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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29027740/effective-tolerance-based-on-resource-reallocation-is-a-virus-specific-defence-in-arabidopsis-thaliana
#1
Aayushi Shukla, Israel Pagán, Fernando García-Arenal
Plant viruses often harm their hosts, which have developed mechanisms to prevent or minimise the effects of virus infection. Resistance and tolerance are the two main plant defences to pathogens. Although resistance to plants viruses has been extensively studied, tolerance has received much less attention. Theory predicts that tolerance to low virulent parasites would be achieved through resource reallocation from growth to reproduction, whereas tolerance to high virulent parasites would be attained through shortening of the pre-reproductive period...
October 13, 2017: Molecular Plant Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29025787/a-markov-analysis-of-screening-for-late-onset-cytomegalovirus-disease-in-cytomegalovirus-high-risk-kidney-transplant-recipients
#2
Chethan M Puttarajappa, Sundaram Hariharan, Kenneth J Smith
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Management strategies are unclear for late-onset cytomegalovirus infection occurring beyond 6 months of antiviral prophylaxis in cytomegalovirus high-risk (cytomegalovirus IgG positive to cytomegalovirus IgG negative) kidney transplant recipients. Hybrid strategies (prophylaxis followed by screening) have been investigated but with inconclusive results. There are clinical and potential cost benefits of preventing cytomegalovirus-related hospitalizations and associated increased risks of patient and graft failure...
October 12, 2017: Clinical Journal of the American Society of Nephrology: CJASN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29025381/adenovirus-infection-as-a-cause-of-fever-of-unknown-origin-and-allograft-dysfunction-in-a-kidney-transplant-recipient
#3
Michelle Saliba, Hala Kfoury Assouf, Souodod Abbas, Pierre Abi Hanna, Gaby Kamel, Antoine Barbari
With the recent introduction of more potent modern immunosuppressive regimens in solid-organ transplant, new types of viral infections such as adenovirus are emerging as a potential cause for graft dysfunction and loss. We report a case of 41-year-old male patient with end-stage renal disease from recurrent kidney stones who underwent kidney transplant from a deceased 12-year-old female donor. He developed adenoviral infection with acute cystitis, microscopic hematuria, and necrotizing interstitial nephritis associated with graft dysfunction within the first month of the postoperative period...
October 12, 2017: Experimental and Clinical Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29024250/non-invasive-detection-of-bladder-cancer-via-expression-targeted-gene-delivery
#4
Yunlan Fang, B Wolfson, W T Godbey
BACKGROUND: Because of the time and expense associated with the procedures and possible distress to the patient, cystoscopy or other imaging techniques are typically not used for bladder cancer detection before symptoms become present. Alternatively, commercial assays for urinary tumor markers exist but are marred by low sensitivity and high cost. There is a need for a simple and sensitive means of tumor detection, such as via the analysis of urine. METHODS: Plasmids encoding the secretable reporter Gaussia luciferase (G...
October 11, 2017: Journal of Gene Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29022925/anti-cytomegalovirus-immunoglobulin-m-titer-for-congenital-infection-in-first-trimester-pregnancy-with-primary-infection-a-multicenter-prospective-cohort-study
#5
K Toriyabe, F Morikawa, T Minematsu, M Ikejiri, S Suga, T Ikeda
OBJECTIVE: We evaluated cytomegalovirus (CMV) immunoglobulin M (IgM) titer in pregnant women with primary infection as a predictive factor for congenital infection. STUDY DESIGN: Maternal CMV antibody screening during the first trimester was conducted prospectively at 16 centers in Japan between September 2013 and 2015. Women with confirmed maternal primary infection underwent testing for fetal congenital infection, and we investigated the positive predictive value of CMV IgM titer levels for congenital infection in women with a low IgG avidity...
October 12, 2017: Journal of Perinatology: Official Journal of the California Perinatal Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29020339/can-viral-load-be-used-as-a-surrogate-marker-in-clinical-studies-of-cytomegalovirus-in-solid-organ-transplantation-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#6
Yoichiro Natori, Ali Alghamdi, Mahmood Tazari, Veronica Miller, Shahid Husain, Takashi Komatsu, Paul Griffiths, Per Ljungman, Ani Orchanian-Cheff, Deepali Kumar, Atul Humar
Symptomatic CMV disease has been the standard endpoint for clinical trials in organ transplant recipients. Viral load may be a more relevant endpoint due to low frequency of disease. We performed a meta-analysis and systematic review of the literature. We found several lines of evidence to support the validity of viral load as an appropriate surrogate end-point including 1)viral loads in CMV disease are significantly greater than in asymptomatic viremia (OR 9.3, 95%CI 4.6 to 19.3); 2)kinetics of viral replication are strongly associated with progression to disease; 3)pooled incidence of CMV viremia and disease is significantly lower during prophylaxis compared with the full patient followup period (viremia incidence: 3...
September 5, 2017: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28993892/screening-investigations-in-small-for-gestational-age-near-term-and-term-infants
#7
Mohan B Krishnamurthy, Abigail Popiel, Atul Malhotra
The aims of this study are to examine how frequently near-term and term small-for-gestational-age (SGA) infants were investigated in our clinical practice, whether being born less than the third centile for weight increased the yield of positive investigations, and whether there were additional characteristics in infants with positive investigations. This retrospective cohort study was compiled using a database of a large maternity network, using the search near term and term gestational age (greater than or equal to 35 weeks) over a span of 4 years...
October 10, 2017: European Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28990220/low-dose-basiliximab-induction-therapy-in-heart-transplantation
#8
Veraprapas Kittipibul, Pakpoom Tantrachoti, Pat Ongcharit, Aekarach Ariyachaipanich, Sarawut Siwamogsatham, Supaporn Sritangsirikul, Kanokwan Thammanatsakul, Sarinya Puwanant
We prospectively studied efficacy and safety outcomes of two 10-mg doses of intravenous basiliximab on day 0 and day 4 for induction therapy in 17 consecutive de novo heart transplant recipients. By the 2-week assessment post-transplant, there were no deaths, graft failures, or acute cellular rejections (ACRs) ISHLT grade ≥ 2R. By the 1-year assessment post-transplant, there were 1 (6%) infectious death, no graft failure, 2 (12%) grade 2R ACRs, 6 (35%) asymptomatic CMV infections, and 4 (25%) treated infections...
October 9, 2017: Clinical Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28989973/cloning-assembly-and-modification-of-the-primary-human-cytomegalovirus-isolate-toledo-by-yeast-based-transformation-associated-recombination
#9
Sanjay Vashee, Timothy B Stockwell, Nina Alperovich, Evgeniya A Denisova, Daniel G Gibson, Kyle C Cady, Kristofer Miller, Krishna Kannan, Daniel Malouli, Lindsey B Crawford, Alexander A Voorhies, Eric Bruening, Patrizia Caposio, Klaus Früh
Genetic engineering of cytomegalovirus (CMV) currently relies on generating a bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) by introducing a bacterial origin of replication into the viral genome using in vivo recombination in virally infected tissue culture cells. However, this process is inefficient, results in adaptive mutations, and involves deletion of viral genes to avoid oversized genomes when inserting the BAC cassette. Moreover, BAC technology does not permit the simultaneous manipulation of multiple genome loci and cannot be used to construct synthetic genomes...
September 2017: MSphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28989586/how-do-donor-recipient-cmv-serostatus-and-post-hematopoietic-stem-cell-transplantation-cmv-reactivation-affect-outcomes-in-acute-leukemia-patients
#10
Mohammad Vaezi, Amir Kasaeian, Maryam Souri, Faeze Soufiyan, Amir Shokri Boosjin, Seyed Amin Setarehdan, Kamran Alimoghaddam, Ardeshir Ghavamzadeh
Background: This study evaluated CMV serostatus in donors and recipients of hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) and its effects on CMV reactivation of patients and all aspects of CMV on HSCT outcomes. Materialsand Methods: Seven hundred and five adult acute leukemia patients (AML=408 and AML=297) who had undergone HSCT were included in this retrospective study. We categorized donor-recipient pairs in three risk groups: positive donors (D+) were studied as high-risk group, including either R+ or R-(n=485), R-D- as low-risk group (n=32) and R+D- as intermediate group (n=15)...
July 1, 2017: International Journal of Hematology-oncology and Stem Cell Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28986190/incidence-and-risk-factors-for-nontuberculous-mycobacterial-infection-after-allogeneic-hematopoietic-cell-transplantation
#11
Jennifer Beswick, Elizabeth Shin, Fotios Michelis, Santhosh Thyagu, Auro Viswabandya, Jeffrey H Lipton, Hans Messner, Theodore K Marras, Dennis Kim
Allogenic hematopoietic stem cell transplant (HCT) recipients are at risk of many infections. Nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) are increasingly recognized as clinically significant pathogens in this population. We investigated the incidence and risk factors for NTM infection after allogeneic HCT. This retrospective cohort study included all patients with allogeneic HCT at our institution during 2001-2013. Patients who developed significant NTM infection (NTM disease) were identified. Multivariable modeling was used to identify risk factors for NTM disease, and a risk score model was constructed to identify high-risk patients...
October 3, 2017: Biology of Blood and Marrow Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28978246/prevention-and-treatment-of-fetal-cytomegalovirus-infection-with-cytomegalovirus-hyperimmune-globulin-a-multicenter-study-in-madrid
#12
Daniel Blázquez-Gamero, A Galindo Izquierdo, T Del Rosal, F Baquero-Artigao, N Izquierdo Méndez, M Soriano-Ramos, P Rojo Conejo, M I González-Tomé, A García-Burguillo, N Pérez Pérez, V Sánchez, J T Ramos-Amador, M De la Calle
INTRODUCTION: Cytomegalovirus (CMV) is the leading cause of congenital infection worldwide. Data about the management of CMV infection in pregnant women are scarce, and treatment options are very limited. The aim of the study is to investigate the effectiveness of cytomegalovirus hyperimmune globulin (CMV-HIG) for the prevention and treatment of congenital CMV (cCMV) infection. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A retrospective observational study was conducted in three tertiary hospitals in Madrid...
October 4, 2017: Journal of Maternal-fetal & Neonatal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28976995/knowledge-of-congenital-cytomegalovirus-ccmv-among-physical-and-occupational-therapists-in-the-united-states
#13
Kathleen M Muldoon, Amy Armstrong-Heimsoth, Jodi Thomas
Congenital cytomegalovirus (cCMV) infections cause more children to have permanent disabilities than Down Syndrome, Fetal Alcohol Syndrome, Spina Bifida, and pediatric HIV/AIDS combined. The risk of infection during pregnancy can be significantly decreased using universal precautions, such as thorough handwashing and cleansing of surfaces and objects that have come into contact with infected body fluids. Children under 3 years of age are commonly asymptomatic excretors of CMV, with the highest viral loads present in saliva...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28975107/risk-factors-for-cytomegalovirus-disease-in-seropositive-renal-transplant-recipients-a-single-center-case-controlled-study
#14
Viviana Navarro-Rodríguez, Alvaro Herrera-Munoz, Adrián Castro, Allan Ramos-Esquivel
BACKGROUND: Risk factors for cytomegalovirus (CMV) disease in renal transplant recipients have been evaluated in industrialized countries with relatively low CMV seroprevalence. OBJECTIVES: We aimed to determine which factors are related to this illness in a high CMV seroprevalence country. PATIENTS AND METHODS: A case-control study was performed with data from a 5-year follow-up of 260 kidney transplant recipients at our center. Odds ratios were calculated using the Mantel-Haenszel method...
July 2017: Journal of Nephropathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28962582/low-levels-of-antibodies-against-common-viruses-associate-with-anti-citrullinated-protein-antibody-positive-rheumatoid-arthritis-implications-for-disease-aetiology
#15
Natalia Sherina, Hulda S Hreggvidsdottir, Camilla Bengtsson, Monika Hansson, Lena Israelsson, Lars Alfredsson, Karin Lundberg
BACKGROUND: Infection by common viruses has long been discussed in the aetiology of a number of autoimmune diseases, including rheumatoid arthritis (RA). However, studies investigating this hypothesis in RA show conflicting results. These studies often lack well-matched control populations, and many do not include data on autoantibodies, genetic risk factors and other environmental factors, which are known to contribute to disease only in subgroups of patients. In the present study, we have therefore examined the role of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), cytomegalovirus (CMV) and parvovirus B19 (B19) in RA aetiology, by analysing anti-viral antibodies in relation to anti-citrullinated protein antibodies (ACPA), smoking, HLA-DRB1 shared epitope (SE) alleles, and clinical parameters, in both RA patients and matched controls...
September 30, 2017: Arthritis Research & Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28955345/protective-cytomegalovirus-cmv-specific-t-cell-immunity-is-frequent-in-kidney-transplant-patients-without-serum-anti-cmv-antibodies
#16
Nicolle H R Litjens, Ling Huang, Burç Dedeoglu, Ruud W J Meijers, Jaap Kwekkeboom, Michiel G H Betjes
The absence of anti-cytomegalovirus (CMV) immunoglobulin G (IgG) is used to classify pretransplant patients as naïve for CMV infection (CMV(neg) patients). This study assessed whether pretransplant CMV-specific T-cell immunity exists in CMV(neg) patients and whether it protects against CMV infection after kidney transplantation. The results show that CMV-specific CD137(+)IFNγ(+)CD4(+) and CD137(+)IFNγ(+)CD8(+) memory T cells were present in 46 and 39% of CMV(neg) patients (n = 28) although at much lower frequencies compared to CMV(pos) patients (median 0...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28949962/infectious-reactivation-of-cytomegalovirus-explaining-age-and-sex-specific-patterns-of-seroprevalence
#17
Michiel van Boven, Jan van de Kassteele, Marjolein J Korndewal, Christiaan H van Dorp, Mirjam Kretzschmar, Fiona van der Klis, Hester E de Melker, Ann C Vossen, Debbie van Baarle
Human cytomegalovirus (CMV) is a herpes virus with poorly understood transmission dynamics. Person-to-person transmission is thought to occur primarily through transfer of saliva or urine, but no quantitative estimates are available for the contribution of different infection routes. Using data from a large population-based serological study (n = 5,179), we provide quantitative estimates of key epidemiological parameters, including the transmissibility of primary infection, reactivation, and re-infection. Mixture models are fitted to age- and sex-specific antibody response data from the Netherlands, showing that the data can be described by a model with three distributions of antibody measurements, i...
September 2017: PLoS Computational Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28949262/monitoring-neonates-for-ototoxicity
#18
Angela C Garinis, Alison Kemph, Anne Marie Tharpe, Joern-Hendrik Weitkamp, Cynthia McEvoy, Peter S Steyger
OBJECTIVES: Neonates admitted to the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) are at greater risk of permanent hearing loss compared to infants in well mother and baby units. Several factors have been associated with this increased prevalence of hearing loss, including congenital infections (e.g. cytomegalovirus or syphilis), ototoxic drugs (such as aminoglycoside or glycopeptide antibiotics), low birth weight, hypoxia and length of stay. The aetiology of this increased prevalence of hearing loss remains poorly understood...
June 22, 2017: International Journal of Audiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28940831/low-dose-valganciclovir-prophylaxis-for-cytomegalovirus-in-intermediate-risk-r-renal-transplant-recipients-single-center-experience
#19
Salman Khan, Clara Fischman, Shirish Huprikar
Renal transplant recipients (RTR) who are seropositive for CMV (R+) are considered to be at intermediate-risk for CMV disease. Current guidelines recommend high-dose valganciclovir (VGCV) prophylaxis because of limited data on the efficacy of low-dose VGCV. We describe our experience with using low-dose VGCV in R+ RTR. We retrospectively reviewed a cohort of 316 R+ RTR at our institution between 2002 and 2006. The primary endpoint was CMV disease at 1 year post transplant. The incidence of CMV disease at 12 months after transplantation was only 3% (6/221) in the D+R+ and 4% (4/95) in the D-R+ RTR...
September 22, 2017: Transplant Infectious Disease: An Official Journal of the Transplantation Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28939451/hla-haploidentical-stem-cell-transplant-with-pre-transplant-immunosuppression-for-patients-with-sickle-cell-disease
#20
Anna B Pawlowska, Jerry C Cheng, Nicole A Karras, Weili Sun, Leo D Wang, Alison D Bell, Lisa Gutierrez, Joseph Rosenthal
Allogeneic stem cell transplantation (HCT) is curative in patients with severe sickle cell disease (SCD) but a significant number of patients lack a HLA-identical sibling or matched unrelated donor. Mismatched related (haploidentical) HCT with post-transplant cyclophosphamide (PTCY) allows expansion of the donor pool but is complicated by high rates of graft failure. In this report, we describe a favorable haploidentical HCT approach in a limited cohort of sickle cell patients with significant co-morbidities...
September 19, 2017: Biology of Blood and Marrow Transplantation
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