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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903730/network-patterns-associated-with-navigation-behaviors-are-altered-in-aged-nonhuman-primates
#1
James R Engle, Christopher J Machado, Michele R Permenter, Julie A Vogt, Andrew P Maurer, Alicia M Bulleri, Carol A Barnes
: The ability to navigate through space involves complex interactions between multiple brain systems. Although it is clear that spatial navigation is impaired during aging, the networks responsible for these altered behaviors are not well understood. Here, we used a within-subject design and [(18)F]FDG-microPET to capture whole-brain activation patterns in four distinct spatial behaviors from young and aged rhesus macaques: constrained space (CAGE), head-restrained passive locomotion (CHAIR), constrained locomotion in space (TREADMILL), and unconstrained locomotion (WALK)...
November 30, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27898590/reactivation-of-simian-immunodeficiency-virus-reservoirs-in-the-brain-of-virally-suppressed-macaques
#2
Lucio Gama, Celina M Abreu, Erin N Shirk, Sarah L Price, Ming Li, Greg M Laird, Kelly A Metcalf Pate, Stephen W Wietgrefe, Shelby L O'Connor, Luiz Pianowski, Ashley T Haase, Carine Van Lint, Robert F Siliciano, Janice E Clements
OBJECTIVE: Resting CD4 T cells have been recognized as the major cell reservoir of latent HIV-1 during antiretroviral therapy (ART). Using an simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV)/macaque model for AIDS and HIV-related neurocognitive disorders we assessed the contribution of the brain to viral latency and reactivation. DESIGN: Pigtailed macaques were dual inoculated with SIVDeltaB670 and SIV17E-Fr and treated with an efficacious central nervous system-penetrant ART...
January 2, 2017: AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27881778/attentive-motion-discrimination-recruits-an-area-in-inferotemporal-cortex
#3
Heiko Stemmann, Winrich A Freiwald
: Attentional selection requires the interplay of multiple brain areas. Theoretical accounts of selective attention predict different areas with different functional properties to support endogenous covert attention. To test these predictions, we devised a demanding attention task requiring motion discrimination and spatial selection and performed whole-brain imaging in macaque monkeys. Attention modulated the early visual cortex, motion-selective dorsal stream areas, the lateral intraparietal area, and the frontal eye fields...
November 23, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27881719/neuronal-pattern-separation-of-motion-relevant-input-in-lip-activity
#4
Nareg Berberian, Amanda MacPherson, Eloise Giraud, Lydia Richardson, Jean-Philippe Thivierge
In various regions of the brain, neurons discriminate sensory stimuli by decreasing the similarity between ambiguous input patterns. Here we examine whether this process of pattern separation may drive the rapid discrimination of visual motion stimuli in the lateral intraparietal area (LIP). Starting with a simple mean-rate population model that captures neuronal activity in LIP, we show that overlapping input patterns can be reformatted dynamically to give rise to separated patterns of neuronal activity. The population model predicts that a key ingredient of pattern separation is the presence of heterogeneity in the response of individual units...
November 23, 2016: Journal of Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27876652/isoflurane-exposure-leads-to-apoptosis-of-neurons-and-oligodendrocytes-in-20-and-40-day-old-rhesus-macaques
#5
Katie J Schenning, Kevin K Noguchi, Lauren Drew Martin, Francesca M Manzella, Omar H Cabrera, Gregory A Dissen, Ansgar M Brambrink
Previously we reported that a 5-hour exposure of 6-day-old (P6) rhesus macaques to isoflurane triggers robust neuron and oligodendrocyte apoptosis. In an attempt to further describe the window of vulnerability to anesthetic neurotoxicity, we exposed P20 and P40 rhesus macaques to 5h of isoflurane anesthesia or no exposure (control animals). Brains were collected 3h later and examined immunohistochemically to analyze neuronal and glial apoptosis. Brains exposed to isoflurane displayed neuron and oligodendrocyte apoptosis distributed throughout cortex and white matter, respectively...
November 19, 2016: Neurotoxicology and Teratology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27873219/immortalization-of-primary-microglia-a-new-platform-to-study-hiv-regulation-in-the-central-nervous-system
#6
Yoelvis Garcia-Mesa, Taylor R Jay, Mary Ann Checkley, Benjamin Luttge, Curtis Dobrowolski, Saba Valadkhan, Gary E Landreth, Jonathan Karn, David Alvarez-Carbonell
The major reservoirs for HIV in the CNS are in the microglia, perivascular macrophages, and to a lesser extent, astrocytes. To study the molecular events controlling HIV expression in the microglia, we developed a reliable and robust method to immortalize microglial cells from primary glia from fresh CNS tissues and commercially available frozen glial cells. Primary human cells, including cells obtained from adult brain tissue, were transformed with lentiviral vectors expressing SV40 T antigen or a combination of SVR40 T antigen and hTERT...
November 21, 2016: Journal of Neurovirology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27861638/propagated-but-topologically-distributed-forebrain-neurons-expressing-alpha-synuclein-in-aged-macaques
#7
Katsuo Kimura, Ken-Ichi Inoue, Yoshiyuki Kuroiwa, Fumiaki Tanaka, Masahiko Takada
In neurodegenerative disorders, such as Parkinson's disease (PD), alpha-synuclein (α-syn) accumulates to induce cell death and/or form a cytoplasmic inclusion called Lewy body (LB). This α-syn-related pathology is termed synucleinopathy. It remains unclear how α-syn accumulation expands during the progress of synucleinopathy in the human brain. In our study, we investigated the patterns of distribution and propagation of forebrain neurons expressing α-syn in aged macaques. It was found that the occurrence of α-syn-positive neurons proceeded topologically based on the midbrain dopamine pathways arising from the substantia nigra and the ventral tegmental area where they were primarily observed...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27852517/regulation-of-emotional-response-in-juvenile-monkeys-treated-with-fluoxetine-maoa-interactions
#8
M S Golub, C E Hogrefe, A M Bulleri
Juvenile male rhesus macaques received therapeutic doses of fluoxetine daily from one to three years of age and were compared to vehicle-treated controls (N=16/group). Genotyping for monoamine oxidase A (MAOA) polymorphisms was used to form subgroups (N=8) with high and low expression of the gene. Behavioral responses were scored during 30-second exposures to pictures differing in affective content. As expected from its therapeutic effect, fluoxetine decreased the behavioral response to emotionally evocative pictures...
December 2016: European Neuropsychopharmacology: the Journal of the European College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27847469/distinction-of-neurons-glia-and-endothelial-cells-in-the-cerebral-cortex-an-algorithm-based-on-cytological-features
#9
Miguel Á García-Cabezas, Yohan J John, Helen Barbas, Basilis Zikopoulos
The estimation of the number or density of neurons and types of glial cells and their relative proportions in different brain areas are at the core of rigorous quantitative neuroanatomical studies. Unfortunately, the lack of detailed, updated, systematic and well-illustrated descriptions of the cytology of neurons and glial cell types, especially in the primate brain, makes such studies especially demanding, often limiting their scope and broad use. Here, following an extensive analysis of histological materials and the review of current and classical literature, we compile a list of precise morphological criteria that can facilitate and standardize identification of cells in stained sections examined under the microscope...
2016: Frontiers in Neuroanatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27834864/chronic-binge-alcohol-administration-dysregulates-hippocampal-genes-involved-in-immunity-and-neurogenesis-in-simian-immunodeficiency-virus-infected-macaques
#10
John K Maxi, Matt Dean, Jovanny Zabaleta, Krzysztof Reiss, Gregory J Bagby, Steve Nelson, Peter J Winsauer, Francesca Peruzzi, Patricia E Molina
Alcohol use disorders (AUD) exacerbate neurocognitive dysfunction in Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV+) patients. We have shown that chronic binge alcohol (CBA) administration (13-14 g EtOH/kg/wk) prior to and during simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) infection in rhesus macaques unmasks learning deficits in operant learning and memory tasks. The underlying mechanisms of neurocognitive alterations due to alcohol and SIV are not known. This exploratory study examined the CBA-induced differential expression of hippocampal genes in SIV-infected (CBA/SIV+; n = 2) macaques in contrast to those of sucrose administered, SIV-infected (SUC/SIV+; n = 2) macaques...
November 9, 2016: Biomolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27827366/evolutionary-origins-of-non-adjacent-sequence-processing-in-primate-brain-potentials
#11
Alice E Milne, Jutta L Mueller, Claudia Männel, Adam Attaheri, Angela D Friederici, Christopher I Petkov
There is considerable interest in understanding the ontogeny and phylogeny of the human language system, yet, neurobiological work at the interface of both fields is absent. Syntactic processes in language build on sensory processing and sequencing capabilities on the side of the receiver. While we better understand language-related ontogenetic changes in the human brain, it remains a mystery how neurobiological processes at specific human development stages compare with those in phylogenetically closely related species...
November 9, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27807174/consistency-of-border-ownership-cells-across-artificial-stimuli-natural-stimuli-and-stimuli-with-ambiguous-contours
#12
Janis K Hesse, Doris Y Tsao
: Segmentation and recognition of objects in a visual scene are two problems that are hard to solve separately from each other. When segmenting an ambiguous scene, it is helpful to already know the present objects and their shapes. However, for recognizing an object in clutter, one would like to consider its isolated segment alone to avoid confounds from features of other objects. Border-ownership cells (Zhou et al., 2000) appear to play an important role in segmentation, as they signal the side-of-figure of artificial stimuli...
November 2, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27807165/rule-encoding-in-orbitofrontal-cortex-and-striatum-guides-selection
#13
Brianna J Sleezer, Meghan D Castagno, Benjamin Y Hayden
: Active maintenance of rules, like other executive functions, is often thought to be the domain of a discrete executive system. An alternative view is that rule maintenance is a broadly distributed function relying on widespread cortical and subcortical circuits. Tentative evidence supporting this view comes from research showing some rule selectivity in the orbitofrontal cortex and dorsal striatum. We recorded in these regions and in the ventral striatum, which has not been associated previously with rule representation, as macaques performed a Wisconsin Card Sorting Task...
November 2, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27805764/cdna-microarray-assays-to-evaluate-immune-responses-following-intracranial-injection-of-baculoviral-vectors-in-nonhuman-primates
#14
Ghayathri Balasundaram, Timothy Weixin Kwang, Shu Wang
Recombinant insect baculoviral vectors efficiently transduce several types of cells in the brain and can possibly be used for gene therapy for brain disorders. However, together with contaminating insect cell proteins, they trigger immune responses that might damage host brain cells. To substantially reduce unwanted immune responses due to the insect cell impurities, we purified and concentrated baculoviral vectors by combining an ion-exchange membrane chromatography method with high-speed centrifugation and demonstrated reduced immune responses of the vector preparations in the mouse brain...
November 2, 2016: Journal of Neurochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27802344/independent-mobility-achieved-through-a-wireless-brain-machine-interface
#15
Camilo Libedinsky, Rosa So, Zhiming Xu, Toe K Kyar, Duncun Ho, Clement Lim, Louiza Chan, Yuanwei Chua, Lei Yao, Jia Hao Cheong, Jung Hyup Lee, Kulkarni Vinayak Vishal, Yongxin Guo, Zhi Ning Chen, Lay K Lim, Peng Li, Lei Liu, Xiaodan Zou, Kai K Ang, Yuan Gao, Wai Hoe Ng, Boon Siew Han, Keefe Chng, Cuntai Guan, Minkyu Je, Shih-Cheng Yen
Individuals with tetraplegia lack independent mobility, making them highly dependent on others to move from one place to another. Here, we describe how two macaques were able to use a wireless integrated system to control a robotic platform, over which they were sitting, to achieve independent mobility using the neuronal activity in their motor cortices. The activity of populations of single neurons was recorded using multiple electrode arrays implanted in the arm region of primary motor cortex, and decoded to achieve brain control of the platform...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27796591/commonly-preserved-and-species-specific-gyral-folding-patterns-across-primate-brains
#16
Xiao Li, Hanbo Chen, Tuo Zhang, Xiang Yu, Xi Jiang, Kaiming Li, Longchuan Li, Mir Jalil Razavi, Xianqiao Wang, Xintao Hu, Junwei Han, Lei Guo, Xiaoping Hu, Tianming Liu
Cortical folding pattern analysis is very important to understand brain organization and development. Since previous studies mostly focus on human brain cortex, the regularity and variability of cortical folding patterns across primate brains (macaques, chimpanzees and human) remain largely unknown. This paper presents a novel computational framework to identify common or unique gyral folding patterns in macaque, chimpanzee and human brains using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) data. We quantitatively characterize gyral folding patterns via hinge numbers with cortical surfaces constructed from MRI data, and identify 6 common three-hinge gyral folds that exhibit consistent anatomical locations across these three species as well as 2 unique three hinges in macaque, 6 ones in chimpanzee and 14 ones in human...
October 31, 2016: Brain Structure & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27794455/the-chitinases-expression-is-related-to-simian-immunodeficiency-virus-encephalitis-sive-and-in-hiv-encephalitis-hive
#17
C Sanfilippo, G Nunnari, A Calcagno, L Malaguarnera, K Blennow, H Zetterberg, M Di Rosa
OBJECTIVES: Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) infection can induce neurocognitive complications classified as HIV-associated neurocognitive disorder (HAND). The chitinase family is associated with innate immunity cells and many infectious diseases. METHODS: We analyzed microarray datasets obtained from NCBI in order to verify the expression of chitinase family genes in hippocampus of uninfected rhesus macaques versus those with histopathologic evidence of Simian Immunodeficiency Virus Encephalitis (SIVE)...
January 2, 2017: Virus Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27778378/morphology-of-visual-sector-thalamic-reticular-neurons-in-the-macaque-monkey-suggests-retinotopically-specialized-parallel-stream-mixed-input-to-the-lateral-geniculate-nucleus
#18
Elise M Bragg, Elizabeth A Fairless, Shiyuan Liu, Farran Briggs
The thalamic reticular nucleus (TRN) is a unique brain structure at the interface between the thalamus and the cortex. Because the TRN receives bottom-up sensory input and top-down cortical input, it could serve as an integration hub for sensory and cognitive signals. Functional evidence supports broad roles for the TRN in arousal, attention, and sensory selection. How specific circuits connecting the TRN with sensory thalamic structures implement these functions is not known. The structural organization and function of the TRN is particularly interesting in the context of highly organized sensory systems, such as the primate visual system, where neurons in the retina and dorsal lateral geniculate nucleus of the thalamus (dLGN) are morphologically and physiologically distinct and also specialized for processing particular features of the visual environment...
October 25, 2016: Journal of Comparative Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27775722/gravity-orientation-tuning-in-macaque-anterior-thalamus
#19
Jean Laurens, Byounghoon Kim, J David Dickman, Dora E Angelaki
Gravity may provide a ubiquitous allocentric reference to the brain's spatial orientation circuits. Here we describe neurons in the macaque anterior thalamus tuned to pitch and roll orientation relative to gravity, independently of visual landmarks. We show that individual cells exhibit two-dimensional tuning curves, with peak firing rates at a preferred vertical orientation. These results identify a thalamic pathway for gravity cues to influence perception, action and spatial cognition.
October 24, 2016: Nature Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27740941/preclinical-evaluation-of-a-low-frequency-transcranial-mri-guided-focused-ultrasound-system-in-a-primate-model
#20
Nathan McDannold, Margaret Livingstone, Can Barış Top, Jonathan Sutton, Nick Todd, Natalia Vykhodtseva
This study investigated thermal ablation and skull-induced heating with a 230 kHz transcranial MRI-guided focused ultrasound (TcMRgFUS) system in nonhuman primates. We evaluated real-time acoustic feedback and aimed to understand whether cavitation contributed to the heating and the lesion formation. In four macaques, we sonicated thalamic targets at acoustic powers of 34-560 W (896-7590 J). Tissue effects evaluated with MRI and histology were compared to MRI-based temperature and thermal dose measurements, acoustic emissions recorded during the experiments, and acoustic and thermal simulations...
November 7, 2016: Physics in Medicine and Biology
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