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nephrolithiasis causes

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149910/sodium-chloride-pica-causing-recurrent-nephrolithiasis-in-a-patient-with-iron-deficiency-anemia-a-case-report
#1
Brittany Rogers, Joshua Kramer, Stephanie Smith, Vincent Bird, Eric I Rosenberg
BACKGROUND: Iron deficiency anemia is a common finding in women of child-bearing age. Pica, or the ingestion of non-food or non-nutritive items, is a well-known manifestation of iron deficiency. A high sodium diet increases risk for nephrolithiasis. We describe the case of a 31-year-old woman with recurrent calcium nephrolithiasis and anemia who ate ice chips as well as spoons of salt daily. Treatment of pica may prove effective in preventing recurrent nephrolithiasis. CASE PRESENTATION: A 31-year-old white woman with a past medical history of menorrhagia, anemia, and recurrent calcium nephrolithiasis presented for preoperative evaluation prior to ureterolithotomy...
November 18, 2017: Journal of Medical Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29117629/medical-and-dietary-interventions-for-preventing-recurrent-urinary-stones-in-children
#2
REVIEW
Adam Kern, Gwen Grimsby, Helen Mayo, Linda A Baker
BACKGROUND: Nephrolithiasis, or urinary stone disease, in children causes significant morbidity, and is increasing in prevalence in the North American population. Therefore, medical and dietary interventions (MDI) for recurrent urinary stones in children are poised to gain increasing importance in the clinical armamentarium. OBJECTIVES: To assess the effects of medical and dietary interventions (MDI) for the prevention of idiopathic urinary stones in children aged from one to 18 years...
November 9, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29104632/fucoidan-elevates-surface-organic-cation-transporter-2-expression-via-upregulation-of-protein-kinase-a-in-uric-acid-nephropathy
#3
Xinlin Wu, Miansheng Yan, Taoli Liu, Jiantang Liao, Jianqing Zhang, Shuqing Chen, Wei Deng, Shijun Zhang, Baoguo Sun, Houming Zhou, Bin Ke
Uric acid nephropathy (UAN) is caused by excessive uric acid, and is a key risk factor for uric acid nephrolithiasis, gouty arthritis, renal diseases and cardiovascular diseases. The present study aimed to evaluate the protective effect of fucoidan, a sulfated polysaccharide component of brown algae, on UAN and to elucidate the underlying molecular mechanism. A rat model of UAN was induced by adenine treatment, and rats were then randomly assigned to control, model or fucoidan treatment groups. Hematoxylin and eosin staining of the kidney tissues of rats with UAN was subjected to conventional morphological evaluation...
November 2017: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29098200/ureteral-obstruction-due-to-radiolucent-atazanavir-ureteral-stones
#4
Michael T Grant, Brian H Eisner, Seth K Bechis
Background: Protease inhibitors (PIs) are a well-documented cause of nephrolithiasis. Although medications such as indinavir are known to increase risk of stone formation, the association of newer HIV medications is not as well studied. In this study, we report a case of a patient who developed atazanavir stones. Case Presentation: A 74-year-old man with HIV on antiretroviral therapy-including atazanavir, a PI-presented with right flank pain. He previously had passed two ureteral stones that were not analyzed...
2017: Journal of Endourology Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29091707/transcriptional-study-of-hyperoxaluria-and-calcium-oxalate-nephrolithiasis-in-male-rats-inflammatory-changes-are-mainly-associated-with-crystal-deposition
#5
Sunil Joshi, Wei Wang, Saeed R Khan
Hyperoxaluria associated with renal deposition of calcium oxalate (CaOx) crystals causes renal injury and inflammation leading to number of diseases including chronic kidney disease (CKD). It is however, not been possible to separate the renal consequences of hyperoxaluria from that of CaOx crystal deposition. We decided to utilize ethylene glycol (EG) model where hyperoxaluria and CaOx crystal deposition can be separated in time. To test our hypothesis, male rats were made hyperoxaluric by administering EG, rats were euthanized and kidneys were extracted on day 14, when occasional crystal is seen in the kidneys and day 28, when all animals have developed renal CaOx crystal deposits...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29080636/genetic-diseases-of-vitamin-d-metabolizing-enzymes
#6
REVIEW
Glenville Jones, Marie Laure Kottler, Karl Peter Schlingmann
Vitamin D metabolism involves 3 highly specific cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzymes (25-hydroxylase, 1α-hydroxylase, and 24-hydroxylase) involved in the activation of vitamin D3 to the hormonal form, 1,25-(OH)2D3, and the inactivation of 1,25-(OH)2D3 to biliary excretory products. Mutations of the activating enzymes CYP2R1 and CYP27B1 cause lack of normal 1,25-(OH)2D3 synthesis and result in rickets whereas mutations of the inactivating enzyme CYP24A1 cause build-up of excess 1,25-(OH)2D3 and result in hypercalcemia, nephrolithiasis, and nephrocalcinosis...
December 2017: Endocrinology and Metabolism Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29073130/non-alcoholic-fatty-liver-disease-and-the-development-of-nephrolithiasis-a-cohort-study
#7
Seolhye Kim, Yoosoo Chang, Eunju Sung, Cheol Hwan Kim, Kyung Eun Yun, Hyun-Suk Jung, Hocheol Shin, Seungho Ryu
BACKGROUND: Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), a hepatic manifestation or precursor of metabolic syndrome, may increase nephrolithiasis, a renal manifestation of insulin resistance, but the prospective association between NAFLD and incident nephrolithiasis has not been evaluated. We examined the association of NAFLD with the development of nephrolithiasis in a large cohort of Korean men and women. METHODS: We performed a cohort study of 208,578 Korean adults who underwent a health checkup examination between January 2002 and December 2014 and were followed-up annually or biennially through December 2014...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29061541/personalized-intervention-in-monogenic-stone-formers
#8
REVIEW
Lucas J Policastro, Subodh J Saggi, David S Goldfarb, Jeffrey P Weiss
PURPOSE: The treatment of a first-time renal stone episode consists of acute management followed by medical efforts to prevent stone recurrence. Though nephrolithiasis is roughly 50% heritable, the presence of a family history usually does not affect treatment, as most stone disease is regarded as polygenic, i.e. not attributable to a single gene. Recently, new evidence has suggested that single mutations could be responsible for a larger proportion of renal stones than expected. This intriguing possibility holds the potential to change the management paradigm in stone prevention from metabolically-directed therapy to more specific approaches informed by genetic screening and testing...
October 20, 2017: Journal of Urology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29038192/two-gaps-too-many-three-clues-too-few-do-elevated-osmolal-and-anion-gaps-with-crystalluria-always-mean-ethylene-glycol-poisoning
#9
Maneesh Gaddam, Ravi Kanth Velagapudi, Emad Abu Sitta, Abed Kanzy
A 60-year-old African-American man with a medical history significant for heavy alcohol abuse, hypertension, delirium tremens, nephrolithiasis and seizure disorder was brought to the hospital with altered mental status. He was found to have high anion gap metabolic acidosis with significantly elevated lactate along with an elevated osmolal gap and calcium oxalate crystals in his urine. With this combination of findings, ethylene glycol poisoning was high in the differential. This case report describes why ethylene glycol poisoning was not the diagnosis in this patient despite the presence of these three classic laboratory findings, therefore emphasising the fact that these findings should not be taken at face value because they can be seen collectively in a patient yet each have a different cause...
October 15, 2017: BMJ Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28988020/management-of-mediastinal-parathyroid-adenoma-via-minimally-invasive-thoracoscopic-surgery-case-report
#10
Saulat Hasnain Fatimi, Hina Inam, Farida Karim Chagan, Usama Khalid Choudry
INTRODUCTION: The most common cause of chronic hypercalcemia is primary hyperparathyroidism (PHPT). However, owing to the diverse presentation of hypercalcemia, the diagnosis often goes unnoticed culminating as a continuum of recurrence of symptoms. Nephrolithiasis, decreased bone mineral density and peptic ulcer disease are the main clinical sequelae. Among the causes of PHPT 80% are caused by parathyroid adenomas (PA). However, only rarely, these adenomas are found ectopically. PRESENTATION OF CASE: We present the case of a 66-year-old female with a history of recurrent renal stones and peptic ulcer disease...
2017: International Journal of Surgery Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28975090/chronic-dietary-oxalate-nephropathy-after-intensive-dietary-weight-loss-regimen
#11
Gebran Khneizer, Ahmad Al-Taee, Meher S Mallick, Bahar Bastani
BACKGROUND: Hyperoxaluria has been associated with nephrolithiasis as well as acute and chronic kidney disease. We present a case of end stage renal failure caused by excessive dietary oxalate intake in a dietary weight loss regimen. CASE PRESENTATION: A 51-year-old Caucasian male with the past medical history of type 2 diabetes mellitus, gout, hypertension and morbid obesity was referred to the primary care clinic after being found pale and easily fatigued. The patient had lost 36 kg over a 7-month period by implementing exercise and intense dietary measures that included 6 meals of spinach, kale, berries, and nuts...
July 2017: Journal of Nephropathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28966756/preventive-kidney-stones-continue-medical-education
#12
REVIEW
Farahnak Assadi, Mastaneh Moghtaderi
Nephrolithiasis is a common health problem across the globe with a prevalence of 15%-20%. Idiopathic hypercalciuria is the most common cause of nephrolithiasis, and calcium oxalate stones are the most common type of stones in idiopathic hypercalciuric patients. Calcium phosphate stones are frequently associated with other diseases such as renal tubular acidosis type 1, urinary tract infections, and hyperparathyroidism. Compared with flat abdominal film and renal sonography, a noncontrast helical computed tomography scan of the abdomen is the diagnostic procedure of choice for detection of small and radiolucent kidney stones with sensitivity and specificity of nearly 100%...
2017: International Journal of Preventive Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28893421/whole-exome-sequencing-frequently-detects-a-monogenic-cause-in-early-onset-nephrolithiasis-and%C3%A2-nephrocalcinosis
#13
Ankana Daga, Amar J Majmundar, Daniela A Braun, Heon Yung Gee, Jennifer A Lawson, Shirlee Shril, Tilman Jobst-Schwan, Asaf Vivante, David Schapiro, Weizhen Tan, Jillian K Warejko, Eugen Widmeier, Caleb P Nelson, Hanan M Fathy, Zoran Gucev, Neveen A Soliman, Seema Hashmi, Jan Halbritter, Margarita Halty, Jameela A Kari, Sherif El-Desoky, Michael A Ferguson, Michael J G Somers, Avram Z Traum, Deborah R Stein, Ghaleb H Daouk, Nancy M Rodig, Avi Katz, Christian Hanna, Andrew L Schwaderer, John A Sayer, Ari J Wassner, Shrikant Mane, Richard P Lifton, Danko Milosevic, Velibor Tasic, Michelle A Baum, Friedhelm Hildebrandt
The incidence of nephrolithiasis continues to rise. Previously, we showed that a monogenic cause could be detected in 11.4% of individuals with adult-onset nephrolithiasis or nephrocalcinosis and in 16.7-20.8% of individuals with onset before 18 years of age, using gene panel sequencing of 30 genes known to cause nephrolithiasis/nephrocalcinosis. To overcome the limitations of panel sequencing, we utilized whole exome sequencing in 51 families, who presented before age 25 years with at least one renal stone or with a renal ultrasound finding of nephrocalcinosis to identify the underlying molecular genetic cause of disease...
September 8, 2017: Kidney International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28888218/impact-of-non-adherence-on-the-safety-and-efficacy-of-uric-acid-lowering-therapies-in-the-treatment-of-gout
#14
Daniel Hill-McManus, Elena Soto, Scott Marshall, Steven Lane, Dyfrig Hughes
AIMS: Dual-urate lowering therapy (ULT) with xanthine oxidase inhibitor and uricosuric medications is a treatment option for severe gout. Uricosurics can cause hyperuricosuria, a risk factor for nephrolithiasis and acute uric acid nephropathy. The aims of this study were to simulate the relation between suboptimal drug adherence and efficacy, and to quantify the risk of hyperuricosuria in gout patients receiving mono and dual-ULTs. METHODS: The impact of poor medication adherence was studied using 2-compartment PK models based on published evidence and a semi-mechanistic, 4-compartment pharmacodynamic (PD) model...
September 9, 2017: British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28883679/the-relationship-between-nephrolithiasis-risk-with-body-fat-measured-by-body-composition-analyzer-in-obese-people
#15
Zohreh Bartani, Behzad Heydarpour, Ahmad Alijani, Masoud Sadeghi
BACKGROUND: Nephrolithiasis (kidney stones) continues to be a major cause of morbidity and healthcare spending that visceral and subcutaneous adipose tissue may associate with kidney stone formation. This study aimed to investigate the relationship between nephrolithiasis with visceral fat scale in obese people in Western Iran for the first time. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In 2017, 103 participants with BMI≥30 kg/m(2) were selected for the present study. The participants were divided into two groups, 52 as case group (having the kidney stone) and 58 as healthy control group (no kidney stone or history of the kidney stone or any other disease)...
June 2017: Acta Informatica Medica: AIM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28851305/nephrolithiasis-and-osteomalacia-associated-with-adefovir-induced-fanconi-syndrome-in-a-patient-with-hepatitis-b
#16
Jueying Lin, Yufeng Zhuo, Dongdong Zhang
BACKGROUND: An increasing number of case reports suggest that acquired renal Fanconi syndrome may be associated with prolonged use of adefovir against hepatitis B virus. Renal Fanconi syndrome is an uncommon disease, and its complication with nephrolithiasis is quite rare. Herein, we report a rare coexistence of nephrolithiasis and acquired renal Fanconi syndrome in a chronic hepatitis B-positive patient with prolonged adefovir therapy. CASE PRESENTATION: The patient presented with osteomalacia and nephrolithiasis...
August 29, 2017: BMC Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28794288/kidney-disease-in-oman-a-view-of-the-current-and-future-landscapes
#17
Intisar Hamed Al Alawi, Issa Al Salmi, Adhra Al Mawali, John A Sayer
Oman is located in the southeast of Arabian Peninsula with a relatively young population of about 3 831 553 people. The Ministry of Health, which is the healthcare provider, is facing a challenge with the increased levels of noncommunicable diseases including chronic kidney disease. A growing number of patients progress to end-stage kidney disease (ESKD), demanding renal replacement therapy. In 2014, there were 1339 of ESKD patients receiving dialysis and almost 1400 patients received kidney transplants. The estimated annual incidence of ESKD is 120 patients per million population...
July 2017: Iranian Journal of Kidney Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28775126/furosemide-fludrocortisone-test-and-clinical-parameters-to-diagnose-incomplete-distal-renal-tubular-acidosis-in-kidney-stone-formers
#18
Nasser A Dhayat, Michael W Gradwell, Ganesh Pathare, Manuel Anderegg, Lisa Schneider, David Luethi, Cedric Mattmann, Orson W Moe, Bruno Vogt, Daniel G Fuster
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Incomplete distal renal tubular acidosis is a well known cause of calcareous nephrolithiasis but the prevalence is unknown, mostly due to lack of accepted diagnostic tests and criteria. The ammonium chloride test is considered as gold standard for the diagnosis of incomplete distal renal tubular acidosis, but the furosemide/fludrocortisone test was recently proposed as an alternative. Because of the lack of rigorous comparative studies, the validity of the furosemide/fludrocortisone test in stone formers remains unknown...
September 7, 2017: Clinical Journal of the American Society of Nephrology: CJASN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28762682/-use-of-citrate-in-patients-with-nephrolithiasis
#19
REVIEW
Martino Marangella
Citrate is a tricarboxylic acid and an intermediate metabolite of Krebs cycle. It contributes to oxidative metabolism of both kidney and liver. Alkaline sodium or potassium salts have the potential to increase alkaline reserve. In the kidney citrate is completely filtered at the glomerulus, undergoing to 10-40% tubular resorption. Renal insufficiency, even early, metabolic acidosis, potassium depletion induce hypocitraturia. Its importance in nephrolithiasis stems from its ability to form soluble complexes with calcium and to interfere with crystal formation, thus exerting a dual inhibition, thermodynamic and kinetic...
August 1, 2017: Giornale Italiano di Nefrologia: Organo Ufficiale Della Società Italiana di Nefrologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28737266/nephrolithiasis-a-complication-of-pediatric-diabetic-ketoacidosis
#20
Sungeeta Agrawal, Robin Kremsdorf, Serife Uysal, Meghan E Fredette, Lisa Swartz Topor
OBJECTIVE: To determine the frequency of nephrolithiasis as a complication of diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) in pediatrics. METHODS: We performed a retrospective chart review of patients with DKA admitted to a pediatric hospital between January 2009 and July 2016. We identified patients with nephrolithiasis during admission for DKA. RESULTS: We identified 395 episodes of DKA over 7.5 years. Nephrolithiasis developed as a complication of DKA in 3 of those admissions (0...
July 24, 2017: Pediatric Diabetes
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