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nephrolithiasis causes

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29465872/-acid-uric-key-player-in-a-recently-recognized-devastating-nephropathy-and-in-the-development-of-chronic-kidney-disease
#1
Antoine Humbert, Fabien Stucker
Uric acid has been known since long ago for its implication in gout and in certain kinds of nephrolithiasis. However, its role in models of acute and chronic nephropathies has been the focus of many new developments. The so called Mesoamerican nephropathy is a devastating disease that has caused more than 20'000 deaths in central America these last few years among sugarcane workers. Acid uric could play a key role in its physiopathology. Moreover, acid uric tends to be recognized as an independent factor of development and progression in chronic kidney disease, opening a way for new therapeutic targets...
February 21, 2018: Revue Médicale Suisse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29394966/factors-affecting-dermatological-manifestations-in-patients-with-end-stage-renal-disease
#2
Muhammad Anees, Ghazala Butt, Shaista Gull, Asif Nazeer, Ijaz Hussain, Muhammad Ibrahim
OBJECTIVE: To determine skin changes in patients of End Stage Renal Disease (ESRD) on maintenance hemodialysis (MHD) and factors affecting these changes. STUDY DESIGN: Cross-sectional observational study. PLACE AND DURATION OF STUDY: Nephrology Department, Mayo Hospital, Lahore in collaboration with Dermatology Department, King Edward Medical University, Lahore, from October 2015 to January 2016. METHODOLOGY: Two hundred patients who were undergoing MHD for more than three months were included in the study...
February 2018: Journal of the College of Physicians and Surgeons—Pakistan: JCPSP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29393127/uric-acid-renal-lithiasis-new-concepts
#3
Fabiola Pazos Pérez
BACKGROUND: Uric acid (UA) stones are responsible for 5-10% of the formation of all kidney stones. Recently, an association between UA stones and insulin resistance, diabetes mellitus, and obesity has been demonstrated and so the incidence has increased. The development of UA stones is dependent on several risk factors, including genetic predisposition, geographical location, dietary indiscretion, and various metabolic characteristics. SUMMARY: UA nephrolithiasis can arise from diverse etiologies, all with distinct underlying defects converging to one or more of 3 defects of hyperuricosuria, acidic urine pH, and low urinary volume...
2018: Contributions to Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29376607/-idiopathic-hypercalciuria-diagnosis-and-treatment
#4
Yu V Olefir, A N Yavorskii, D V Butnaru, O V Shatalova, V S Gorbatenko, A S Gerasimenko
Most patients with idiopathic hypercalciuria and calcium nephrolithiasis have a family history of the disease. Idiopathic hypercalciuria is a metabolic abnormality with various causes and developmental pathways. The systematic review describes specific mutations associated with idiopathic hypercalciuria and nephrolithiasis. Detection of these mutations may provide a better understanding of the pathogenesis of this heterogeneous disease and personalize patient management depending on the detected polymorphisms...
December 2017: Urologii︠a︡
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29354165/calcitriol-mediated-hypercalcemia-secondary-to-granulomatous-disease-caused-by-soft-tissue-filler-injection-a-case-report
#5
Jairo Arturo Noreña, César Daniel Niño, Sabrina Gallego, Carlos Alfonso Builes-Barrera, Diva Cristina Castro, Alejandro Román-González, Camilo Jimenez
Soft-tissue filler (STF) injections have been used worldwide for cosmetic reasons. In most cases, they are not approved by the United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA). Regulatory boards in Latin American countries do not allow the medical use of STF injections; however, these injections are still widely used. A case of calcitriol-mediated hypercalcemia with ectopic calcifications, chronic kidney disease, nephrolithiasis and calcinosis is presented. The reported case highlights the consequences of STF use, including calcitriol-mediated hypercalcemia secondary to granulomatous reactions years after an esthetic procedure...
September 2017: Clinical Cases in Mineral and Bone Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29350243/current-opinions-on-nephrolithiasis-associated-with-primary-hyperparathyroidism
#6
REVIEW
Xiaoming Cong, Luming Shen, Xiaojian Gu
Nephrolithiasis is a common urological disease and could be secondary to primary hyperparathyroidism (PHPT). PHPT is traditionally characterised with hypercalcaemia. Recently, a normocalcemic PHPT has been officially recognised at the International Workshops. Regarding this new phenotype, nephrolithiasis is frequently found in studies that evaluate low bone mass. However, until now, no study on aetiology of nephrolithiasis considered normocalcemic PHPT. Hypercalciuria related to PHPT is considered as an important risk factor of stone formation in hypercalcemic PHPT, but the precise relationships between hypercalcemic PHPT and nephrolithiasis and between normocalcemic PHPT and nephrolithiasis remain unclear...
January 19, 2018: Urolithiasis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29344504/new-findings-on-the-pathogenesis-of-distal-renal-tubular-acidosis
#7
REVIEW
Francesco Trepiccione, Federica Prosperi, Luigi Regenburgh de la Motte, Christian A Hübner, Regine Chambrey, Dominique Eladari, Giovambattista Capasso
Background: Distal renal tubular acidosis (dRTA) is characterized by an impairment of the urinary acidification process in the distal nephron. Complete or incomplete metabolic acidosis coupled with inappropriately alkaline urine are the hallmarks of this condition. Genetic forms of dRTA are caused by loss of function mutations of either SLC4A1 , encoding the AE1 anion exchanger, or ATP6V1B1 and ATP6V0A4 , encoding for the B1 and a4 subunits of the vH+ ATPase, respectively. These genes are crucial for the function of A-type intercalated cells (A-IC) of the distal nephron...
December 2017: Kidney Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149910/sodium-chloride-pica-causing-recurrent-nephrolithiasis-in-a-patient-with-iron-deficiency-anemia-a-case-report
#8
Brittany Rogers, Joshua Kramer, Stephanie Smith, Vincent Bird, Eric I Rosenberg
BACKGROUND: Iron deficiency anemia is a common finding in women of child-bearing age. Pica, or the ingestion of non-food or non-nutritive items, is a well-known manifestation of iron deficiency. A high sodium diet increases risk for nephrolithiasis. We describe the case of a 31-year-old woman with recurrent calcium nephrolithiasis and anemia who ate ice chips as well as spoons of salt daily. Treatment of pica may prove effective in preventing recurrent nephrolithiasis. CASE PRESENTATION: A 31-year-old white woman with a past medical history of menorrhagia, anemia, and recurrent calcium nephrolithiasis presented for preoperative evaluation prior to ureterolithotomy...
November 18, 2017: Journal of Medical Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29117629/medical-and-dietary-interventions-for-preventing-recurrent-urinary-stones-in-children
#9
REVIEW
Adam Kern, Gwen Grimsby, Helen Mayo, Linda A Baker
BACKGROUND: Nephrolithiasis, or urinary stone disease, in children causes significant morbidity, and is increasing in prevalence in the North American population. Therefore, medical and dietary interventions (MDI) for recurrent urinary stones in children are poised to gain increasing importance in the clinical armamentarium. OBJECTIVES: To assess the effects of medical and dietary interventions (MDI) for the prevention of idiopathic urinary stones in children aged from one to 18 years...
November 9, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29104632/fucoidan-elevates-surface-organic-cation-transporter-2-expression-via-upregulation-of-protein-kinase-a-in-uric-acid-nephropathy
#10
Xinlin Wu, Miansheng Yan, Taoli Liu, Jiantang Liao, Jianqing Zhang, Shuqing Chen, Wei Deng, Shijun Zhang, Baoguo Sun, Houming Zhou, Bin Ke
Uric acid nephropathy (UAN) is caused by excessive uric acid, and is a key risk factor for uric acid nephrolithiasis, gouty arthritis, renal diseases and cardiovascular diseases. The present study aimed to evaluate the protective effect of fucoidan, a sulfated polysaccharide component of brown algae, on UAN and to elucidate the underlying molecular mechanism. A rat model of UAN was induced by adenine treatment, and rats were then randomly assigned to control, model or fucoidan treatment groups. Hematoxylin and eosin staining of the kidney tissues of rats with UAN was subjected to conventional morphological evaluation...
November 2017: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29098200/ureteral-obstruction-due-to-radiolucent-atazanavir-ureteral-stones
#11
Michael T Grant, Brian H Eisner, Seth K Bechis
Background: Protease inhibitors (PIs) are a well-documented cause of nephrolithiasis. Although medications such as indinavir are known to increase risk of stone formation, the association of newer HIV medications is not as well studied. In this study, we report a case of a patient who developed atazanavir stones. Case Presentation: A 74-year-old man with HIV on antiretroviral therapy-including atazanavir, a PI-presented with right flank pain. He previously had passed two ureteral stones that were not analyzed...
2017: Journal of Endourology Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29091707/transcriptional-study-of-hyperoxaluria-and-calcium-oxalate-nephrolithiasis-in-male-rats-inflammatory-changes-are-mainly-associated-with-crystal-deposition
#12
Sunil Joshi, Wei Wang, Saeed R Khan
Hyperoxaluria associated with renal deposition of calcium oxalate (CaOx) crystals causes renal injury and inflammation leading to number of diseases including chronic kidney disease (CKD). It is however, not been possible to separate the renal consequences of hyperoxaluria from that of CaOx crystal deposition. We decided to utilize ethylene glycol (EG) model where hyperoxaluria and CaOx crystal deposition can be separated in time. To test our hypothesis, male rats were made hyperoxaluric by administering EG, rats were euthanized and kidneys were extracted on day 14, when occasional crystal is seen in the kidneys and day 28, when all animals have developed renal CaOx crystal deposits...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29080636/genetic-diseases-of-vitamin-d-metabolizing-enzymes
#13
REVIEW
Glenville Jones, Marie Laure Kottler, Karl Peter Schlingmann
Vitamin D metabolism involves 3 highly specific cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzymes (25-hydroxylase, 1α-hydroxylase, and 24-hydroxylase) involved in the activation of vitamin D3 to the hormonal form, 1,25-(OH)2D3, and the inactivation of 1,25-(OH)2D3 to biliary excretory products. Mutations of the activating enzymes CYP2R1 and CYP27B1 cause lack of normal 1,25-(OH)2D3 synthesis and result in rickets whereas mutations of the inactivating enzyme CYP24A1 cause build-up of excess 1,25-(OH)2D3 and result in hypercalcemia, nephrolithiasis, and nephrocalcinosis...
December 2017: Endocrinology and Metabolism Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29073130/non-alcoholic-fatty-liver-disease-and-the-development-of-nephrolithiasis-a-cohort-study
#14
Seolhye Kim, Yoosoo Chang, Eunju Sung, Cheol Hwan Kim, Kyung Eun Yun, Hyun-Suk Jung, Hocheol Shin, Seungho Ryu
BACKGROUND: Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), a hepatic manifestation or precursor of metabolic syndrome, may increase nephrolithiasis, a renal manifestation of insulin resistance, but the prospective association between NAFLD and incident nephrolithiasis has not been evaluated. We examined the association of NAFLD with the development of nephrolithiasis in a large cohort of Korean men and women. METHODS: We performed a cohort study of 208,578 Korean adults who underwent a health checkup examination between January 2002 and December 2014 and were followed-up annually or biennially through December 2014...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29061541/personalized-intervention-in-monogenic-stone-formers
#15
REVIEW
Lucas J Policastro, Subodh J Saggi, David S Goldfarb, Jeffrey P Weiss
PURPOSE: The treatment of a first-time renal stone episode consists of acute management followed by medical efforts to prevent stone recurrence. Though nephrolithiasis is roughly 50% heritable, the presence of a family history usually does not affect treatment, as most stone disease is regarded as polygenic, i.e. not attributable to a single gene. Recently, new evidence has suggested that single mutations could be responsible for a larger proportion of renal stones than expected. This intriguing possibility holds the potential to change the management paradigm in stone prevention from metabolically-directed therapy to more specific approaches informed by genetic screening and testing...
October 20, 2017: Journal of Urology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29038192/two-gaps-too-many-three-clues-too-few-do-elevated-osmolal-and-anion-gaps-with-crystalluria-always-mean-ethylene-glycol-poisoning
#16
Maneesh Gaddam, Ravi Kanth Velagapudi, Emad Abu Sitta, Abed Kanzy
A 60-year-old African-American man with a medical history significant for heavy alcohol abuse, hypertension, delirium tremens, nephrolithiasis and seizure disorder was brought to the hospital with altered mental status. He was found to have high anion gap metabolic acidosis with significantly elevated lactate along with an elevated osmolal gap and calcium oxalate crystals in his urine. With this combination of findings, ethylene glycol poisoning was high in the differential. This case report describes why ethylene glycol poisoning was not the diagnosis in this patient despite the presence of these three classic laboratory findings, therefore emphasising the fact that these findings should not be taken at face value because they can be seen collectively in a patient yet each have a different cause...
October 15, 2017: BMJ Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28988020/management-of-mediastinal-parathyroid-adenoma-via-minimally-invasive-thoracoscopic-surgery-case-report
#17
Saulat Hasnain Fatimi, Hina Inam, Farida Karim Chagan, Usama Khalid Choudry
INTRODUCTION: The most common cause of chronic hypercalcemia is primary hyperparathyroidism (PHPT). However, owing to the diverse presentation of hypercalcemia, the diagnosis often goes unnoticed culminating as a continuum of recurrence of symptoms. Nephrolithiasis, decreased bone mineral density and peptic ulcer disease are the main clinical sequelae. Among the causes of PHPT 80% are caused by parathyroid adenomas (PA). However, only rarely, these adenomas are found ectopically. PRESENTATION OF CASE: We present the case of a 66-year-old female with a history of recurrent renal stones and peptic ulcer disease...
2017: International Journal of Surgery Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28975090/chronic-dietary-oxalate-nephropathy-after-intensive-dietary-weight-loss-regimen
#18
Gebran Khneizer, Ahmad Al-Taee, Meher S Mallick, Bahar Bastani
BACKGROUND: Hyperoxaluria has been associated with nephrolithiasis as well as acute and chronic kidney disease. We present a case of end stage renal failure caused by excessive dietary oxalate intake in a dietary weight loss regimen. CASE PRESENTATION: A 51-year-old Caucasian male with the past medical history of type 2 diabetes mellitus, gout, hypertension and morbid obesity was referred to the primary care clinic after being found pale and easily fatigued. The patient had lost 36 kg over a 7-month period by implementing exercise and intense dietary measures that included 6 meals of spinach, kale, berries, and nuts...
July 2017: Journal of Nephropathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28966756/preventive-kidney-stones-continue-medical-education
#19
REVIEW
Farahnak Assadi, Mastaneh Moghtaderi
Nephrolithiasis is a common health problem across the globe with a prevalence of 15%-20%. Idiopathic hypercalciuria is the most common cause of nephrolithiasis, and calcium oxalate stones are the most common type of stones in idiopathic hypercalciuric patients. Calcium phosphate stones are frequently associated with other diseases such as renal tubular acidosis type 1, urinary tract infections, and hyperparathyroidism. Compared with flat abdominal film and renal sonography, a noncontrast helical computed tomography scan of the abdomen is the diagnostic procedure of choice for detection of small and radiolucent kidney stones with sensitivity and specificity of nearly 100%...
2017: International Journal of Preventive Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28893421/whole-exome-sequencing-frequently-detects-a-monogenic-cause-in-early-onset-nephrolithiasis-and%C3%A2-nephrocalcinosis
#20
Ankana Daga, Amar J Majmundar, Daniela A Braun, Heon Yung Gee, Jennifer A Lawson, Shirlee Shril, Tilman Jobst-Schwan, Asaf Vivante, David Schapiro, Weizhen Tan, Jillian K Warejko, Eugen Widmeier, Caleb P Nelson, Hanan M Fathy, Zoran Gucev, Neveen A Soliman, Seema Hashmi, Jan Halbritter, Margarita Halty, Jameela A Kari, Sherif El-Desoky, Michael A Ferguson, Michael J G Somers, Avram Z Traum, Deborah R Stein, Ghaleb H Daouk, Nancy M Rodig, Avi Katz, Christian Hanna, Andrew L Schwaderer, John A Sayer, Ari J Wassner, Shrikant Mane, Richard P Lifton, Danko Milosevic, Velibor Tasic, Michelle A Baum, Friedhelm Hildebrandt
The incidence of nephrolithiasis continues to rise. Previously, we showed that a monogenic cause could be detected in 11.4% of individuals with adult-onset nephrolithiasis or nephrocalcinosis and in 16.7-20.8% of individuals with onset before 18 years of age, using gene panel sequencing of 30 genes known to cause nephrolithiasis/nephrocalcinosis. To overcome the limitations of panel sequencing, we utilized whole exome sequencing in 51 families, who presented before age 25 years with at least one renal stone or with a renal ultrasound finding of nephrocalcinosis to identify the underlying molecular genetic cause of disease...
September 8, 2017: Kidney International
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