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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28227834/development-of-semi-chronic-microdrive-system-for-large-scale-circuit-mapping-in-macaque-mesolimbic-and-basal-ganglia-systems
#1
Shaoyu Qiao, Kevin A Brown, Amy L Orsborn, Breonna Ferrentino, Bijan Pesaran, Shaoyu Qiao, Kevin A Brown, Amy L Orsborn, Breonna Ferrentino, Bijan Pesaran, Shaoyu Qiao, Amy L Orsborn, Breonna Ferrentino, Kevin A Brown, Bijan Pesaran
The development of novel neurotechnologies for treating refractory neuropsychiatry disorders depends on understanding and manipulating the dynamics of neural circuits across large-scale brain networks. The mesolimbic pathway plays an essential role in reward processing and mood regulation and disorders of this pathway underlie many neuropsychiatric disorders. Here, we present the design of a customized semi-chronic microdrive array that precisely targets the anatomical structures of non-human primate (NHP) mesolimbic and basal ganglia systems...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28227566/somatosensory-encoding-with-cuneate-nucleus-microstimulation-detection-of-artificial-stimuli
#2
Srihari Y Sritharan, Andrew G Richardson, Pauline K Weigand, Ivette Planell-Mendez, Xilin Liu, Hongjie Zhu, Milin Zhang, Jan Van der Spiegel, Timothy H Lucas, Srihari Y Sritharan, Andrew G Richardson, Pauline K Weigand, Ivette Planell-Mendez, Xilin Liu, Hongjie Zhu, Milin Zhang, Jan Van der Spiegel, Timothy H Lucas, Srihari Y Sritharan, Andrew G Richardson, Milin Zhang, Jan Van der Spiegel, Pauline K Weigand, Xilin Liu, Timothy H Lucas, Hongjie Zhu, Ivette Planell-Mendez
The sense of touch and proprioception are critical to movement control. After spinal cord injury, these senses may be restored with direct, electrical microstimulation of the brain as part of a complete sensorimotor neuroprosthesis. The present study was designed to test, in part, the hypothesis that the cuneate nucleus (CN) of the brainstem is a suitable site to encode somatosensory information. Two rhesus macaques were implanted with microelectrode arrays providing chronic access to the CN. The monkeys were trained on an active touch oddity task to detect vibrotactile stimuli...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212416/the-variability-of-multisensory-processes-of-natural-stimuli-in-human-and-non-human-primates-in-a-detection-task
#3
Cécile Juan, Céline Cappe, Baptiste Alric, Benoit Roby, Sophie Gilardeau, Pascal Barone, Pascal Girard
BACKGROUND: Behavioral studies in both human and animals generally converge to the dogma that multisensory integration improves reaction times (RTs) in comparison to unimodal stimulation. These multisensory effects depend on diverse conditions among which the most studied were the spatial and temporal congruences. Further, most of the studies are using relatively simple stimuli while in everyday life, we are confronted to a large variety of complex stimulations constantly changing our attentional focus over time, a modality switch that can impact on stimuli detection...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28202570/aav-mediated-delivery-of-optogenetic-constructs-to-the-macaque-brain-triggers-humoral-immune-responses
#4
Skyler D Mendoza, Yasmine El-Shamayleh, Gregory D Horwitz
Gene delivery to the primate central nervous system via recombinant adeno-associated viral vectors (AAV) allows neurophysiologists to control and observe neural activity precisely. A current limitation of this approach is variability in vector transduction efficiency. Low levels of transduction can foil experimental manipulations, prompting vector readministration. The ability to make multiple vector injections into the same animal, even in cases where successful vector transduction has already been achieved, is also desirable...
February 15, 2017: Journal of Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28202084/aprepitant-limits-in-vivo-neuroinflammatory-responses-in-a-rhesus-model-of-lyme-neuroborreliosis
#5
Alejandra N Martinez, Amanda R Burmeister, Geeta Ramesh, Lara Doyle-Meyers, Ian Marriott, Mario T Philipp
BACKGROUND: Substance P (SP) is produced at high levels in the central nervous system (CNS), and its target receptor, neurokinin 1 receptor (NK-1R), is expressed by glia and leukocytes. This tachykinin functions to exacerbate inflammatory responses at peripheral sites. Moreover, SP/NK-1R interactions have recently been associated with severe neuroinflammation and neuronal damage. We have previously demonstrated that NK-1R antagonists can limit neuroinflammatory damage in a mouse model of bacterial meningitis...
February 15, 2017: Journal of Neuroinflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28196647/the-dorsal-visual-stream-revisited-stable-circuits-or-dynamic-pathways
#6
REVIEW
Claudio Galletti, Patrizia Fattori
In both macaque and human brain, information regarding visual motion flows from the extrastriate area V6 along two different paths: a dorsolateral one towards areas MT/V5, MST, V3A, and a dorsomedial one towards the visuomotor areas of the superior parietal lobule (V6A, MIP, VIP). The dorsolateral visual stream is involved in many aspects of visual motion analysis, including the recognition of object motion and self motion. The dorsomedial stream uses visual motion information to continuously monitor the spatial location of objects while we are looking and/or moving around, to allow skilled reaching for and grasping of the objects in structured, dynamically changing environments...
January 23, 2017: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28178646/menin-mediates-tat-induced-neuronal-apoptosis-in-brain-frontal-cortex-of-siv-infected-macaques-and-in-tat-treated-cells
#7
Jun Wang, Yu Zhang, Qiping Xu, Jinhua Qiu, Honghua Zheng, Xiang Ye, Yuhua Xue, Yongmei Yin, Zhou Zhang, Ying Liu, Yanling Hao, Qiang Wei, Wei Wang, Kazuyasu Mori, Shuji Izumo, Ryuji Kubota, Yiming Shao, Hui Qin Xing
The molecular mechanisms involved in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-associated neurocognitive disorder (HAND) remain poorly understood. It has been recently reported that HIV-1 Tat transactivation requires menin, suggesting that menin may be involved in HAND pathogenesis. But the role of menin is not clear. Here, we found that protein level of menin was increased in simian-human immunodeficiency chimeric virus (SHIV)-SF162.P4 and simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) sm543-3-infected rhesus macaques compared with the controls by immunohistochemistry (IHC) and western blot...
February 2, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28158622/changes-in-lipidome-composition-during-brain-development-in-humans-chimpanzees-and-macaque-monkeys
#8
Qian Li, Katarzyna Bozek, Chuan Xu, Yanan Guo, Jing Sun, Svante Pääbo, Chet C Sherwood, Patrick R Hof, John J Ely, Yan Li, Lothar Willmitzer, Patrick Giavalisco, Philipp Khaitovich
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 31, 2017: Molecular Biology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28153686/more-than-an-imitation-game-top-down-modulation-of-the-human-mirror-system
#9
REVIEW
Megan E J Campbell, Ross Cunnington
All interpersonal interactions are underpinned by action: perceiving and understanding the actions of others, and responding by planning and performing self-made actions. Perception of action, both self-made and observed, informs ongoing motor responses by iterative feedback within a perception-action loop. This fundamental phenomenon occurs within single-cells of the macaque brain which demonstrate sensory and motor response properties. These 'mirror' neurons have led to a swathe of research leading to the broadly accepted idea of a human mirror system...
January 30, 2017: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28153658/first-trimester-alcohol-exposure-alters-placental-perfusion-and-fetal-oxygen-availability-affecting-fetal-growth-and-development-in-a-non-human-primate-model
#10
Jamie O Lo, Matthias C Schabel, Victoria H J Roberts, Xiaojie Wang, Katherine S Lewandowski, Kathleen A Grant, Antonio E Frias, Christopher D Kroenke
BACKGROUND: Prenatal alcohol exposure leads to impaired fetal growth, brain development, and stillbirth. Placental impairment likely contributes to these adverse outcomes, but the mechanisms and specific vasoactive effects of alcohol that links altered placental function to impaired fetal development remain areas of active research. OBJECTIVE: Recently, we developed magnetic resonance imaging techniques in nonhuman primates to characterize placental blood oxygenation through measurements of T2* and perfusion using dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging...
January 30, 2017: American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28146554/fundamental-activity-constraints-lead-to-specific-interpretations-of-the-connectome
#11
Jannis Schuecker, Maximilian Schmidt, Sacha J van Albada, Markus Diesmann, Moritz Helias
The continuous integration of experimental data into coherent models of the brain is an increasing challenge of modern neuroscience. Such models provide a bridge between structure and activity, and identify the mechanisms giving rise to experimental observations. Nevertheless, structurally realistic network models of spiking neurons are necessarily underconstrained even if experimental data on brain connectivity are incorporated to the best of our knowledge. Guided by physiological observations, any model must therefore explore the parameter ranges within the uncertainty of the data...
February 2017: PLoS Computational Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28141820/the-missing-link-predicting-connectomes-from-noisy-and-partially-observed-tract-tracing-data
#12
Max Hinne, Annet Meijers, Rembrandt Bakker, Paul H E Tiesinga, Morten Mørup, Marcel A J van Gerven
Our understanding of the wiring map of the brain, known as the connectome, has increased greatly in the last decade, mostly due to technological advancements in neuroimaging techniques and improvements in computational tools to interpret the vast amount of available data. Despite this, with the exception of the C. elegans roundworm, no definitive connectome has been established for any species. In order to obtain this, tracer studies are particularly appealing, as these have proven highly reliable. The downside of tract tracing is that it is costly to perform, and can only be applied ex vivo...
January 2017: PLoS Computational Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28141525/e-o-a-brain-controlled-lower-limb-exoskeleton-for-rhesus-macaques
#13
Tristan Vouga, Katie Zhuang, Jeremy Olivier, Mikhail Lebedev, Miguel Nicolelis, Mohamed Bouri, Hannes Bleuler
Recent advances in the field of brain-machine interfaces (BMIs) have demonstrated enormous potential to shape the future of rehabilitation and prosthetic devices. Here, a lower-limb exoskeleton controlled by the intracortical activity of an awake, behaving rhesus macaque is presented as a proof-of-concept for a locomotor BMI. A detailed description of the mechanical device, including its innovative features and first experimental results, is provided. During operation, BMI-decoded position and velocity are directly mapped onto the bipedal exoskeleton's motions, which then move the monkey's legs as the monkey remains physically passive...
January 26, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Neural Systems and Rehabilitation Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28137971/transcranial-alternating-current-stimulation-attenuates-neuronal-adaptation
#14
Kohitij Kar, Jacob Duijnhouwer, Bart Krekelberg
: We previously showed that brief application of 2 mA (peak-to-peak) transcranial currents alternating at 10 Hz significantly reduces motion adaptation in humans. This is but one of many behavioral studies showing that weak currents applied to the scalp modulate neural processing. Transcranial stimulation has been shown to improve perception, learning, and a range of clinical symptoms. Few studies, however, have measured the neural consequences of transcranial current stimulation. We capitalized on the strong link between motion perception and neural activity in the middle temporal (MT) area of the macaque monkey to study the neural mechanisms that underlie the behavioral consequences of transcranial alternating current stimulation (tACS)...
January 30, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28132521/direct-intracranial-injection-of-aavrh8-encoding-monkey-%C3%AE-n-acetylhexosaminidase-causes-neurotoxicity-in-primate-brain
#15
Diane Golebiowski, Imramsjah Martijn J van der Bom, Churl-Su Kwon, Andrew D Miller, Keiko Petrosky, Allison M Bradbury, Stacy Maitland, Anna Luisa Kühn, Nina Bishop, Elizabeth Curran, Nilsa Silva, Dwijit GuhaSarkar, Susan V Westmoreland, Douglas R Martin, Matthew J Gounis, Wael F Asaad, Miguel Sena-Esteves
GM2 gangliosidoses, including Tay-Sachs disease (TSD) and Sandhoff disease (SD), are lysosomal storage disorders caused by deficiencies in β-N-acetylhexosaminidase (Hex). Patients are afflicted primarily with progressive central nervous system dysfunction (CNS). Studies in mice, cats, and sheep have indicated safety and widespread distribution of Hex in the CNS after intracranial vector infusion of AAVrh8 vectors encoding species-specific Hex α- or β-subunits at a 1:1 ratio. Here we conducted a safety study in cynomolgus macaques (cm) modeling our previous animal studies with bilateral infusion in the thalamus as well as in left lateral ventricle of AAVrh8 vectors encoding cm Hex α- and β-subunits...
January 28, 2017: Human Gene Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28126752/cerebral-temperature-dysregulation-mr-thermographic-monitoring-in-a-nonhuman-primate-study-of-acute-ischemic-stroke
#16
S Dehkharghani, C C Fleischer, D Qiu, M Yepes, F Tong
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Cerebral thermoregulation remains poorly understood. Temperature dysregulation is deeply implicated in the potentiation of cerebrovascular ischemia. We present a multiphasic, MR thermographic study in a nonhuman primate model of MCA infarction, hypothesizing detectable brain temperature disturbances and brain-systemic temperature decoupling. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Three Rhesus Macaque nonhuman primates were sourced for 3-phase MR imaging: 1) baseline MR imaging, 2) 7-hour continuous MR imaging following minimally invasive, endovascular MCA stroke induction, and 3) poststroke day 1 MR imaging follow-up...
January 26, 2017: AJNR. American Journal of Neuroradiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28126228/phosphoproteome-of-crab-eating-macaque-cerebral-cortex-characterized-through-multidimensional-reversed-phase-liquid-chromatography-mass-spectrometry-with-tandem-anion-cation-exchange-columns
#17
Quan Quan, Jinwen Feng, Leong-Ting Lui, Tieliu Shi, Ivan K Chu
A fully automated online multidimensional liquid chromatography (MDLC) platform featuring high-/low-pH reversed-phase (RP) dimensions and two other complementary-strong anion exchange (SAX) and strong cation exchange (SCX), respectively-chromatographic separations in tandem, with conventional offline titanium dioxide pre-enrichment, has been applied for the first global phosphopeptide identification from the macaque cerebral cortex in the presence of phosphatase inhibitors. Phosphorylation data interpretation, including site determination, and network construction have been performed: 14,338 distinct phosphopeptides in 7572 non-redundant phosphosites at 1% FDR were identified with 784 novel phosphorylation sites when mapping into the two most-curated public phosphorylation databases, PhosphoSitePlus (PSP) and Phospho...
January 22, 2017: Journal of Chromatography. A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28102825/versatile-modular-three-dimensional-microelectrode-arrays-for-neuronal-ensemble-recordings-from-design-to-fabrication-assembly-and-functional-validation-in-non-human-primates
#18
Falk Barz, Alessandro Livi, Marco Lanzilotto, Monica Maranesi, Luca Bonini, Oliver Paul, Patrick Ruther
<i>Objective. </i>Application-specific designs of electrode arrays offer an improved effectiveness for providing access to targeted brain regions in neuroscientific research and brain machine interfaces. The simultaneous and stable recording of neuronal ensembles is the main goal in the design of advanced neural interfaces. Here, we describe the development and assembly of highly customizable three-dimensional microelectrode arrays and demonstrate their recording performance in chronic applications in non-human primates...
January 19, 2017: Journal of Neural Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28100751/decision-related-activity-in-macaque-v2-for-fine-disparity-discrimination-is-not-compatible-with-optimal-linear-readout
#19
Stephane Clery, Bruce G Cumming, Hendrikje Nienborg
: Fine judgments of stereoscopic depth rely mainly on relative judgments of depth (relative binocular disparity) between objects, rather than judgments of the distance to where the eyes are fixating (absolute disparity). In macaques, visual area V2 is the earliest site in the visual processing hierarchy for which neurons selective for relative disparity have been observed (Thomas et al., 2002). Here, we found that, in macaques trained to perform a fine disparity discrimination task, disparity-selective neurons in V2 were highly selective for the task, and their activity correlated with the animals' perceptual decisions (unexplained by the stimulus)...
January 18, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28093272/a-method-for-obtaining-simian-immunodeficiency-virus-rna-sequences-from-laser-capture-microdissected-and-immune-captured-cd68-and-cd163-macrophages-from-frozen-tissue-sections-of-bone-marrow-and-brain
#20
Jaclyn Mallard, Emily Papazian, Caroline Soulas, David J Nolan, Marco Salemi, Kenneth C Williams
Laser capture microdissection (LCM) is used to extract cells or tissue regions for analysis of RNA, DNA or protein. Several methods of LCM are established for different applications, but a protocol for consistently obtaining lentiviral RNA from LCM captured immune cell populations is not described. Obtaining optimal viral RNA for analysis of viral genes from immune-captured cells using immunohistochemistry (IHC) and LCM is challenging. IHC protocols have long antibody incubation times that increase risk of RNA degradation...
March 2017: Journal of Immunological Methods
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