade. Human polyomavirus 9 seems to be a novel pathogen of transplanted patients according to some studies. The study aim: The aim of our study was to determine the presence of human polyomavirus 9 in patients after kidney or stem cell transplantation at the University Hospital in Hradec Kralove, Czech Republic...
July 1, 2017: Journal of Medical Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28662293/retrospective-evaluation-of-the-efficacy-and-safety-of-belatacept-with-thymoglobulin-induction-and-maintenance-everolimus-a-single-center-clinical-experience
#10
D Wojciechowski, S Chandran, J Yang, M Sarwal, F Vincenti
Belatacept use has been constrained by higher rates of acute rejection. We hypothesized that belatacept with low dose rATG and initial mycophenolate maintenance with conversion to everolimus at 1 month post-transplant ± corticosteroids would improve efficacy and maintain safety. Retrospective single center analysis of the first 44 low immunologic risk kidney transplant recipients treated with this regimen. The cohort was 59% male, mean age at transplant of 57 years. Diabetes was the most common cause of ESRD (39%)...
June 29, 2017: Clinical Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28661443/effect-of-cytomegalovirus-cmv-and-ageing-on-t-bet-and-eomes-expression-on-t-cell-subsets
#11
Fakhri Hassouneh, Nelson Lopez-Sejas, Carmen Campos, Beatriz Sanchez-Correa, Raquel Tarazona, Alejandra Pera, Rafael Solana
The differential impact of ageing and cytomegalovirus (CMV) latent infection on human T-cell subsets remains to some extent controversial. The purpose of this study was to analyse the expression of the transcription factors T-bet and Eomes and CD57 on CD4+, CD4(hi)CD8(lo) and CD8+ T-cell subsets in healthy individuals, stratified by age and CMV serostatus. The percentage of CD4+ T-cells expressing T-bet or Eomes was very low, in particular in CD4+ T-cells from young CMV-seronegative individuals, and were higher in CMV-seropositive older individuals, in both CD57- and CD57+ CD4+ T-cells...
June 29, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28659485/cytomegalovirus-late-protein-pul31-alters-pre-rrna-expression-and-nuclear-organization-during-infection
#12
Kristen N Westdorp, Andrea Sand, Nathaniel J Moorman, Scott S Terhune
The replication cycle of human cytomegalovirus (CMV) leads to drastic reorganization of domains in the host cell nucleus. However, the mechanisms involved and how these domains contribute to infection are not well understood. Our recent studies defining the CMV-induced nuclear proteome identified several viral proteins of unknown functions including a protein encoded by the UL31 gene. We set out to define the role of UL31 in CMV replication. UL31 is predicted to encode a 74 kDa protein, referred to as pUL31, containing a bi-partite nuclear localization signal, an intrinsically disordered region overlapping with arginine-rich motifs, and a C-terminal dUTPase-like structure...
June 28, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28655979/diagnostic-yield-from-colon-biopsies-in-patients-with-inflammatory-bowel-disease-and-suspected-cytomegalovirus-infection-is-it-worth-it
#13
Shifa Umar, Kofi Clarke, Farshaad Bilimoria, Mohammad Bilal, Shailendra Singh, Jan Silverman
BACKGROUND: Patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) are often immunosuppressed and are at risk for reactivation of latent cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection. We examined the diagnostic yield from colon biopsies in IBD patients with suspected CMV infection. METHODS: Patients above 18 years of age who underwent testing for CMV on colon biopsies between January 1st, 2012, and December 31st, 2015, were identified from a pathology data base. A positive CMV result was included only if testing included both hematoxylin/eosin staining and immunohistochemistry from two or more biopsy samples...
2017: Annals of Gastroenterology: Quarterly Publication of the Hellenic Society of Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28652156/electrospray-synthesis-of-plga-nanoparticles-encapsulating-peptides-to-enhance-proliferation-of-antigen-specific-cd8-t-cells
#14
Britta Furtmann, Justin Tang, Sven Kramer, Thomas Eickner, Frank Luderer, Gert Fricker, Alessandro Gomez, Bianca Heemskerk, Peter S Jähn
Polymer nanoparticles (NP) are of escalating interest for their application as immune stimulatory pharmaceutics. The production of nanosized carrier systems is currently being widely investigated, but commonly used techniques, such as the double emulsion technique, are limited by shortcomings of low encapsulation efficiency and poor control over size distribution. In this study, the electrospray technique was successfully implemented and optimized to produce monodisperse 200 nm poly (lactide-co glycolide) (PLGA) nanoparticles...
June 23, 2017: Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28651475/high-frequency-ventilation-modalities-as-salvage-therapy-for-smoke-inhalation-associated-acute-lung-injury-a-systematic-review
#15
Andrew C Miller, Paula A Ferrada, Sameer S Kadri, Krupa Nataraj-Bhandari, Amir Vahedian-Azimi, Sadeq A Quraishi
BACKGROUND: Smoke inhalation-associated acute lung injury (SI-ALI) is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in victims of fire tragedies. To date, there are no evidence-based guidelines on ventilation strategies in acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) after smoke inhalation. We reviewed the existing literature for clinical studies of salvage mechanical ventilation (MV) strategies in patients with SI-ALI, focusing on mortality and pneumonia as outcomes. METHODS: A systematic search was designed in accordance with preferred reporting items for systematic reviews and meta-analyses (PRISMA) guidelines...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Intensive Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28649744/mannose-binding-lectin-deficient-donors-increase-the-risk-of-bacterial-infection-and-bacterial-infection-related-mortality-after-liver-transplantation
#16
J Lombardo, G Sanclemente, J Colmenero, M Español-Rego, M T Arias, P Ruiz, E Mauro, L Sastre, G Crespo, A Rimola, A Moreno, F Lozano, M Navasa
Mannose-binding lectin (MBL) is synthesized by the liver and binds to microbes. MBL2 gene polymorphisms produce intermediate/low/null- or normal-MBL serum levels (MBL-deficient or MBL-sufficient phenotypes, respectively). We aimed to evaluate the incidence and severity of infection, rejection and survival within 1 year after liver transplantation (LT) according to donor and recipient MBL2 gene polymorphisms. A repeated-event analysis for infection episodes (negative binomial regression, Andersen-Gill model) was performed in 240 LT...
June 26, 2017: American Journal of Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28643867/transfusion-transmitted-cmv-infection%C3%A2-%C3%A2-current-knowledge-and-future-perspectives
#17
REVIEW
M Ziemann, T Thiele
Transmission of human cytomegalovirus (CMV) via transfusion (TT-CMV) may still occur and remains a challenge in the treatment of immunocompromised CMV-seronegative patients, e.g. after stem cell transplantation, and for low birthweight infants. Measures to reduce the risk of TT-CMV have been evaluated in clinical studies, including leucocyte depletion of cellular blood products and/or the selection of CMV-IgG-negative donations. Studies in large blood donor cohorts indicate that donations from newly CMV-IgG-positive donors should bear the highest risk for transmitting CMV infections because they contain the highest levels of CMV-DNA, and early CMV antibodies cannot neutralise CMV...
June 23, 2017: Transfusion Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28642130/mir-155-expression-is-downregulated-in-kidney-transplant-patients-with-human-cytomegalovirus-infection
#18
Massimiliano Bergallo, Stefano Gambarino, Paola Montanari, Valentina Daprà, Marco Rassu, Ilaria Galliano, Paolo Ravanini
MicroRNAs are small, noncoding RNAs that control expression of target genes through inhibiting protein translation or inducing degradation of mRNA transcripts of target genes. According to the latest update, 2578 unique mature miRNAs are currently annotated in the human genome and participate in the regulation of multiple events, such as cellular proliferation or apoptosis. Herpesvirus family comprehends many viruses able to control and modulate host-cell processes permitting the survival by a latency phase after primary infection...
June 19, 2017: Transplant Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28632322/reduced-intensity-conditioning-allogeneic-transplantation-after-salvage-treatment-with-dt-pace-in-myeloma-patients-relapsing-early-after-autologous-transplant
#19
K Randall, M Kaparou, E Xenou, S Paneesha, B Kishore, A Kanellopoulos, R Lovell, K Holder, J Suhr, L Baker, L Ryan, E Nikolousis
OBJECTIVE: In this retrospective single center study we have looked into the transplant outcomes(overall survival OS, progression free survival PFS,GvHD) and the role of chimerism, DLI and pre-transplant characteristics in patients who had a suboptimal response (<12 months)to an autologous stem cell transplant for myeloma and underwent an Alemtuzumab T-cell depleted reduced intensity allograft(RIC). METHODS: 24 patients were salvaged with 2 cycles of DT-PACE and received a RIC transplant with Fludarabine, Melphalan and Alemtuzumab...
June 20, 2017: European Journal of Haematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630251/valnoctamide-inhibits-cytomegalovirus-infection-in-developing-brain-and-attenuates-neurobehavioral-dysfunctions-and-brain-abnormalities
#20
Sara Ornaghi, Lawrence S Hsieh, Angélique Bordey, Patrizia Vergani, Michael J Paidas, Anthony N van den Pol
Cytomegalovirus (CMV) is the most common infectious cause of brain defects and neurological dysfunction in developing human babies. Due to the teratogenicity and toxicity of available CMV antivirals, treatment options during early development are markedly limited. Valnoctamide (VCD), a neuroactive mood stabilizer with no known teratogenic activity, was recently demonstrated to have anti-CMV potential. However, it is not known whether this can be translated into an efficacious therapeutic effect to improve CMV-induced adverse neurological outcomes...
June 19, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
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