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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432137/dissociation-of-choice-formation-and-choice-correlated-activity-in-macaque-visual-cortex
#1
Robbe L T Goris, Corey M Ziemba, Gabriel M Stine, Eero P Simoncelli, J Anthony Movshon
Responses of individual task-relevant sensory neurons can predict monkeys' trial-by-trial choices in perceptual decision-making tasks. Choice-correlated activity has been interpreted as evidence that the responses of these neurons are causally linked to perceptual judgements. To further test this hypothesis, we studied responses of orientation-selective neurons in V1 and V2 while two macaque monkeys performed a fine orientation discrimination task. Although both animals exhibited a high level of neuronal and behavioral sensitivity, only one exhibited choice-correlated activity...
April 21, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432136/selective-modulation-of-the-pupil-light-reflex-by-prefrontal-cortex-microstimulation
#2
R Becket Ebitz, Tirin Moore
The prefrontal cortex (PFC) is thought to flexibly regulate sensorimotor responses. One way the PFC regulates sensorimotor transformations is to modulate activity in other circuits. However, the scope of that control remains unknown: it remains unclear whether the prefrontal cortex can modulate basic reflexes. One canonical example of a central reflex is the pupil light reflex (PLR): the automatic constriction of the pupil in response to luminance increments. Unlike pupil size, which depends the interaction of multiple physiological and neuromodulatory influences, the PLR reflects the action of a simple brainstem circuit...
April 21, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431754/effect-of-short-term-dhea-supplementation-on-serum-and-hippocampal-estrogen-concentrations-in-perimenopausal-female-rhesus-macaques
#3
Henryk F Urbanski, Krystina G Sorwell, Laszlo Prokai, Steven G Kohama
The hippocampus of rhesus macaques expresses genes that encode key enzymes involved in the intracrine conversion of dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) to estradiol. Therefore, it is plausible that supplementary DHEA may enhance hippocampal estradiol concentrations and help to compensate for the marked postmenopausal attenuation of circulating estrogen levels. To test this hypothesis, we used LC-MS/MS to measure estradiol and estrone concentrations in the serum and hippocampus of young and old perimenopausal female rhesus macaques, as well as old perimenopausal females that received daily DHEA (5 mg) oral supplementation for 1 week...
March 31, 2017: Neurobiology of Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28425500/structure-shapes-dynamics-and-directionality-in-diverse-brain-networks-mathematical-principles-and-empirical-confirmation-in-three-species
#4
Joon-Young Moon, Junhyeok Kim, Tae-Wook Ko, Minkyung Kim, Yasser Iturria-Medina, Jee-Hyun Choi, Joseph Lee, George A Mashour, UnCheol Lee
Identifying how spatially distributed information becomes integrated in the brain is essential to understanding higher cognitive functions. Previous computational and empirical studies suggest a significant influence of brain network structure on brain network function. However, there have been few analytical approaches to explain the role of network structure in shaping regional activities and directionality patterns. In this study, analytical methods are applied to a coupled oscillator model implemented in inhomogeneous networks...
April 20, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28422948/beyond-the-uterine-environment-nonhuman-primate-model-to-investigate-maternal-fetal-and-neonatal-outcomes-following-chronic-intrauterine-infection
#5
Meredith A Kelleher, Zheng Liu, Xiaojie Wang, Christopher D Kroenke, Lisa A Houser, Brandy L Dozier, Lauren D Martin, Ken B Waites, Cindy McEvoy, Robert L Schelonka, Peta L Grigsby
BACKGROUND: Intrauterine infection is a significant cause of early preterm birth. We have developed a fetal-neonatal model in the rhesus macaque to determine the impact of chronic intrauterine infection with Ureaplasma parvum on early neonatal reflexes and brain development. METHODS: Time-mated, pregnant rhesus macaques were randomized to be inoculated with U. parvum (serovar 1; 10(5)cfu) or control media at ~120 dGA. Neonates were delivered by elective hysterotomy at 135-147 dGA (term=167d) stabilized and cared for in our nonhuman primate neonatal intensive care unit...
April 19, 2017: Pediatric Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28416597/posterior-inferotemporal-cortex-cells-use-multiple-input-pathways-for-shape-encoding
#6
Carlos R Ponce, Stephen G Lomber, Margaret S Livingstone
In the macaque monkey brain, posterior inferior temporal cortex (PIT) cells contribute to visual object recognition. They receive concurrent inputs from visual areas V4, V3 and V2. We asked how these different anatomical pathways shape PIT response properties by deactivating them while monitoring PIT activity in two male macaques. We found that cooling of V4 or V2|3 did not lead to consistent changes in population excitatory drive, however, population pattern analyses showed that V4-based pathways were more important than V2|3-based pathways...
April 17, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28414332/comprehensive-transcriptome-analysis-of-neocortical-layers-in-humans-chimpanzees-and-macaques
#7
Zhisong He, Dingding Han, Olga Efimova, Patricia Guijarro, Qianhui Yu, Anna Oleksiak, Shasha Jiang, Konstantin Anokhin, Boris Velichkovsky, Stefan Grünewald, Philipp Khaitovich
While human cognitive abilities are clearly unique, underlying changes in brain organization and function remain unresolved. Here we characterized the transcriptome of the cortical layers and adjacent white matter in the prefrontal cortexes of humans, chimpanzees and rhesus macaques using unsupervised sectioning followed by RNA sequencing. More than 20% of detected genes were expressed predominantly in one layer, yielding 2,320 human layer markers. While the bulk of the layer markers were conserved among species, 376 switched their expression to another layer in humans...
April 17, 2017: Nature Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28405011/plasticity-within-excitatory-and-inhibitory-pathways-of-the-vestibulo-spinal-circuitry-guides-changes-in-motor-performance
#8
Diana E Mitchell, Charles C Della Santina, Kathleen E Cullen
Investigations of behaviors with well-characterized circuitry are required to understand how the brain learns new motor skills and ensures existing behaviors remain appropriately calibrated over time. Accordingly, here we recorded from neurons within different sites of the vestibulo-spinal circuitry of behaving macaque monkeys during temporally precise activation of vestibular afferents. Behaviorally relevant patterns of vestibular nerve activation generated a rapid and substantial decrease in the monosynaptic responses recorded at the first central stage of processing from neurons receiving direct input from vestibular afferents within minutes, as well as a decrease in the compensatory reflex response that lasted up to 8 hours...
April 12, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28398880/cerebrovascular-remodeling-and-neuroinflammation-is-a-late-effect-of-radiation-induced-brain-injury-in-non-human-primates
#9
Rachel N Andrews, Linda J Metheny-Barlow, Ann M Peiffer, David B Hanbury, Janet A Tooze, J Daniel Bourland, Robert E Hampson, Samuel A Deadwyler, J Mark Cline
Fractionated whole-brain irradiation (fWBI) is a mainstay of treatment for patients with intracranial neoplasia; however late-delayed radiation-induced normal tissue injury remains a major adverse consequence of treatment, with deleterious effects on quality of life for affected patients. We hypothesize that cerebrovascular injury and remodeling after fWBI results in ischemic injury to dependent white matter, which contributes to the observed cognitive dysfunction. To evaluate molecular effectors of radiation-induced brain injury (RIBI), real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) was performed on the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC, Brodmann area 46), hippocampus and temporal white matter of 4 male Rhesus macaques (age 6-10 years), which had received 40 Gray (Gy) fWBI (8 fractions of 5 Gy each, twice per week), and 3 control comparators...
March 6, 2017: Radiation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28394273/hippocampal-neuronal-loss-in-infant-macaques-orally-infected-with-virulent-simian-immunodeficiency-virus-siv
#10
Heather Carryl, Koen K A Van Rompay, Kristina De Paris, Mark W Burke
The neurological impact of Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) on children includes loss of brain growth, motor abnormalities and cognitive dysfunction. Despite early antiretroviral treatment (ART) intervention to suppress viral load, neurological consequences of perinatal HIV-1 infection persist. Utilizing the pediatric simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) infection model, we tested the hypothesis that early-life SIV infection depletes neuronal population in the hippocampus. A total of 22 ART-naïve infant rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta) from previous studies were retrospectively analyzed...
April 10, 2017: Brain Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28391443/non-human-primate-models-of-pd-to-test-novel-therapies
#11
REVIEW
Marc Morissette, Thérèse Di Paolo
Non-human primate (NHP) models of Parkinson disease show many similarities with the human disease. They are very useful to test novel pharmacotherapies as reviewed here. The various NHP models of this disease are described with their characteristics including the macaque, the marmoset, and the squirrel monkey models. Lesion-induced and genetic models are described. There is no drug to slow, delay, stop, or cure Parkinson disease; available treatments are symptomatic. The dopamine precursor, L-3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine (L-Dopa) still remains the gold standard symptomatic treatment of Parkinson...
April 8, 2017: Journal of Neural Transmission
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28385157/comparative-analysis-of-a-to-i-editing-in-human-and-non-human-primate-brains-reveals-conserved-patterns-and-context-dependent-regulation-of-rna-editing
#12
Richard T O'Neil, Xiaojing Wang, Michael V Morabito, Ronald B Emeson
A-to-I RNA editing is an important process for generating molecular diversity in the brain through modification of transcripts encoding several proteins important for neuronal signaling. We investigated the relationships between the extent of editing at multiple substrate transcripts (5HT2C, MGLUR4, CADPS, GLUR2, GLUR4, and GABRA3) in brain tissue obtained from adult humans and rhesus macaques. Several patterns emerged from these studies revealing conservation of editing across primate species. Additionally, variability in the human population allows us to make novel inferences about the co-regulation of editing at different editing sites and even across different brain regions...
April 6, 2017: Molecular Brain
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28383709/neural-reorganization-due-to-neonatal-amygdala-lesions-in-the-rhesus-monkey-changes-in-morphology-and-network-structure
#13
D S Grayson, E Bliss-Moreau, J Bennett, P Lavenex, D G Amaral
It is generally believed that neural damage that occurs early in development is associated with greater adaptive capacity relative to similar damage in an older individual. However, few studies have surveyed whole brain changes following early focal damage. In this report, we employed multimodal magnetic resonance imaging analyses of adult rhesus macaque monkeys who had previously undergone bilateral, neurotoxic lesions of the amygdala at about 2 weeks of age. A deformation-based morphometric approach demonstrated reduction of the volumes of the anterior temporal lobe, anterior commissure, basal ganglia, and pulvinar in animals with early amygdala lesions compared to controls...
April 5, 2017: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28378315/preclinical-development-of-a-prophylactic-neuroprotective-therapy-for-the-preventive-treatment-of-anticipated-ischemia-reperfusion-injury
#14
Frances Rena Bahjat, G Alexander West, Steven G Kohama, Christine Glynn, Henryk F Urbanski, Theodore R Hobbs, Eric Earl, Susan L Stevens, Mary P Stenzel-Poore
Ischemia-reperfusion brain injury can be iatrogenically induced secondary to life-saving procedures. Prophylactic treatment of these patients offers a promising prevention for lifelong complications. We postulate that a cytosine-guanine (CpG) oligodeoxynucleotide (ODN) can provide robust antecedent protection against cerebral ischemic injury with minimal release of pro-inflammatory cytokines, making it an ideal candidate for further clinical development. Mouse and nonhuman primate (NHP) models of cerebral ischemic injury were used to test whether an A-type CpG ODN, which induces minimal systemic inflammatory cytokine responses, can provide prophylactic protection...
April 5, 2017: Translational Stroke Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28369930/hepatocellular-carcinoma-with-intracranial-metastasis-in-a-japanese-macaque-macaca-fuscata
#15
Takako Miyabe-Nishiwaki, Akihiro Hirata, Akihisa Kaneko, Akiyo Ishigami, Yoko Miyamoto, Atsushi Yamanaka, Keishi Owaki, Hiroki Sakai, Tokuma Yanai, Juri Suzuki
BACKGROUND: A 23-year-old male Japanese macaque (Macaca fuscata) showed left ptosis, which progressed to exophthalmos. METHODS: The macaque underwent a clinical examination, CT and MRI, and was euthanized. Necropsy and histopathological examination were performed after euthanasia. RESULTS: The CT revealed and MRI confirmed an intracranial mass at the skull base with orbital extension. At necropsy, there were a large hepatic mass and an intracranial mass compressing the left temporal lobe of the brain...
April 3, 2017: Journal of Medical Primatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28369850/an-mri-study-of-the-corpus-callosum-in-monkeys-developmental-trajectories-and-effects-of-neonatal-hippocampal-and-amygdala-lesions
#16
Christa Payne, Laetitia Cirilli, Jocelyne Bachevalier
This study provides the first characterization of early developmental trajectories of corpus callosum (CC) segments in rhesus macaques using noninvasive MRI techniques and assesses long-term effects of neonatal amygdala or hippocampal lesions on CC morphometry. In Experiment 1, 10 monkeys (5 males) were scanned at 1 week-2 years of age; eight additional infants (4 males) were scanned once at 1-4 weeks of age. The first 8 months showed marked growth across all segments, with sustained, albeit slower, growth through 24 months...
May 2017: Developmental Psychobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28360844/recurrent-network-dynamics-a-link-between-form-and-motion
#17
Jeroen Joukes, Yunguo Yu, Jonathan D Victor, Bart Krekelberg
To discriminate visual features such as corners and contours, the brain must be sensitive to spatial correlations between multiple points in an image. Consistent with this, macaque V2 neurons respond selectively to patterns with well-defined multipoint correlations. Here, we show that a standard feedforward model (a cascade of linear-non-linear filters) does not capture this multipoint selectivity. As an alternative, we developed an artificial neural network model with two hierarchical stages of processing and locally recurrent connectivity...
2017: Frontiers in Systems Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28355625/predicting-rhesus-monkey-eye-movements-during-natural-image-search
#18
Mark A Segraves, Emory Kuo, Sara Caddigan, Emily A Berthiaume, Konrad P Kording
There are three prominent factors that can predict human visual-search behavior in natural scenes: the distinctiveness of a location (salience), similarity to the target (relevance), and features of the environment that predict where the object might be (context). We do not currently know how well these factors are able to predict macaque visual search, which matters because it is arguably the most popular model for asking how the brain controls eye movements. Here we trained monkeys to perform the pedestrian search task previously used for human subjects...
March 1, 2017: Journal of Vision
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28347838/studies-using-macaque-monkeys-to-address-excessive-alcohol-drinking-and-stress-interactions
#19
REVIEW
Vanessa A Jimenez, Kathleen A Grant
The use of non-human primates (NHPs) in studies of volitional, oral self-administration of alcohol can help address the complex interplay between stress and excessive alcohol consumption. There are aspects to brain, endocrine and behavior of NHPs, particularly macaques, that provide a critical translational link towards understanding the risks and consequences of alcohol use disorders (AUDs) in humans. These include wide individual differences in escalating daily alcohol intake, accurate measures of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis hormonal interactions, neuroanatomical specificity of synaptic adaptations to chronic alcohol, genetic similarities to humans, and the ability to conduct in vivo brain imaging...
March 24, 2017: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28331006/monkey-prefrontal-neurons-during-sternberg-task-performance-full-contents-of-working-memory-or-most-recent-item
#20
Roma O Konecky, Matthew A Smith, Carl R Olson
To explore the brain mechanisms underlying multi-item working memory, we monitored the activity of neurons in dorsolateral prefrontal cortex while macaque monkeys performed spatial and chromatic versions of a Sternberg working-memory task. Each trial required holding three sequentially presented samples in working memory so as to identify a subsequent probe matching one of them. The monkeys were able to recall all three samples at levels well above chance, exhibiting modest load and recency effects. Prefrontal neurons signaled the identity of each sample during the delay period immediately following its presentation...
March 22, 2017: Journal of Neurophysiology
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