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"Katz, J"

P Tzeferacos, A Rigby, A F A Bott, A R Bell, R Bingham, A Casner, F Cattaneo, E M Churazov, J Emig, F Fiuza, C B Forest, J Foster, C Graziani, J Katz, M Koenig, C-K Li, J Meinecke, R Petrasso, H-S Park, B A Remington, J S Ross, D Ryu, D Ryutov, T G White, B Reville, F Miniati, A A Schekochihin, D Q Lamb, D H Froula, G Gregori
Magnetic fields are ubiquitous in the Universe. The energy density of these fields is typically comparable to the energy density of the fluid motions of the plasma in which they are embedded, making magnetic fields essential players in the dynamics of the luminous matter. The standard theoretical model for the origin of these strong magnetic fields is through the amplification of tiny seed fields via turbulent dynamo to the level consistent with current observations. However, experimental demonstration of the turbulent dynamo mechanism has remained elusive, since it requires plasma conditions that are extremely hard to re-create in terrestrial laboratories...
February 9, 2018: Nature Communications
Kate E Russell, J S Bresee, J M Katz, S J Olsen
BACKGROUND: Highly pathogenic avian influenza A (HPAI) viruses found in poultry and wild birds occasionally infect humans and can cause serious disease. In 2014, the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP) reviewed data from one licensed ASO3-adjuvanted influenza A(H5N1) vaccine for consideration of use during inter-pandemic periods among persons with occupational exposure. To guide vaccine policy decisions, we conducted a survey of laboratory workers to assess demand for HPAI vaccination...
November 30, 2017: Vaccine
A Summers, M O Visscher, S K Khatry, J B Sherchand, S C LeClerq, J Katz, J M Tielsch, L C Mullany
OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to determine the skin barrier changes during postnatal month 1 among infants receiving routine mustard oil massage in the humid conditions of rural Nepal. STUDY DESIGN: This was an observational study among 500 live-born neonates receiving mustard oil massage. Skin integrity such as erythema, rash, dryness, skin pH, stratum corneum protein concentration and transepidermal water loss was measured on days 1, 3, 7, 14 and 28...
November 9, 2017: Journal of Perinatology: Official Journal of the California Perinatal Association
Ziyang Lu, Martin H Klein Schaarsberg, Xiaojue Zhu, Leslie Y Yeo, Detlef Lohse, Xuehua Zhang
We report the self-organization of universal branching patterns of oil nanodroplets under the Ouzo effect [Vitale S, Katz J (2003) Langmuir 19:4105-4110]-a phenomenon in which spontaneous droplet formation occurs upon dilution of an organic solution of oil with water. The mixing of the organic and aqueous phases is confined under a quasi-2D geometry. In a manner analogous to the ramification of ground stream networks [Devauchelle O, Petroff AP, Seybold HF, Rothman DH (2012) Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 109: 20832-20836 and Cohen Y, et al...
September 26, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
S Depierreux, C Neuville, C Baccou, V Tassin, M Casanova, P-E Masson-Laborde, N Borisenko, A Orekhov, A Colaitis, A Debayle, G Duchateau, A Heron, S Huller, P Loiseau, P Nicolaï, D Pesme, C Riconda, G Tran, R Bahr, J Katz, C Stoeckl, W Seka, V Tikhonchuk, C Labaune
Experiments have been performed evidencing significant stimulated Raman sidescattering (SRS) at large angles from the density gradient. This was achieved in long scale-length high-temperature plasmas in which two beams couple to the same scattered electromagnetic wave further demonstrating for the first time this multiple-beam collective SRS interaction. The collective nature of the coupling and the amplification at large angles from the density gradient increase the global SRS losses and produce light scattered in novel directions out of the planes of incidence of the beams...
December 2, 2016: Physical Review Letters
P S Datte, J S Ross, D H Froula, K D Daub, J Galbraith, S Glenzer, B Hatch, J Katz, J Kilkenny, O Landen, D Manha, A M Manuel, W Molander, D Montgomery, J Moody, G F Swadling, J Weaver
The National Ignition Facility (NIF) is a 192 laser beam facility designed to support the Stockpile Stewardship, High Energy Density and Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) programs. We report on the design of an Optical Thomson Scattering (OTS) diagnostic that has the potential to transform the community's understanding of NIF hohlraum physics by providing first principle, local, time-resolved measurements of under-dense plasma conditions. The system design allows operation with different probe laser wavelengths by manual selection of the appropriate beam splitter and gratings before the shot...
November 2016: Review of Scientific Instruments
J S Ross, P Datte, L Divol, J Galbraith, D H Froula, S H Glenzer, B Hatch, J Katz, J Kilkenny, O Landen, A M Manuel, W Molander, D S Montgomery, J D Moody, G Swadling, J Weaver
An optical Thomson scattering diagnostic has been designed for the National Ignition Facility to characterize under-dense plasmas. We report on the design of the system and the expected performance for different target configurations. The diagnostic is designed to spatially and temporally resolve the Thomson scattered light from laser driven targets. The diagnostic will collect scattered light from a 50 × 50 × 200 μm volume. The optical design allows operation with different probe laser wavelengths. A deep-UV probe beam (λ0 = 210 nm) will be used to Thomson scatter from electron plasma densities of ∼5 × 10(20) cm(-3) while a 3ω probe will be used for plasma densities of ∼1 × 10(19) cm(-3)...
November 2016: Review of Scientific Instruments
H Sio, J A Frenje, J Katz, C Stoeckl, D Weiner, M Bedzyk, V Glebov, C Sorce, M Gatu Johnson, H G Rinderknecht, A B Zylstra, T C Sangster, S P Regan, T Kwan, A Le, A N Simakov, W T Taitano, L Chacòn, B Keenan, R Shah, G Sutcliffe, R D Petrasso
A Particle X-ray Temporal Diagnostic (PXTD) has been implemented on OMEGA for simultaneous time-resolved measurements of several nuclear products as well as the x-ray continuum produced in High Energy Density Plasmas and Inertial Confinement Fusion implosions. The PXTD removes systematic timing uncertainties typically introduced by using multiple instruments, and it has been used to measure DD, DT, D(3)He, and T(3)He reaction histories and the emission history of the x-ray core continuum with relative timing uncertainties within ±10-20 ps...
November 2016: Review of Scientific Instruments
R K Follett, J A Delettrez, D H Edgell, R J Henchen, J Katz, J F Myatt, D H Froula
Collective Thomson scattering is a technique for measuring the plasma conditions in laser-plasma experiments. Simultaneous measurements of ion-acoustic and electron plasma-wave spectra were obtained using a 263.25-nm Thomson-scattering probe beam. A fully reflective collection system was used to record light scattered from electron plasma waves at electron densities greater than 10(21) cm(-3), which produced scattering peaks near 200 nm. An accurate analysis of the experimental Thomson-scattering spectra required accounting for plasma gradients, instrument sensitivity, optical effects, and background radiation...
November 2016: Review of Scientific Instruments
J Katz, R Boni, R Rivlis, C Muir, D H Froula
A high-throughput, broadband optical spectrometer coupled to the Rochester optical streak system equipped with a Photonis P820 streak tube was designed to record time-resolved spectra with 1-ps time resolution. Spectral resolution of 0.8 nm is achieved over a wavelength coverage range of 480 to 580 nm, using a 300-groove/mm diffraction grating in conjunction with a pair of 225-mm-focal-length doublets operating at an f/2.9 aperture. Overall pulse-front tilt across the beam diameter generated by the diffraction grating is reduced by preferentially delaying discrete segments of the collimated input beam using a 34-element reflective echelon optic...
November 2016: Review of Scientific Instruments
S P Mehta, A Sankar, V Venkataramanan, L S Lohmander, J N Katz, G A Hawker, L Gossec, E M Roos, J-F Maillefert, M Kloppenburg, M Dougados, A M Davis
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the internal consistency and construct validity of the Physical Function short-forms for the Hip and Knee Injury Osteoarthritis Outcome Scores (HOOS-PS/KOOS-PS) and the Intermittent and Constant Osteoarthritis Pain (ICOAP) in a nine country study of patients consulting for total hip or knee replacement (THR or TKR). METHODS: Patients completed HOOS-PS or KOOS-PS, ICOAP and Western Ontario and McMaster Universities' Osteoarthritis Index (WOMAC) pain and physical function subscales at their consultation visit...
August 4, 2016: Osteoarthritis and Cartilage
Ccg Chen, D Barry, S K Khatry, E M Klasen, M Singh, S C LeClerq, J Katz, J M Tielsch, L C Mullany
OBJECTIVE: To validate a symptom-based fistula screening questionnaire and estimate obstetric fistula (OF) prevalence in rural Nepal. DESIGN: Cross-sectional and nested case-control study. SETTING: Sarlahi District, Nepal. POPULATION: Parous, reproductive age women. METHODS: The questionnaire assessed symptoms of vesicovaginal and rectovaginal fistula (VVF and RVF, respectively), stress and urge urinary incontinence (SUI and UUI, respectively), fecal incontinence (FI), and included interviewer observations on the smell and presence of urine and/or stool...
May 2017: BJOG: An International Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology
L Gedmintas, E A Wright, Y Dong, E Lehmann, J N Katz, D H Solomon, E Losina
This study aims to determine what factors are associated with increased risk of fracture among patients with HIV, in particular whether an important medication used to treat HIV, tenofovir, is associated with fracture. Our study found that while co-infection with hepatitis C and markers of HIV severity were associated with fracture, tenofovir was not. INTRODUCTION: Growing evidence suggests that tenofovir disoproxil fumarate decreases bone density among patients with HIV, but there are conflicting reports as to whether this decrease in bone density translates to higher fracture risk...
January 2017: Osteoporosis International
C Neuville, V Tassin, D Pesme, M-C Monteil, P-E Masson-Laborde, C Baccou, P Fremerye, F Philippe, P Seytor, D Teychenné, W Seka, J Katz, R Bahr, S Depierreux
The indirect-drive scheme to inertial confinement fusion uses a large number of laser beams arranged in a symmetric angular distribution. Collective laser plasma instabilities can therefore develop that couple all the incident laser waves located in a cone to the daughter wave growing along the cone symmetry axis [D. F. DuBois et al., Phys. Fluids B 4, 241 (1992)]. With complementary diagnostics of Thomson scattering and of the scattered light, we demonstrate the occurrence of collective stimulated Brillouin sidescattering driving collective acoustic waves in indirect-drive experiments...
June 10, 2016: Physical Review Letters
J Sylvan Katz
Innovation systems are sometimes referred to as complex systems, something that is intuitively understood but poorly defined. A complex system dynamically evolves in non-linear ways giving it unique properties that distinguish it from other systems. In particular, a common signature of complex systems is scale-invariant emergent properties. A scale-invariant property can be identified because it is solely described by a power law function, f(x) = kxα, where the exponent, α, is a measure of scale-invariance...
2016: PloS One
W R Donaldson, J Katz, R Huff, E M Hill, J H Kelly, J Kwiatkowski, R B Brannon, R Boni
A timing system is demonstrated for the OMEGA Laser System that guarantees all 60 beams will arrive on target simultaneously with a root mean square variability of 4 ps. The system relies on placing a scattering sphere at the target position to couple the ultraviolet light from each beam into a single photodetector.
May 2016: Review of Scientific Instruments
C Stoeckl, R Boni, F Ehrne, C J Forrest, V Yu Glebov, J Katz, D J Lonobile, J Magoon, S P Regan, M J Shoup, A Sorce, C Sorce, T C Sangster, D Weiner
A next-generation neutron temporal diagnostic (NTD) capable of recording high-quality data for the highest anticipated yield cryogenic deuterium-tritium (DT) implosion experiments was recently installed at the Omega Laser Facility. A high-quality measurement of the neutron production width is required to determine the hot-spot pressure achieved in inertial confinement fusion experiments-a key metric in assessing the quality of these implosions. The design of this NTD is based on a fast-rise-time plastic scintillator, which converts the neutron kinetic energy to 350- to 450-nm-wavelength light...
May 2016: Review of Scientific Instruments
R K Follett, J A Delettrez, D H Edgell, V N Goncharov, R J Henchen, J Katz, D T Michel, J F Myatt, J Shaw, A A Solodov, C Stoeckl, B Yaakobi, D H Froula
Multilayer direct-drive inertial-confinement-fusion targets are shown to significantly reduce two-plasmon decay (TPD) driven hot-electron production while maintaining high hydrodynamic efficiency. Implosion experiments on the OMEGA laser used targets with silicon layered between an inner beryllium and outer silicon-doped plastic ablator. A factor-of-5 reduction in hot-electron generation (>50  keV) was observed in the multilayer targets relative to pure CH targets. Three-dimensional simulations of the TPD-driven hot-electron production using a laser-plasma interaction code (lpse) that includes nonlinear and kinetic effects show good agreement with the measurements...
April 15, 2016: Physical Review Letters
J Katz, M-A d'Albis, J Boisgontier, C Poupon, J-F Mangin, P Guevara, D Duclap, N Hamdani, J Petit, D Monnet, P Le Corvoisier, M Leboyer, R Delorme, J Houenou
OBJECTIVE: High-functioning autism (HFA) and schizophrenia (SZ) are two of the main neurodevelopmental disorders, sharing several clinical dimensions and risk factors. Their exact relationship is poorly understood, and few studies have directly compared both disorders. Our aim was thus to directly compare neuroanatomy of HFA and SZ using a multimodal MRI design. METHODS: We scanned 79 male adult subjects with 3T MRI (23 with HFA, 24 with SZ and 32 healthy controls, with similar non-verbal IQ)...
July 2016: Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica
R R Edwards, A J Dolman, E Michna, J N Katz, S S Nedeljkovic, D Janfaza, Z Isaac, M O Martel, R N Jamison, A D Wasan
OBJECTIVE: Opioids are frequently prescribed for chronic low back pain (CLBP), but there are broad individual differences in the benefits and risks of opioid therapy, including the development opioid-induced hyperalgesia. This study examined quantitative sensory testing (QST) data among a group of CLBP patients undergoing sustained oral opioid treatment. We investigated whether individual differences in psychological characteristics were related to opioid-induced changes in pain perception and pain modulation...
October 2016: Pain Medicine: the Official Journal of the American Academy of Pain Medicine
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