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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28914805/a-recombinant-hav-expressing-a-neutralization-epitope-of-hev-induces-immune-response-against-hav-and-hev-in-mice
#1
Kui Xiang, Yuri Kusov, Guan Ying, Wang Yan, Yi Shan, Wu Jinyuan, Yin Na, Zhou Yan, Li Hongjun, Sun Maosheng
Hepatitis A virus (HAV) and hepatitis E virus (HEV) are causative agents of acute viral hepatitis transmitted via the fecal-oral route. Both viruses place a heavy burden on the public health and economy of developing countries. To test the possibility that HAV could be used as an expression vector for the development of a combination vaccine against hepatitis A and E infections, recombinant HAV-HEp148 was created as a vector to express an HEV neutralization epitope (HEp148) located at aa 459-606 of the HEV capsid protein...
September 15, 2017: Viruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28910275/occupational-animal-exposure-among-persons-with-campylobacteriosis-and-cryptosporidiosis-nebraska-2005-2015
#2
Chia-Ping Su, Derry T Stover, Bryan F Buss, Anna V Carlson, Sara E Luckhaupt
Campylobacter and Cryptosporidium are two common causes of gastroenteritis in the United States. National incidence rates measured for these pathogens in 2015 were 17.7 and 3.0 per 100,000 population, respectively; Nebraska was among the states with the highest incidence for both campylobacteriosis (26.6) and cryptosporidiosis (≥6.01) (1). Although campylobacteriosis and cryptosporidiosis are primarily transmitted via consumption of contaminated food or water, they can also be acquired through contact with live animals or animal products, including through occupational exposure (2)...
September 15, 2017: MMWR. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28910267/surveillance-for-certain-health-behaviors-and-conditions-among-states-and-selected-local-areas-behavioral-risk-factor-surveillance-system-united-states-2013-and-2014
#3
Sonya Gamble, Tebitha Mawokomatanda, Fang Xu, Pranesh P Chowdhury, Carol Pierannunzi, David Flegel, William Garvin, Machell Town
PROBLEM: Chronic diseases and conditions (e.g., heart diseases, stroke, arthritis, and diabetes) are the leading causes of morbidity and mortality in the United States. These conditions are costly to the U.S. economy, yet they are often preventable or controllable. Behavioral risk factors (e.g., excessive alcohol consumption, tobacco use, poor diet, frequent mental distress, and insufficient sleep) are linked to the leading causes of morbidity and mortality. Adopting positive health behaviors (e...
September 15, 2017: MMWR. Surveillance Summaries: Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report. Surveillance Summaries
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28901276/immunocontraception-filamentous-bacteriophage-as-a-platform-for-vaccine-development
#4
Tatiana I Samoylova, Timothy D Braden, Jennifer A Spencer, Frank F Bartol
Population control of domestic, wild and invasive species of animals is a global issue of importance to public health, animal welfare and the economy. Although many methods for regulation of animal reproduction are available, the need for effective, safe, and inexpensive contraceptives remains. Immunocontraceptives (contraceptive vaccines) are designed to stimulate the immune system in order to block critical events in the reproductive process and suppress fertility. Platforms used for vaccine development play a critical role in vaccine efficacy, safety, and practicality...
September 11, 2017: Current Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28901254/therapeutics-and-immunoprophylaxis-against-noroviruses-and-rotaviruses
#5
Souvik Ghosh, Yashpal Singh Malik, Nobumichi Kobayashi
Noroviruses and rotaviruses are important viral etiologies of severe gastroenteritis. Noroviruses are the primary cause of non-bacterial diarrheal outbreaks in humans, whilst rotaviruses are a major cause of childhood diarrhea. Although both enteric pathogens substantially impact human health and economies, there are no approved drugs against noroviruses and rotaviruses, so far. On the other hand, whilst the currently licensed rotavirus vaccines have been successfully implemented in over 100 countries, the most advanced norovirus vaccine has recently completed phase-I and II trials...
September 12, 2017: Current Drug Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28900775/specialization-and-production-cost-efficiency-evidence-from-ambulatory-surgery-centers
#6
Kathleen Carey, Jean M Mitchell
In the U.S. health care sector, the economic logic of specialization as an organizing principle has come under active debate in recent years. An understudied case is that of ambulatory surgery centers (ASCs), which recently have become the dominant provider of specific surgical procedures. While the majority of ASCs focus on a single specialty, a growing number are diversifying to offer a wide range of surgical services. We take a multiple output cost function approach to an empirical investigation that compares production economies in single specialty ASCs with those in multispecialty ASCs...
September 12, 2017: International Journal of Health Economics and Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28900663/-costs-of-allergic-diseases-and-saving-potential-by-allergen-specific-immunotherapy-a-personal-assessment
#7
REVIEW
L Klimek, A M Chaker, R Mösges
BACKGROUND: The burden of allergic diseases is of particular relevance for the economy and the social welfare and health insurance framework. Allergic rhinitis (AR) has a life-time prevalence of approximately 30% and is one of the most common chronic diseases with considerable socioeconomic impact thus leading to substantial direct, indirect and intangible costs. This article explores the common hypothesis that allergen-specific immunotherapy (ASIT) saves national economic expenses in the long term in comparison to other standard symptomatic treatment or no therapy...
September 12, 2017: HNO
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28899707/collaborative-branding-of-partnered-health-systems-in-radiology
#8
Megan Kalambo, Jay R Parikh
In an effort to expand clinical reach and achieve economies of scale, academic radiology practices are strategically expanding into the community by establishing partnerships with existing community health systems. A challenge with this model is to effectively brand the collaboration in a way that underscores the strengths of both partners. In this article, the authors look at the benefits and risks of cobranding and review cobranding strategies for implementation by academic radiology practices considering partnership-based network expansion...
September 9, 2017: Journal of the American College of Radiology: JACR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28898811/modelling-the-correlations-of-e-waste-quantity-with-economic-increase
#9
Abhishek Kumar Awasthi, Federica Cucchiella, Idiano D'Adamo, Jinhui Li, Paolo Rosa, Sergio Terzi, Guoyin Wei, Xianlai Zeng
Waste from Electrical and Electronic Equipment (WEEE or e-waste) is regarded as one of the fastest growing waste streams in the world and is becoming an emerging issue owing to adverse consequences on the natural environment and the human health. This research article reveals the presence of a strong linear correlation among global e-waste generation and Gross Domestic Product. The obtained results indicate that the best fit for data can be reached by comparing e-waste collected volumes and GDP PPS. More in detail, an increase of 1000 GDP PPS means an additional 0...
September 9, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28892367/real-time-food-authentication-using-a-miniature-mass-spectrometer
#10
Stefanie Gerbig, Stephan Neese, Alexander Penner, Bernhard Spengler, Sabine Schulz
Food adulteration is a threat to public health and economy. In order to determine food adulteration efficiently, rapid and easy-to-use on-site analytical methods are needed. In this study, a miniaturized mass spectrometer in combination with three ambient ionization methods was used for food authentication. The chemical fingerprints of three milk types, five fish species and two coffee types were measured using electrospray ionization, desorption electrospray ionization and low temperature plasma ionization...
September 11, 2017: Analytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28889650/correlation-of-recommendations-of-treatment-guidelines-and-frequently-prescribed-antibiotics-evaluation-of-their-pharmaceutical-pack-size
#11
Shoma Mukherjee, Nilanjan Saha
There are various factors that contribute to development of antimicrobial resistance. Overuse, inappropriate prescribing and extensive agricultural use of antibiotics are some of the factors which have been identified. Antibiotics are almost always universally packaged by manufacturers in packs that are heavily driven by cost of economies and convenience rather than by any scientific basis or duration of therapy. So, in the present study, the correlation of the treatment guidelines with the choice of antibiotics and whether packing size contributes to left-over dosing units when used according to guideline recommendations were assessed...
September 10, 2017: Basic & Clinical Pharmacology & Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28886945/cost-of-a-measles-outbreak-in-a-remote-island-economy-2014-federated-states-of-micronesia-measles-outbreak
#12
Jamison Pike, Ashley Tippins, Mawuli Nyaku, Maribeth Eckert, Louisa Helgenberger, J Michael Underwood
After 20years with no reported measles cases, on May 15, 2014 the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) was notified of two cases testing positive for measles-specific immunoglobulin M (IgM) antibodies in the Federated States of Micronesia (FSM). Under the Compact of Free Association, FSM receives immunization funding and technical support from the United States (US) domestic vaccination program managed by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). In a collaborative effort, public health officials and volunteers from FSM and the US government worked to respond and contain the measles outbreak through an emergency mass vaccination campaign, contact tracing, and other outbreak investigation activities...
September 5, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28886502/nature-based-solutions-in-the-eu-innovating-with-nature-to-address-social-economic-and-environmental-challenges
#13
Nicolas Faivre, Marco Fritz, Tiago Freitas, Birgit de Boissezon, Sofie Vandewoestijne
Contemporary societies are facing a broad range of challenges, from pressures on human health and well-being to natural capital depletion, and the security of food, water and energy. These challenges are deeply intertwined with global processes, such as climate change and with local events such as natural disasters. The EU's research & innovation (R&I) policy is now seeking to address these challenges from a new perspective, with Nature-Based Solutions, and turn them into innovation opportunities that optimise the synergies between nature, society and the economy...
September 5, 2017: Environmental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28886176/material-wealth-in-3d-mapping-multiple-paths-to-prosperity-in-low-and-middle-income-countries
#14
Daniel J Hruschka, Craig Hadley, Joseph Hackman
Material wealth is a key factor shaping human development and well-being. Every year, hundreds of studies in social science and policy fields assess material wealth in low- and middle-income countries assuming that there is a single dimension by which households can move from poverty to prosperity. However, a one-dimensional model may miss important kinds of prosperity, particularly in countries where traditional subsistence-based livelihoods coexist with modern cash economies. Using multiple correspondence analysis to analyze representative household data from six countries-Nepal, Bangladesh, Ethiopia, Kenya, Tanzania and Guatemala-across three world regions, we identify a number of independent dimension of wealth, each with a clear link to locally relevant pathways to success in cash and agricultural economies...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28885976/quantitative-microbial-risk-assessment-for-spray-irrigation-of-dairy-manure-based-on-an-empirical-fate-and-transport-model
#15
Tucker R Burch, Susan K Spencer, Joel P Stokdyk, Burney A Kieke, Rebecca A Larson, Aaron D Firnstahl, Ana M Rule, Mark A Borchardt
BACKGROUND: Spray irrigation for land-applying livestock manure is increasing in the United States as farms become larger and economies of scale make manure irrigation affordable. Human health risks from exposure to zoonotic pathogens aerosolized during manure irrigation are not well understood. OBJECTIVES: We aimed to a) estimate human health risks due to aerosolized zoonotic pathogens downwind of spray-irrigated dairy manure; and b) determine which factors (e...
August 16, 2017: Environmental Health Perspectives
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28885126/utility-and-costs-of-radiologist-interpretation-of-perioperative-imaging-in-patients-with-traumatic-single-level-thoracolumbar-fractures
#16
Michael H Weber, Lojan Sivakumaran, Maryse Fortin, Alisson R Teles, Jeff D Golan, Carlo Santaguida, Peter Jarzem, Thierry Pauyo
OBJECTIVE The cost of spine management is rising. As diagnostic imaging accounts for approximately 10% of total patient care spending, there is interest in determining if economies could be made with regard to the routine consultation of radiology for image interpretation. In the context of spine trauma, both the spine surgeon and the radiologist interpret perioperative imaging. Authors of the present study investigated the impact of radiologist interpretation of perioperative imaging from patients with traumatic single-level thoracolumbar fractures given that spine surgeons are expected to be comfortable interpreting pathologies of the musculoskeletal system...
September 8, 2017: Journal of Neurosurgery. Spine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28879021/diamond-digital-alcohol-management-on-demand-a-mixed-methods-feasibility-rct-and-embedded-process-evaluation-of-a-digital-health-intervention-to-reduce-hazardous-and-harmful-alcohol-use
#17
Fiona L Hamilton, Jo Hornby, Jessica Sheringham, Stuart Linke, Charlotte Ashton, Kevin Moore, Fiona Stevenson, Elizabeth Murray
BACKGROUND: Alcohol is a major risk factor for preventable illness, with huge cost to healthcare economies. There is a role for alcohol-specific digital health interventions (DHI), but there have been few randomised controlled trials (RCT) comparing DHI with face-to-face treatment. Such trials are complex and face obstacles in recruitment and retention. METHODS: Mixed-methods feasibility RCT of an alcohol DHI, testing recruitment, online data-collection and randomisation processes, with an embedded process evaluation...
2017: Pilot and Feasibility Studies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28877942/changes-in-mortality-inequalities-across-occupations-in-japan-a-national-register-based-study-of-absolute-and-relative-measures-1980-2010
#18
Hirokazu Tanaka, Satoshi Toyokawa, Nanako Tamiya, Hideto Takahashi, Haruko Noguchi, Yasuki Kobayashi
OBJECTIVE: Changes in mortality inequalities across socioeconomic groups have been a substantial public health concern worldwide. We investigated changes in absolute/relative mortality inequalities across occupations, and the contribution of different diseases to inequalities in tandem with the restructuring of the Japanese economy. METHODS: Using complete Japanese national death registries from 5 year intervals (1980-2010), all cause and cause specific age standardised mortality rates (ASMR per 100 000 people standardised using the Japanese standard population in 1985, aged 30-59 years) across 12 occupations were computed...
September 5, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28876175/an-application-of-the-pareto-method-in-surveys-to-diagnose-the-managers-and-workers-perception-of-occupational-safety-and-health-on-selected-polish-construction-sites
#19
Jerzy Obolewicz, Andrzej Dąbrowski
The construction industry is an important sector of the economy in Poland. According to the National Labour Inspectorate (PIP) data of 2014, the number of victims of fatal accidents in the construction sector amounted to 80 as compared with 187 injured in all other sectors of economy in Poland. This paper presents the results of surveys on the impact of construction worker behaviour on the occupational safety and health outcomes. The surveys took into account the point of view of both construction site management (tactical level) and construction workers (operational level)...
September 6, 2017: International Journal of Occupational Safety and Ergonomics: JOSE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28874478/health-care-market-concentration-trends-in-the-united-states-evidence-and-policy-responses
#20
Brent D Fulton
Policy makers and analysts have been voicing concerns about the increasing concentration of health care providers and health insurers in markets nationwide, including the potential adverse effect on the cost and quality of health care. The Council of Economic Advisers recently expressed its concern about the lack of estimates of market concentration in many sectors of the US economy. To address this gap in health care, this study analyzed market concentration trends in the United States from 2010 to 2016 for hospitals, physician organizations, and health insurers...
September 1, 2017: Health Affairs
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