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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29625471/an-anatomic-characterization-of-the-midbrain-near-response-neurons-in-the-macaque-monkey
#1
Paul J May, Susan Warren, Paul D R Gamlin, Isabelle Billig
Purpose: These experiments were designed to reveal the location of the premotor neurons that have previously been designated physiologically as the midbrain near response cells controlling vergence, lens accommodation, and pupillary constriction in response to target distance. Methods: To identify this population, the fixed N2c strain of rabies virus was injected into the ciliary body of seven Macaca fascicularis monkeys. The virus was trans-synaptically transported to the brain...
March 1, 2018: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29618564/postnatal-zika-virus-infection-is-associated-with-persistent-abnormalities-in-brain-structure-function-and-behavior-in-infant-macaques
#2
Maud Mavigner, Jessica Raper, Zsofia Kovacs-Balint, Sanjeev Gumber, Justin T O'Neal, Siddhartha K Bhaumik, Xiaodong Zhang, Jakob Habib, Cameron Mattingly, Circe E McDonald, Victoria Avanzato, Mark W Burke, Diogo M Magnani, Varian K Bailey, David I Watkins, Thomas H Vanderford, Damien Fair, Eric Earl, Eric Feczko, Martin Styner, Sherrie M Jean, Joyce K Cohen, Guido Silvestri, R Paul Johnson, David H O'Connor, Jens Wrammert, Mehul S Suthar, Mar M Sanchez, Maria C Alvarado, Ann Chahroudi
The Zika virus (ZIKV) epidemic is associated with fetal brain lesions and other serious birth defects classified as congenital ZIKV syndrome. Postnatal ZIKV infection in infants and children has been reported; however, data on brain anatomy, function, and behavioral outcomes following infection are absent. We show that postnatal ZIKV infection of infant rhesus macaques (RMs) results in persistent structural and functional alterations of the central nervous system compared to age-matched controls. We demonstrate ZIKV lymphoid tropism and neurotropism in infant RMs and histopathologic abnormalities in the peripheral and central nervous systems including inflammatory infiltrates, astrogliosis, and Wallerian degeneration...
April 4, 2018: Science Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29618546/attention-selectively-gates-afferent-signal-transmission-to-area-v4
#3
Iris Grothe, David Rotermund, Simon David Neitzel, Sunita Mandon, Udo Alexander Ernst, Andreas K Kreiter, Klaus Richard Pawelzik
Selective attention allows focusing on only part of the incoming sensory information. Neurons in the extrastriate visual cortex reflect such selective processing when different stimuli are simultaneously present in their large receptive fields. Their spiking response then resembles the response to the attended stimulus when presented in isolation. Unclear is where in the neuronal pathway attention intervenes to achieve such selective signal routing and processing. To investigate this question, we tagged two equivalent visual stimuli by independent broadband luminance noise and used the spectral coherence of these behaviorally irrelevant signals with the field potential of a local neuronal population in male macaque monkeys' area V4 as a measure for their respective causal influences...
April 4, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29614295/methodology-and-effects-of-repeated-intranasal-delivery-of-dnsp-11-in-awake-rhesus-macaques
#4
M J Stenslik, A Evans, F Pomerleau, R Weeks, P Huettl, E Foreman, J Turchan-Cholewo, A Andersen, W A Cass, Z Zhang, R C Grondin, D M Gash, G A Gerhardt, L H Bradley
BACKGROUND: To determine if the intranasal delivery of neuroactive compounds is a viable, long-term treatment strategy for progressive, chronic neurodegenerative disorders, such as Parkinson's disease (PD), intranasal methodologies in preclinical models comparable to humans are needed. NEW METHOD: We developed a methodology to evaluate the repeated intranasal delivery of neuroactive compounds on the non-human primate (NHP) brain, without the need for sedation. We evaluated the effects of the neuroactive peptide, DNSP-11 following repeated intranasal delivery and dose-escalation over the course of 10-weeks in Rhesus macaques...
March 31, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29601895/chronic-administration-of-amphetamines-disturbs-development-of-neural-progenitor-cells-in-young-adult-nonhuman-primates
#5
Rahul R Dutta, Michael A Taffe, Chitra D Mandyam
The detrimental effects of amphetamines on developmental stages of NPCs are limited to rodent brain and it is not known if these effects occur in nonhuman primates which are the focus of the current investigation. Young adult rhesus macaques either experienced MDMA only, a combination of amphetamines (MDMA, MDA and methamphetamine) or no amphetamines (controls) and hippocampal tissue was processed for immunohistochemical analysis. Quantitative stereological analysis showed that intermittent exposure to MDMA or the three amphetamines over 9...
March 27, 2018: Progress in Neuro-psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29594984/in-vivo-characterization-of-macrophage-tropic-simian-immunodeficiency-virus-molecular-clones-in-rhesus-macaques
#6
Sanjeev Gumber, Praveen Kumar Amancha, Po-Jen Yen, Francois Villinger, Dana Gabuzda, Siddappa N Byrareddy
Macrophages are a major target of HIV/SIV infection and play an important role in pathogenesis by serving as viral reservoirs in the central nervous system. Previously, a unique early SIVmac251 envelope (Env) variant, deSIV147 was cloned from blood of a rhesus macaque with rapid disease progression and SIV-associated encephalitis. Here, we show that infectious molecular clone deSIV147 caused systemic infection in rhesus macaques following intravenous or intrarectal exposure. Next, we inoculated deSIV147 into macaques depleted of CD4+ T cells and found that animals were SIV-positive, with high plasma and CSF viral loads...
March 28, 2018: Journal of Neurovirology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29593226/caffeine-augments-anesthesia-neurotoxicity-in-the-fetal-macaque-brain
#7
Kevin K Noguchi, Stephen A Johnson, Francesca M Manzella, Kobe L Masuoka, Sasha L Williams, Lauren D Martin, Gregory A Dissen, Chrysanthy Ikonomidou, Katie J Schenning, John W Olney, Ansgar M Brambrink
Caffeine is the most frequently used medication in premature infants. It is the respiratory stimulant of choice for apnea associated with prematurity and has been called the silver bullet in neonatology because of many proven benefits and few known risks. Research has revealed that sedative/anesthetic drugs trigger apoptotic death of neurons and oligodendrocytes in developing mammalian brains. Here we evaluated the influence of caffeine on the neurotoxicity of anesthesia in developing nonhuman primate brains...
March 28, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29563297/central-nervous-system-inflammation-and-infection-during-early-non-accelerated-simian-human-immunodeficiency-virus-infection-in-rhesus-macaques
#8
Denise C Hsu, Piyanate Sunyakumthorn, Matthew Wegner, Alexandra Schuetz, Decha Silsorn, Jacob D Estes, Claire Deleage, Khamis Tomusange, Samir K Lakhashe, Ruth M Ruprecht, Eric Lombardini, Rawiwan Im-Erbsin, Yanin Kuncharin, Yuwadee Phuang-Ngern, Dutsadee Inthawong, Weerawan Chuenarom, Robin Burke, Merlin L Robb, Lishomwa C Ndhlovu, Jintanat Ananworanich, Victor Valcour, Robert J O'Connell, Serena Spudich, Nelson L Michael, Sandhya Vasan
Studies utilizing highly pathogenic simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) and simian-human immunodeficiency virus (SHIV) have largely focused on the immunopathology of the central nervous system (CNS) during end-stage neuro AIDS and SIV encephalitis. However, this may not model pathophysiology in earlier stages of infection. In this non-accelerated SHIV model, plasma SHIV RNA levels and peripheral blood and colonic CD4 T+ cell counts mirrored early HIV infection in humans. At 12 weeks post infection, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) detection of SHIV RNA and elevations in IP-10 and MCP-1 reflected a discrete neurovirologic process...
March 21, 2018: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29563103/chimeric-antigen-receptor-t-cell-mediated-neurotoxicity-in-non-human-primates
#9
Agne Taraseviciute, Victor Tkachev, Rafael Ponce, Cameron J Turtle, Jessica M Snyder, H Denny Liggitt, David Myerson, Luis Gonzalez-Cuyar, Audrey Baldessari, Chris English, Alison Yu, Hengqi Zheng, Scott N Furlan, Daniel J Hunt, Virginia Hoglund, Olivia Finney, Hannah Brakke, Bruce R Blazar, Carolina Berger, Stanley Riddell, Rebecca Gardner, Leslie S Kean, Michael C Jensen
Chimeric Antigen Receptor (CAR) T cell immunotherapy has revolutionised the treatment of refractory leukemias and lymphomas, but is associated with significant toxicities, namely cytokine release syndrome (CRS) and neurotoxicity. A major barrier to developing therapeutics to prevent CAR T cell-mediated neurotoxicity is the lack of clinically relevant models. Accordingly, we developed a rhesus macaque (RM) model of neurotoxicity via adoptive transfer of autologous CD20-specific CAR T cells. Following cyclophosphamide lymphodepletion, CD20 CAR T cells expand to 272-4450 cells/µl after 7-8 days and elicit CRS and neurotoxicity...
March 21, 2018: Cancer Discovery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29556186/relating-the-structure-of-noise-correlations-in-macaque-primary-visual-cortex-to-decoder-performance
#10
Or P Mendels, Maoz Shamir
Noise correlations in neuronal responses can have a strong influence on the information available in large populations. In addition, the structure of noise correlations may have a great impact on the utility of different algorithms to extract this information that may depend on the specific algorithm, and hence may affect our understanding of population codes in the brain. Thus, a better understanding of the structure of noise correlations and their interplay with different readout algorithms is required. Here we use eigendecomposition to investigate the structure of noise correlations in populations of about 50-100 simultaneously recorded neurons in the primary visual cortex of anesthetized monkeys, and we relate this structure to the performance of two common decoders: the population vector and the optimal linear estimator...
2018: Frontiers in Computational Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29548849/template-based-prediction-of-vigilance-fluctuations-in-resting-state-fmri
#11
Maryam Falahpour, Catie Chang, Chi Wah Wong, Thomas T Liu
Changes in vigilance or alertness during a typical resting state fMRI scan are inevitable and have been found to affect measures of functional brain connectivity. Since it is not often feasible to monitor vigilance with EEG during fMRI scans, it would be of great value to have methods for estimating vigilance levels from fMRI data alone. A recent study, conducted in macaque monkeys, proposed a template-based approach for fMRI-based estimation of vigilance fluctuations. Here, we use simultaneously acquired EEG/fMRI data to investigate whether the same template-based approach can be employed to estimate vigilance fluctuations of awake humans across different resting-state conditions...
March 13, 2018: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29547770/an-on-demand-macaque-model-of-mesial-temporal-lobe-seizures-induced-by-unilateral-intra-hippocampal-injection-of-penicillin
#12
Ariana Sherdil, Stéphan Chabardès, Isabelle Guillemain, Sandrine Michallat, Shivadatta Prabhu, Karine Pernet-Gallay, Olivier David, Brigitte Piallat
PURPOSE: Our objective was to propose a new on demand non-human primate model of mesial temporal lobe seizures suitable for pre-clinical innovative therapeutic research. METHODS: Five macaques were stereotaxically implanted unilaterally with a deep recording electrode in the hippocampus. For each experiment, penicillin was injected into the hippocampus and animals were monitored during five consecutive hours. A total of 12-27 experiments with a mean cumulative dose of 162644 ± 70190 UI of penicillin have been performed per animal Injections were repeated at least once a week over a period of 98-276 days...
March 9, 2018: Epilepsy Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29547435/lentiviral-infection-of-proliferating-brain-macrophages-in-siv-and-hiv-encephalitis-despite-samhd1-expression
#13
Allison A Lindgren, Adam R Filipowicz, Julian B Hattler, Soon Ok Kim, Hye Kyung Chung, Marcelo J Kuroda, Edward M Johnson, Woong-Ki Kim
OBJECTIVE: HIV-1 infection of the brain and related cognitive impairment remain prevalent in HIV-1-infected subjects despite combination antiretroviral therapy. Sterile alpha motif and histidine-aspartate domain-containing protein 1 (SAMHD1) is a newly identified host restriction factor that blocks the replication of HIV-1 and other retroviruses in myeloid cells. Cell-cycle-regulated phosphorylation at residue Thr592 and viral protein X (Vpx)-mediated degradation of SAMHD1 have been shown to bypass SAMHD1 restriction in vitro...
March 15, 2018: AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29540550/functional-mri-responses-to-passive-active-and-observed-touch-in-somatosensory-and-insular-cortices-of-the-macaque-monkey
#14
Saloni Sharma, Prosper A Fiave, Koen Nelissen
Neurophysiological data obtained in primates suggests that merely observing others' actions can modulate activity in the observer's motor cortices. In humans, it has been suggested that these multimodal vicarious responses extend well beyond the motor cortices, including somatosensory and insular brain regions, that seem to yield vicarious responses when witnessing others' actions, sensations or emotions (Gazzola and Keysers, 2009). Despite the wealth of data with respect to shared action responses in the monkey motor system, whether the somatosensory and insular cortices also yield vicarious responses during observation of touch remains largely unknown...
March 14, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29535413/tailoring-light-delivery-for-optogenetics-by-modal-demultiplexing-in-tapered-optical-fibers
#15
Marco Pisanello, Filippo Pisano, Leonardo Sileo, Emanuela Maglie, Elisa Bellistri, Barbara Spagnolo, Gil Mandelbaum, Bernardo L Sabatini, Massimo De Vittorio, Ferruccio Pisanello
Optogenetic control of neural activity in deep brain regions ideally requires precise and flexible light delivery with non-invasive devices. To this end, Tapered Optical Fibers (TFs) represent a versatile tool that can deliver light over either large brain volumes or spatially confined sub-regions, while being sensibly smaller than flat-cleaved optical fibers. In this work, we report on the possibility of further extending light emission length along the taper in the range 0.4 mm-3.0 mm by increasing the numerical aperture of the TFs to NA = 0...
March 13, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29531364/learning-by-neural-reassociation
#16
Matthew D Golub, Patrick T Sadtler, Emily R Oby, Kristin M Quick, Stephen I Ryu, Elizabeth C Tyler-Kabara, Aaron P Batista, Steven M Chase, Byron M Yu
Behavior is driven by coordinated activity across a population of neurons. Learning requires the brain to change the neural population activity produced to achieve a given behavioral goal. How does population activity reorganize during learning? We studied intracortical population activity in the primary motor cortex of rhesus macaques during short-term learning in a brain-computer interface (BCI) task. In a BCI, the mapping between neural activity and behavior is exactly known, enabling us to rigorously define hypotheses about neural reorganization during learning...
April 2018: Nature Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29508924/a-selective-phosphodiesterase-10a-inhibitor-reduces-l-dopa-induced-dyskinesias-in-parkinsonian-monkeys
#17
Goichi Beck, Shunsuke Maehara, Phat Ly Chang, Stella M Papa
BACKGROUND: Phosphodiesterase 10A is a member of the phosphodiesterase family whose brain expression is restricted to the striatum. Phosphodiesterase 10A regulates cyclic adenosine monophosphate and cyclic guanosine monophosphate, which mediate responses to dopamine receptor activation, and the levels of these cyclic nucleotides are decreased in experimental models of l-dopa-induced dyskinesia. The elevation of cyclic adenosine monophosphate/cyclic guanosine monophosphate levels by phosphodiesterase 10A inhibition may thus be targeted to reduce l-dopa-induced dyskinesia...
March 6, 2018: Movement Disorders: Official Journal of the Movement Disorder Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29485407/a-piecewise-probabilistic-regression-model-to-decode-hand-movement-trajectories-from-epidural-and-subdural-ecog-signals
#18
Behraz Farrokhi, Abbas Erfanian
OBJECTIVE: The primary concern of this study is to develop a probabilistic regression method that would improve the decoding of the hand movement trajectories from epidural ECoG as well as from subdural ECoG signals. APPROACH: The model is characterized by the conditional expectation of the hand position given the ECoG signals. The conditional expectation of the hand position is then modeled by a linear combination of the conditional probability density functions defined for each segment of the movement...
February 27, 2018: Journal of Neural Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29483663/feedback-determines-the-structure-of-correlated-variability-in-primary-visual-cortex
#19
Adrian G Bondy, Ralf M Haefner, Bruce G Cumming
The variable responses of sensory neurons tend to be weakly correlated (spike-count correlation, rsc ). This is widely thought to reflect noise in shared afferents, in which case rsc can limit the reliability of sensory coding. However, it could also be due to feedback from higher-order brain regions. Currently, the relative contributions of these sources are unknown. We addressed this by recording from populations of V1 neurons in macaques performing different discrimination tasks involving the same visual input...
February 26, 2018: Nature Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29472615/the-effects-of-housing-density-on-social-interactions-and-their-correlations-with-serotonin-in-rodents-and-primates
#20
Young-A Lee, Tsukasa Obora, Laura Bondonny, Amelie Toniolo, Johanna Mivielle, Yoshie Yamaguchi, Akemi Kato, Masatoshi Takita, Yukiori Goto
Population density has been suggested to affect social interactions of individuals, but the underlying neural mechanisms remain unclear. In contrast, neurotransmission of monoamines such as serotonin (5-HT) and dopamine (DA) has been demonstrated to play important roles in social behaviors. Here, we investigated whether housing density affected social interactions of rodents and non-human primates housed in groups, and its correlations with monoamines. Japanese macaques exhibited higher plasma 5-HT, but not DA, concentrations than rhesus macaques...
February 22, 2018: Scientific Reports
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