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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28102825/versatile-modular-three-dimensional-microelectrode-arrays-for-neuronal-ensemble-recordings-from-design-to-fabrication-assembly-and-functional-validation-in-non-human-primates
#1
Falk Barz, Alessandro Livi, Marco Lanzilotto, Monica Maranesi, Luca Bonini, Oliver Paul, Patrick Ruther
<i>Objective. </i>Application-specific designs of electrode arrays offer an improved effectiveness for providing access to targeted brain regions in neuroscientific research and brain machine interfaces. The simultaneous and stable recording of neuronal ensembles is the main goal in the design of advanced neural interfaces. Here, we describe the development and assembly of highly customizable three-dimensional microelectrode arrays and demonstrate their recording performance in chronic applications in non-human primates...
January 19, 2017: Journal of Neural Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28100751/decision-related-activity-in-macaque-v2-for-fine-disparity-discrimination-is-not-compatible-with-optimal-linear-readout
#2
Stephane Clery, Bruce G Cumming, Hendrikje Nienborg
: Fine judgments of stereoscopic depth rely mainly on relative judgments of depth (relative binocular disparity) between objects, rather than judgments of the distance to where the eyes are fixating (absolute disparity). In macaques, visual area V2 is the earliest site in the visual processing hierarchy for which neurons selective for relative disparity have been observed (Thomas et al., 2002). Here, we found that, in macaques trained to perform a fine disparity discrimination task, disparity-selective neurons in V2 were highly selective for the task, and their activity correlated with the animals' perceptual decisions (unexplained by the stimulus)...
January 18, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28093272/a-method-for-obtaining-simian-immunodeficiency-virus-rna-sequences-from-laser-capture-microdissected-and-immune-captured-cd68-and-cd163-macrophages-from-frozen-tissue-sections-of-bone-marrow-and-brain
#3
Jaclyn Mallard, Emily Papazian, Caroline Soulas, David J Nolan, Marco Salemi, Kenneth C Williams
Laser capture microdissection (LCM) is used to extract cells or tissue regions for analysis of RNA, DNA or protein. Several methods of LCM are established for different applications, but a protocol for consistently obtaining lentiviral RNA from LCM captured immune cell populations is not described. Obtaining optimal viral RNA for analysis of viral genes from immune-captured cells using immunohistochemistry (IHC) and LCM is challenging. IHC protocols have long antibody incubation times that increase risk of RNA degradation...
January 13, 2017: Journal of Immunological Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087767/trial-by-trial-motor-cortical-correlates-of-a-rapidly-adapting-visuomotor-internal-model
#4
Sergey D Stavisky, Jonathan C Kao, Stephen I Ryu, Krishna V Shenoy
: Accurate motor control is mediated by internal models of how neural activity generates movement. We examined neural correlates of an adapting internal model of visuomotor gain in motor cortex while two macaques performed a reaching task in which the gain scaling between the hand and a presented cursor was varied. Previous studies of cortical changes during visuomotor adaptation focused on preparatory and peri-movement epochs and analyzed trial-averaged neural data. Here, we recorded simultaneous neural population activity using multielectrode arrays and focused our analysis on neural differences in the period before the target appeared...
January 13, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077664/in-monkeys-making-value-based-decisions-amygdala-neurons-are-sensitive-to-cue-value-as-distinct-from-cue-salience
#5
Marvin Lionel Leathers, Carl R Olson
Neurons in area LIP of macaque monkey parietal cortex respond to cues predicting rewards and penalties of variable size in a manner that depends on the motivational salience of the predicted outcome (strong for both large reward and large penalty) rather than on its value (positive for large reward and negative for large penalty). This finding suggests that LIP mediates the capture of attention by salient events and does not encode value in the service of value-based decision making. It leaves open the question whether neurons elsewhere in the brain encode value in the identical task...
January 11, 2017: Journal of Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28075370/effect-of-carotenoid-supplemented-formula-on-carotenoid-bioaccumulation-in-tissues-of-infant-rhesus-macaques-a-pilot-study-focused-on-lutein
#6
Sookyoung Jeon, Martha Neuringer, Emily E Johnson, Matthew J Kuchan, Suzette L Pereira, Elizabeth J Johnson, John W Erdman
Lutein is the predominant carotenoid in the developing primate brain and retina, and may have important functional roles. However, its bioaccumulation pattern during early development is not understood. In this pilot study, we investigated whether carotenoid supplementation of infant formula enhanced lutein tissue deposition in infant rhesus macaques. Monkeys were initially breastfed; from 1 to 3 months of age they were fed either a formula supplemented with lutein, zeaxanthin, β-carotene and lycopene, or a control formula with low levels of these carotenoids, for 4 months (n = 2/group)...
January 10, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28072756/rapid-testing-for-creutzfeldt-jakob-disease-in-donors-of-cornea
#7
Luisa Gregori, Arthur Serer, Kristy L McDowell, Juraj Cervenak, David M Asher
BACKGROUND: Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD) has been accidentally transmitted by contaminated corneal transplants. Eye donors are not ordinarily tested for CJD, in part because an easy test is not available. We propose a relatively simple postmortem procedure to collect brain samples without performing full autopsy and show that a test currently marketed for veterinary diagnosis would offer an effective screening test. METHODS: We selected 6 brains from confirmed cases of human sporadic CJD and sampled each in triplicate (18 specimens), 28 control brains of individuals with non-CJD neurodegenerative diseases and 10 normal brains...
January 9, 2017: Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28069920/folding-but-not-surface-area-expansion-is-associated-with-cellular-morphological-maturation-in-the-fetal-cerebral-cortex
#8
Xiaojie Wang, Colin Studholme, Peta L Grigsby, Antonio E Frias, Verginia C Cuzon Carlson, Christopher D Kroenke
: Altered macroscopic anatomical characteristics of the cerebral cortex have been identified in individuals affected by various neurodevelopmental disorders. However, the cellular developmental mechanisms that give rise to these abnormalities are not understood. Recently, advances in image reconstruction of diffusion magnetic resonance imaging (diffusion MRI) have made possible high resolution in utero measurements of water diffusion anisotropy in the fetal brain. Here, diffusion anisotropy within the developing fetal cerebral cortex is longitudinally characterized in the rhesus macaque, focusing on gestation days (G) 85 through G135 of the 165 day term...
January 9, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28063055/isolation-of-microglia-and-immune-infiltrates-from-mouse-and-primate-central-nervous-system
#9
Thais F Galatro, Ilia D Vainchtein, Nieske Brouwer, Erik W G M Boddeke, Bart J L Eggen
Microglia are the innate immune cells of the central nervous system (CNS) and play an important role in the maintenance of tissue homeostasis, providing neural support and neuroprotection. Microglia constantly survey their environment and quickly respond to homeostatic perturbations. Microglia are increasingly implicated in neuropathological and neurodegenerative conditions, such as Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, and glioma progression. Here, we describe a detailed isolation protocol for microglia and immune infiltrates, optimized for large amounts of post mortem tissue from human and rhesus macaque, as well as smaller tissue amounts from mouse brain and spinal cord, that yield a highly purified microglia population (up to 98 % purity)...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28058269/figure-ground-organization-in-visual-cortex-for-natural-scenes
#10
Jonathan R Williford, Rüdiger von der Heydt
Figure-ground organization and border-ownership assignment are essential for understanding natural scenes. It has been shown that many neurons in the macaque visual cortex signal border-ownership in displays of simple geometric shapes such as squares, but how well these neurons resolve border-ownership in natural scenes is not known. We studied area V2 neurons in behaving macaques with static images of complex natural scenes. We found that about half of the neurons were border-ownership selective for contours in natural scenes, and this selectivity originated from the image context...
November 2016: ENeuro
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28057722/causal-evidence-of-motion-signals-in-macaque-middle-temporal-area-weighted-pooled-for-global-heading-perception
#11
Xuefei Yu, Han Hou, Lothar Spillmann, Yong Gu
Accurate heading perception relies on visual information integrated across a wide field, that is, optic flow. Numerous computational studies have speculated how local visual information might be pooled by the brain to compute heading, but these hypotheses lack direct neurophysiological support. In the current study, we instructed human and monkey subjects to judge heading directions based on global optic flow. We showed that a local perturbation cue applied within only a small part of the visual field could bias the subjects' heading judgments, and shift the neuronal tuning in the macaque middle temporal (MT) area at the same time...
January 4, 2017: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28054725/mapping-complementary-features-of-cross-species-structural-connectivity-to-construct-realistic-virtual-brains
#12
Gleb Bezgin, Ana Solodkin, Rembrandt Bakker, Petra Ritter, Anthony R McIntosh
Modern systems neuroscience increasingly leans on large-scale multi-lab neuroinformatics initiatives to provide necessary capacity for biologically realistic modeling of primate whole-brain activity. Here, we present a framework to assemble primate brain's biologically plausible anatomical backbone for such modeling initiatives. In this framework, structural connectivity is determined by adding complementary information from invasive macaque axonal tract tracing and non-invasive human diffusion tensor imaging...
January 5, 2017: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28041615/functional-anatomy-of-the-macaque-temporo-parieto-frontal-connectivity
#13
REVIEW
Elena Borra, Giuseppe Luppino
The primate parietal lobe is primarily dedicated to the processing of sensory information for the guidance of motor behavior, based on the integration of sensory with motor signals (sensorimotor transformations), mediated by specific, strong, and reciprocal connections with the motor cortex. Sensorimotor transformations have been regarded as an automatic process carried out independently from the temporal cortex, which is considered the location where sensory information is used for perceptual processes. However, both human and non-human primate studies have shown interactions between these two regions in different aspects of sensorimotor and cognitive processes...
December 18, 2016: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28039780/an-empirical-model-of-activity-in-macaque-inferior-temporal-cortex
#14
Salman Khan, Bryan Tripp
There are compelling computational models of many properties of the primate ventral visual stream, but a gap remains between the models and the physiology. To facilitate ongoing refinement of these models, we have compiled diverse information from the electrophysiology literature into a statistical model of inferotemporal (IT) cortex responses. This is a purely descriptive model, so it has little explanatory power. However it is able to directly incorporate a rich and extensible set of tuning properties. So far, we have approximated tuning curves and statistics of tuning diversity for occlusion, clutter, size, orientation, position, and object selectivity in early versus late response phases...
December 13, 2016: Neural Networks: the Official Journal of the International Neural Network Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28030956/effects-of-long-duration-administration-of-1-isoflurane-on-resting-cerebral-blood-flow-and-default-mode-network-in-macaque-monkeys
#15
Chunxia Li, Xiaodong Zhang
Isoflurane is an inhalational anesthetic widely used in medical procedures or biomedical researches. The duration of anesthesia administration varies from minutes to hours. It is known isoflurane has dose-dependent effects on brain functionality and physiology and long-duration anesthesia administration could cause neurocognitive decline in animals and humans. However, the duration effect of isoflurane on the brain physiology and functionality still remains poorly understood. In the present study, cerebral blood flow (CBF) and functional connectivity of adult rhesus monkeys (maintained with 1% isoflurane for four hours) was examined using MRI...
December 28, 2016: Brain Connectivity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28025974/social-status-in-monkeys-effects-of-social-confrontation-on-brain-function-and-cocaine-self-administration
#16
R W Gould, P W Czoty, L J Porrino, M A Nader
Understanding individual differences in response to social stress and environmental enrichment on brain function and drug abuse may help explain the variability in response to behavioral and pharmacological treatments for drug addiction. In monkeys, social status influences the reinforcing effects of cocaine and the effects of some drugs on cocaine self-administration. In this study, we used male cynomolgus macaques (n=15) living in established social groups to examine the effects of social confrontation on the reinforcing effects of cocaine using a food-drug choice procedure...
December 27, 2016: Neuropsychopharmacology: Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28003408/intrinsic-functional-architecture-of-the-macaque-dorsal-and-ventral-lateral-frontal-cortex
#17
Alexandros Goulas, Peter Stiers, R Matthew Hutchison, Stefan Everling, Michael Petrides, Daniel S Margulies
Investigations of the cellular and connectional organization of the lateral frontal cortex (LFC) of the macaque monkey provide indispensable knowledge for generating hypotheses about the human LFC. However, despite numerous investigations, there are still debates on the organization of this brain region. In vivo neuroimaging techniques such as resting-state fMRI can be used to define the functional circuitry of brain areas producing results largely consistent with gold-standard invasive tract-tracing techniques and offering the opportunity for cross-species comparison within the same modality...
December 21, 2016: Journal of Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27989909/altered-regional-homogeneity-of-brain-spontaneous-signals-in-siv-infected-rhesus-macaque-model
#18
Jing Zhao, Bin Jing, Feng Chen, Jiaojiao Liu, Yuanyuan Wang, Hongjun Li
BACKGROUND: Regional homogeneity (ReHo), a measurement from resting-state functional magnetic imaging (rs-fMRI) to reflect local synchronization of brain activities, has been widely explored in previous studies of neurological diseases. SIV infected model for detecting the neurological changes with progression was studied. METHODS: In the study, six rhesus macaques infected by simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) were scanned by resting-state fMRI at the following time points: before SIV inoculation (baseline), 12weeks and 24weeks post inoculation (12wpi, 24wpi)...
October 27, 2016: Magnetic Resonance Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27965566/on-shapley-ratings-in-brain-networks
#19
Marieke Musegaas, Bas J Dietzenbacher, Peter E M Borm
We consider the problem of computing the influence of a neuronal structure in a brain network. Abraham et al. (2006) computed this influence by using the Shapley value of a coalitional game corresponding to a directed network as a rating. Kötter et al. (2007) applied this rating to large-scale brain networks, in particular to the macaque visual cortex and the macaque prefrontal cortex. Our aim is to improve upon the above technique by measuring the importance of subgroups of neuronal structures in a different way...
2016: Frontiers in Neuroinformatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27957536/monkey-vocal-tracts-are-speech-ready
#20
W Tecumseh Fitch, Bart de Boer, Neil Mathur, Asif A Ghazanfar
For four decades, the inability of nonhuman primates to produce human speech sounds has been claimed to stem from limitations in their vocal tract anatomy, a conclusion based on plaster casts made from the vocal tract of a monkey cadaver. We used x-ray videos to quantify vocal tract dynamics in living macaques during vocalization, facial displays, and feeding. We demonstrate that the macaque vocal tract could easily produce an adequate range of speech sounds to support spoken language, showing that previous techniques based on postmortem samples drastically underestimated primate vocal capabilities...
December 2016: Science Advances
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