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Macaque brain

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28331006/monkey-prefrontal-neurons-during-sternberg-task-performance-full-contents-of-working-memory-or-most-recent-item
#1
Roma O Konecky, Matthew A Smith, Carl R Olson
To explore the brain mechanisms underlying multi-item working memory, we monitored the activity of neurons in dorsolateral prefrontal cortex while macaque monkeys performed spatial and chromatic versions of a Sternberg working-memory task. Each trial required holding three sequentially presented samples in working memory so as to identify a subsequent probe matching one of them. The monkeys were able to recall all three samples at levels well above chance, exhibiting modest load and recency effects. Prefrontal neurons signaled the identity of each sample during the delay period immediately following its presentation...
March 22, 2017: Journal of Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28330415/novel-detection-of-placental-insufficiency-by-magnetic-resonance-imaging-in-the-nonhuman-primate
#2
Jamie O Lo, Victoria H J Roberts, Matthias C Schabel, Xiaojie Wang, Terry K Morgan, Zheng Liu, Colin Studholme, Christopher D Kroenke, Antonio E Frias
The placenta is a vital organ necessary for healthy fetal development. Placental insufficiency creates an in utero environment where the fetus is at risk of insufficient oxygen or nutrient exchange. This is primarily caused by impairment of either maternal or fetal circulation or vascular thrombosis such as placental infarction. As a result of placental dysfunction, affected fetuses may be growth restricted, neurologically impaired, and at risk of increased morbidity and mortality. In a cohort of 4 pregnant Rhesus macaques, we describe antenatal detection of naturally occurring intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) and aberrant fetal neurodevelopment in 1 animal...
January 1, 2017: Reproductive Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28317062/interhemispheric-gene-expression-differences-in-the-cerebral-cortex-of-humans-and-macaque-monkeys
#3
Gerard Muntané, Gabriel Santpere, Andrey Verendeev, William W Seeley, Bob Jacobs, William D Hopkins, Arcadi Navarro, Chet C Sherwood
Handedness and language are two well-studied examples of asymmetrical brain function in humans. Approximately 90% of humans exhibit a right-hand preference, and the vast majority shows left-hemisphere dominance for language function. Although genetic models of human handedness and language have been proposed, the actual gene expression differences between cerebral hemispheres in humans remain to be fully defined. In the present study, gene expression profiles were examined in both hemispheres of three cortical regions involved in handedness and language in humans and their homologues in rhesus macaques: ventrolateral prefrontal cortex, posterior superior temporal cortex (STC), and primary motor cortex...
March 19, 2017: Brain Structure & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28314593/25-hydroxycholesterol-protects-host-against-zika-virus-infection-and-its-associated-microcephaly-in-a-mouse-model
#4
Chunfeng Li, Yong-Qiang Deng, Shuo Wang, Feng Ma, Roghiyh Aliyari, Xing-Yao Huang, Na-Na Zhang, Momoko Watanabe, Hao-Long Dong, Ping Liu, Xiao-Feng Li, Qing Ye, Min Tian, Shuai Hong, Junwan Fan, Hui Zhao, Lili Li, Neda Vishlaghi, Jessie E Buth, Connie Au, Ying Liu, Ning Lu, Peishuang Du, F Xiao-Feng Qin, Bo Zhang, Danyang Gong, Xinghong Dai, Ren Sun, Bennett G Novitch, Zhiheng Xu, Cheng-Feng Qin, Genhong Cheng
Zika virus (ZIKV) has become a public health threat due to its global transmission and link to severe congenital disorders. The host immune responses to ZIKV infection have not been fully elucidated, and effective therapeutics are not currently available. Herein, we demonstrated that cholesterol-25-hydroxylase (CH25H) was induced in response to ZIKV infection and that its enzymatic product, 25-hydroxycholesterol (25HC), was a critical mediator of host protection against ZIKV. Synthetic 25HC addition inhibited ZIKV infection in vitro by blocking viral entry, and treatment with 25HC reduced viremia and conferred protection against ZIKV in mice and rhesus macaques...
March 21, 2017: Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28304255/neurocysticercosis-in-a-rhesus-macaque-macaca-mulatta
#5
Jessica M Johnston, Cecilia D Dyer, Susan Madison-Antenucci, Kimberly Am Mergen, Christin L Veeder, Angela K Brice
An 8-y-old, intact, male rhesus macaque (Macaca mulatta) was sedated to undergo MRI in preparation for the implantation of cranial hardware. During imaging, 9 focal lesions were noted in the brain and musculature of the head. The lesions were hyperechoic with hypoechoic rims. The animal was deemed inappropriate for neuroscience research, and euthanasia was elected. Gross examination revealed multiple round, thick-walled, fluid-filled cysts (diameter, approximately 0.5 cm) in multiple tissues: one each in the left caudal lung lobe, left masseter muscle, and the dura overlying the brain and 8 throughout the gray and white matter of the brain parenchyma...
December 1, 2016: Comparative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28299780/age-related-changes-of-sulcal-imprints-on-the-endocranium-in-the-japanese-macaque-macaca-fuscata
#6
Nguyen Van Minh, Yuzuru Hamada
OBJECTIVES: The degree of expression of sulcal patterns on endocasts of nonhuman primates has been shown to depend primarily on species (brain size) and age of the individual. It has been suggested that brain details on endocasts are reproduced better in juvenile than adult primates. Here, we investigated age-related changes in the imprint of the major sulci on the endocranium of Japanese macaques (Macaca fuscata) from the juvenile period to adulthood. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Using CT scans of 25 (12 males, 13 females) cranial specimens from macaques, we generated virtual endocasts to assess imprints of the seven main sulci on the endocranial surface...
March 16, 2017: American Journal of Physical Anthropology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28290002/plasma-and-cerebrospinal-fluid-pharmacokinetics-of-select-chemotherapeutic-agents-following-intranasal-delivery-in-a-non-human-primate-model
#7
James C League-Pascual, Cynthia M Lester-McCully, Shaefali Shandilya, Lukas Ronner, Louis Rodgers, Rafael Cruz, Cody J Peer, William D Figg, Katherine E Warren
The blood-brain barrier (BBB) limits entry of most chemotherapeutic agents into the CNS, resulting in inadequate exposure within CNS tumor tissue. Intranasal administration is a proposed means of delivery that can bypass the BBB, potentially resulting in more effective chemotherapeutic exposure at the tumor site. The objective of this study was to evaluate the feasibility and pharmacokinetics (plasma and CSF) of intranasal delivery using select chemotherapeutic agents in a non-human primate (NHP) model. Three chemotherapeutic agents with known differences in CNS penetration were selected for intranasal administration in a NHP model to determine proof of principle of CNS delivery, assess tolerability and feasibility, and to evaluate whether certain drug characteristics were associated with increased CNS exposure...
March 13, 2017: Journal of Neuro-oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28289281/oxytocin-by-intranasal-and-intravenous-routes-reaches-the-cerebrospinal-fluid-in-rhesus-macaques-determination-using-a-novel-oxytocin-assay
#8
M R Lee, K B Scheidweiler, X X Diao, F Akhlaghi, A Cummins, M A Huestis, L Leggio, B B Averbeck
Oxytocin (OT) is a potential treatment for multiple neuropsychiatric disorders. As OT is a peptide, delivery by the intranasal (IN) route is the preferred method in clinical studies. Although studies have shown increased cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) OT levels following IN administration, this does not unequivocably demonstrate that the peripherally administered OT is entering the CSF. For example, it has been suggested that peripheral delivery of OT could lead to central release of endogenous OT. It is also unknown whether the IN route provides for more efficient entry of the peptide into the CSF compared to the intravenous (IV) route, which requires blood-brain barrier penetration...
March 14, 2017: Molecular Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28288127/the-effect-of-face-patch-microstimulation-on-perception-of-faces-and-objects
#9
Sebastian Moeller, Trinity Crapse, Le Chang, Doris Y Tsao
What is the range of stimuli encoded by face-selective regions of the brain? We asked how electrical microstimulation of face patches in macaque inferotemporal cortex affects perception of faces and objects. We found that microstimulation strongly distorted face percepts and that this effect depended on precise targeting to the center of face patches. While microstimulation had no effect on the percept of many non-face objects, it did affect the percept of some, including non-face objects whose shape is consistent with a face (for example, apples) as well as somewhat facelike abstract images (for example, cartoon houses)...
March 13, 2017: Nature Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28287546/large-scale-reconstructions-and-independent-unbiased-clustering-based-on-morphological-metrics-to-classify-neurons-in-selective-populations
#10
Elise M Bragg, Farran Briggs
This protocol outlines large-scale reconstructions of neurons combined with the use of independent and unbiased clustering analyses to create a comprehensive survey of the morphological characteristics observed among a selective neuronal population. Combination of these techniques constitutes a novel approach for the collection and analysis of neuroanatomical data. Together, these techniques enable large-scale, and therefore more comprehensive, sampling of selective neuronal populations and establish unbiased quantitative methods for describing morphologically unique neuronal classes within a population...
February 15, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28286579/brain-xanthophyll-content-and-exploratory-gene-expression-analysis-subspecies-differences-in-rhesus-macaque
#11
Emily S Mohn, John W Erdman, Martha Neuringer, Matthew J Kuchan, Elizabeth J Johnson
BACKGROUND: The dietary xanthophylls, lutein and zeaxanthin, accumulate in primate retina and brain, and emerging evidence indicates neural lutein content may be beneficial for cognition. Neural xanthophyll content in primates varies greatly among individuals, and genetic factors are likely to be significant contributors. Subspecies of rhesus macaques originating from different geographic locations are known to differ genetically, but the effect of origin on gene expression and carotenoid status has not been determined...
2017: Genes & Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28270571/hiv-1-tat-primes-and-activates-microglial-nlrp3-inflammasome-mediated-neuroinflammation
#12
Ernest T Chivero, Ming-Lei Guo, Palsamy Periyasamy, Ke Liao, Shannon E Callen, Shilpa Buch
Neuroinflammation associated with HIV-1 infection is a problem affecting ∼50% of HIV-infected individuals. NLRP3 inflammasome has been implicated in HIV-induced microglial activation, but the mechanism(s) remain unclear. Since HIV-Tat continues to be present despite antiretroviral therapy and activates NF-kB, we hypothesized that Tat could prime the NLRP3 inflammasome. We found a dose- and time-dependent induction of NLRP3 expression in microglia exposed to Tat compared with control. Tat exposure also time-dependently increased the mature caspase-1 and IL-1β levels and enhanced the IL-1β secretion...
March 7, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28269579/development-of-semi-chronic-microdrive-system-for-large-scale-circuit-mapping-in-macaque-mesolimbic-and-basal-ganglia-systems
#13
Shaoyu Qiao, Kevin A Brown, Amy L Orsborn, Breonna Ferrentino, Bijan Pesaran
The development of novel neurotechnologies for treating refractory neuropsychiatry disorders depends on understanding and manipulating the dynamics of neural circuits across large-scale brain networks. The mesolimbic pathway plays an essential role in reward processing and mood regulation and disorders of this pathway underlie many neuropsychiatric disorders. Here, we present the design of a customized semi-chronic microdrive array that precisely targets the anatomical structures of non-human primate (NHP) mesolimbic and basal ganglia systems...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28269325/somatosensory-encoding-with-cuneate-nucleus-microstimulation-detection-of-artificial-stimuli
#14
Srihari Y Sritharan, Andrew G Richardson, Pauline K Weigand, Ivette Planell-Mendez, Xilin Liu, Hongjie Zhu, Milin Zhang, Jan Van der Spiegel, Timothy H Lucas
The sense of touch and proprioception are critical to movement control. After spinal cord injury, these senses may be restored with direct, electrical microstimulation of the brain as part of a complete sensorimotor neuroprosthesis. The present study was designed to test, in part, the hypothesis that the cuneate nucleus (CN) of the brainstem is a suitable site to encode somatosensory information. Two rhesus macaques were implanted with microelectrode arrays providing chronic access to the CN. The monkeys were trained on an active touch oddity task to detect vibrotactile stimuli...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28258716/functional-interactions-between-the-macaque-dorsal-and-ventral-visual-pathways-during-three-dimensional-object-vision
#15
REVIEW
Peter Janssen, Bram-Ernst Verhoef, Elsie Premereur
The division of labor between the dorsal and the ventral visual stream in the primate brain has inspired numerous studies on the visual system in humans and in nonhuman primates. However, how and under which circumstances the two visual streams interact is still poorly understood. Here we review evidence from anatomy, modelling, electrophysiology, electrical microstimulation (EM), reversible inactivation and functional imaging in the macaque monkey aimed at clarifying at which levels in the hierarchy of visual areas the two streams interact, and what type of information might be exchanged between the two streams during three-dimensional (3D) object viewing...
February 3, 2017: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28257798/the-use-of-an-optimized-chimeric-envelope-glycoprotein-enhances-the-efficiency-of-retrograde-gene-transfer-of-a-pseudotyped-lentiviral-vector-in-the-primate-brain
#16
Soshi Tanabe, Ken-Ichi Inoue, Hitomi Tsuge, Shiori Uezono, Kiyomi Nagaya, Maki Fijiwara, Shigeki Kato, Kazuto Kobayashi, Masahiko Takada
Lentiviral vectors have been used not only for various basic research experiments, but also for a wide range of gene therapy trials in animal models. The development of a pseudotyped lentiviral vector with the property of retrograde infection allows us to introduce foreign genes into neurons that are localized in regions innervating the site of vector injection. Here, we report the efficiency of retrograde gene transfer of a recently developed FuG-E pseudotyped lentiviral vector in the primate brain by comparing its transduction pattern with that of the parental FuG-C pseudotyped vector...
February 28, 2017: Neuroscience Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28253075/the-contribution-of-different-cortical-regions-to-the-control-of-spatially-decoupled-eye-hand-coordination
#17
Patricia F Sayegh, Diana J Gorbet, Kara M Hawkins, Kari L Hoffman, Lauren E Sergio
Our brain's ability to flexibly control the communication between the eyes and the hand allows for our successful interaction with the objects located within our environment. This flexibility has been observed in the pattern of neural responses within key regions of the frontoparietal reach network. More specifically, our group has shown how single-unit and oscillatory activity within the dorsal premotor cortex (PMd) and the superior parietal lobule (SPL) change contingent on the level of visuomotor compatibility between the eyes and hand...
March 2, 2017: Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28247455/on-the-relationships-in-rhesus-macaques-between-chronic-ethanol-consumption-and-the-brain-transcriptome
#18
Ovidiu D Iancu, Alexander Colville, Nicole A R Walter, Priscila Darakjian, Denesa L Oberbeck, James B Daunais, Christina L Zheng, Robert P Searles, Shannon K McWeeney, Kathleen A Grant, Robert Hitzemann
This is the first description of the relationship between chronic ethanol self-administration and the brain transcriptome in a non-human primate (rhesus macaque). Thirty-one male animals self-administered ethanol on a daily basis for over 12 months. Gene transcription was quantified with RNA-Seq in the central nucleus of the amygdala (CeA) and cortical Area 32. We constructed coexpression and cosplicing networks, and we identified areas of preservation and areas of differentiation between regions and network types...
February 28, 2017: Addiction Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28242726/mechanisms-of-saccade-suppression-revealed-in-the-anti-saccade-task
#19
REVIEW
Brian C Coe, Douglas P Munoz
The anti-saccade task has emerged as an important tool for investigating the complex nature of voluntary behaviour. In this task, participants are instructed to suppress the natural response to look at a peripheral visual stimulus and look in the opposite direction instead. Analysis of saccadic reaction times (SRT: the time from stimulus appearance to the first saccade) and the frequency of direction errors (i.e. looking toward the stimulus) provide insight into saccade suppression mechanisms in the brain. Some direction errors are reflexive responses with very short SRTs (express latency saccades), while other direction errors are driven by automated responses and have longer SRTs...
April 19, 2017: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28238550/diverse-non-genetic-allele-specific-expression-effects-shape-genetic-architecture-at-the-cellular-level-in-the-mammalian-brain
#20
Wei-Chao Huang, Elliott Ferris, Tong Cheng, Cornelia Stacher Hörndli, Kelly Gleason, Carol Tamminga, Janice D Wagner, Kenneth M Boucher, Jan L Christian, Christopher Gregg
Interactions between genetic and epigenetic effects shape brain function, behavior, and the risk for mental illness. Random X inactivation and genomic imprinting are epigenetic allelic effects that are well known to influence genetic architecture and disease risk. Less is known about the nature, prevalence, and conservation of other potential epigenetic allelic effects in vivo in the mouse and primate brain. Here we devise genomics, in situ hybridization, and mouse genetics strategies to uncover diverse allelic effects in the brain that are not caused by imprinting or genetic variation...
March 8, 2017: Neuron
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