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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29452398/predominant-patterns-of-splicing-evolution-on-human-chimpanzee-and-macaque-evolutionary-lineages
#1
Jieyi Xiong, Jiang Xi, Angeliki Ditsiou, Yang Gao, Jing Sun, Elijah D Lowenstein, Shuyun Huang, Philipp Khaitovich
Although splicing is widespread and evolves rapidly among species, the mechanisms driving this evolution, as well as its functional implications, are not yet fully understood. We analyzed the evolution of splicing patterns based on transcriptome data from five tissues of humans, chimpanzees, rhesus macaques, and mice. In total, 1,526 exons and exon sets from 1,236 genes showed significant splicing differences among primates. More than 60% of these differences represent constitutive-to-alternative exon transitions while an additional 25% represent changes in exon inclusion frequency...
February 14, 2018: Human Molecular Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29437980/temporal-prefrontal-cortical-network-for-discrimination-of-valuable-objects-in-long-term-memory
#2
Ali Ghazizadeh, Whitney Griggs, David A Leopold, Okihide Hikosaka
Remembering and discriminating objects based on their previously learned values are essential for goal-directed behaviors. While the cerebral cortex is known to contribute to object recognition, surprisingly little is known about its role in retaining long-term object-value associations. To address this question, we trained macaques to arbitrarily associate small or large rewards with many random fractal objects (>100) and then used fMRI to study the long-term retention of value-based response selectivity across the brain...
February 1, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29432794/different-macaque-models-of-cognitive-aging-exhibit-task-dependent-behavioral-disparities
#3
Alison E Comrie, Daniel T Gray, Anne C Smith, Carol A Barnes
Deficits in cognitive functions that rely on the integrity of the frontal and temporal lobes are characteristic of normative human aging. Due to similar aging phenotypes and homologous cortical organization between nonhuman primates and humans, several species of macaque monkeys are used as models to explore brain senescence. These macaque species are typically regarded as equivalent models of cognitive aging, yet no direct comparisons have been made to support this assumption. Here we used adult and aged rhesus and bonnet macaques (Macaca mulatta and Macaca radiata) to characterize the effect of age on acquisition and retention of information across delays in a battery of behavioral tasks that rely on prefrontal cortex and medial temporal lobe networks...
February 9, 2018: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29426955/uncoupling-the-widespread-occurrence-of-anti-nmdar1-autoantibodies-from-neuropsychiatric-disease-in-a-novel-autoimmune-model
#4
Hong Pan, Bárbara Oliveira, Gesine Saher, Ekrem Dere, Daniel Tapken, Marina Mitjans, Jan Seidel, Janina Wesolowski, Debia Wakhloo, Christina Klein-Schmidt, Anja Ronnenberg, Kerstin Schwabe, Ralf Trippe, Kerstin Mätz-Rensing, Stefan Berghoff, Yazeed Al-Krinawe, Henrik Martens, Martin Begemann, Winfried Stöcker, Franz-Josef Kaup, Reinhard Mischke, Susann Boretius, Klaus-Armin Nave, Joachim K Krauss, Michael Hollmann, Fred Lühder, Hannelore Ehrenreich
Autoantibodies of the IgG class against N-methyl-D-aspartate-receptor subunit-NR1 (NMDAR1-AB) were considered pathognomonic for anti-NMDAR encephalitis. This view has been challenged by the age-dependent seroprevalence (up to >20%) of functional NMDAR1-AB of all immunoglobulin classes found in >5000 individuals, healthy or affected by different diseases. These findings question a merely encephalitogenic role of NMDAR1-AB. Here, we show that NMDAR1-AB belong to the normal autoimmune repertoire of dogs, cats, rats, mice, baboons, and rhesus macaques, and are functional in the NMDAR1 internalization assay based on human IPSC-derived cortical neurons...
February 9, 2018: Molecular Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29400709/congenital-zika-virus-infection-as-a-silent-pathology-with-loss-of-neurogenic-output-in-the-fetal-brain
#5
Kristina M Adams Waldorf, Branden R Nelson, Jennifer E Stencel-Baerenwald, Colin Studholme, Raj P Kapur, Blair Armistead, Christie L Walker, Sean Merillat, Jay Vornhagen, Jennifer Tisoncik-Go, Audrey Baldessari, Michelle Coleman, Manjiri K Dighe, Dennis W W Shaw, Justin A Roby, Veronica Santana-Ufret, Erica Boldenow, Junwei Li, Xiaohu Gao, Michael A Davis, Jesica A Swanstrom, Kara Jensen, Douglas G Widman, Ralph S Baric, Joseph T Medwid, Kathryn A Hanley, Jason Ogle, G Michael Gough, Wonsok Lee, Chris English, W McIntyre Durning, Jeff Thiel, Chris Gatenby, Elyse C Dewey, Marian R Fairgrieve, Rebecca D Hodge, Richard F Grant, LaRene Kuller, William B Dobyns, Robert F Hevner, Michael Gale, Lakshmi Rajagopal
Zika virus (ZIKV) is a flavivirus with teratogenic effects on fetal brain, but the spectrum of ZIKV-induced brain injury is unknown, particularly when ultrasound imaging is normal. In a pregnant pigtail macaque (Macaca nemestrina) model of ZIKV infection, we demonstrate that ZIKV-induced injury to fetal brain is substantial, even in the absence of microcephaly, and may be challenging to detect in a clinical setting. A common and subtle injury pattern was identified, including (i) periventricular T2-hyperintense foci and loss of fetal noncortical brain volume, (ii) injury to the ependymal epithelium with underlying gliosis and (iii) loss of late fetal neuronal progenitor cells in the subventricular zone (temporal cortex) and subgranular zone (dentate gyrus, hippocampus) with dysmorphic granule neuron patterning...
February 5, 2018: Nature Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29398365/the-basal-forebrain-regulates-global-resting-state-fmri-fluctuations
#6
Janita Turchi, Catie Chang, Frank Q Ye, Brian E Russ, David K Yu, Carlos R Cortes, Ilya E Monosov, Jeff H Duyn, David A Leopold
Patterns of spontaneous brain activity, typically measured in humans at rest with fMRI, are used routinely to assess the brain's functional organization. The mechanisms that generate and coordinate the underlying neural fluctuations are largely unknown. Here we investigate the hypothesis that the nucleus basalis of Meynert (NBM), the principal source of widespread cholinergic and GABAergic projections to the cortex, contributes critically to such activity. We reversibly inactivated two distinct sites of the NBM in macaques while measuring fMRI activity across the brain...
January 31, 2018: Neuron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29386260/neurons-in-primate-entorhinal-cortex-represent-gaze-position-in-multiple-spatial-reference-frames
#7
Miriam L R Meister, Elizabeth A Buffalo
Primates predominantly rely on vision to gather information from the environment, and neurons representing visual space and gaze position are found in many brain areas. Within the medial temporal lobe, a brain region critical for memory, neurons in the entorhinal cortex of macaque monkeys exhibit spatial selectivity for gaze position. Specifically, the firing rate of single neurons reflects fixation location within a visual image (Killian et al., 2012). In the rodents, entorhinal cells such as grid cells, border cells, and head direction cells show spatial representations aligned to visual environmental features instead of the body (Hafting et al...
January 31, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29379868/cortical-afferents-and-myeloarchitecture-distinguish-the-medial-intraparietal-area-mip-from-neighboring-subdivisions-of-the-macaque-cortex
#8
Sophia Bakola, Lauretta Passarelli, Tony Huynh, Daniele Impieri, Katrina H Worthy, Patrizia Fattori, Claudio Galletti, Kathleen J Burman, Marcello G P Rosa
The parietal reach region (PRR) in the medial bank of the macaque intraparietal sulcus has been a subject of considerable interest in research aimed at the development of brain-controlled prosthetic arms, but its anatomical organization remains poorly characterized. We examined the anatomical organization of the putative PRR territory based on myeloarchitecture and retrograde tracer injections. We found that the medial bank includes three areas: an extension of the dorsal subdivision of V6A (V6Ad), the medial intraparietal area (MIP), and a subdivision of area PE (PEip)...
November 2017: ENeuro
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29378053/lutein-is-differentially-deposited-across-brain-regions-following-formula-or-breast-feeding-of-infant-rhesus-macaques
#9
Sookyoung Jeon, Katherine M Ranard, Martha Neuringer, Emily E Johnson, Lauren Renner, Matthew J Kuchan, Suzette L Pereira, Elizabeth J Johnson, John W Erdman
Background: Lutein, a yellow xanthophyll, selectively accumulates in primate retina and brain. Lutein may play a critical role in neural and retinal development, but few studies have investigated the impact of dietary source on its bioaccumulation in infants. Objective: We explored the bioaccumulation of lutein in infant rhesus macaques following breastfeeding or formula-feeding. Methods: From birth to 6 mo of age, male and female rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta) were either breastfed (BF) (n = 8), fed a formula supplemented with lutein, zeaxanthin, β-carotene, and lycopene (237, 19...
January 1, 2018: Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29374172/subcortical-evidence-for-a-contribution-of-arousal-to-fmri-studies-of-brain-activity
#10
Xiao Liu, Jacco A de Zwart, Marieke L Schölvinck, Catie Chang, Frank Q Ye, David A Leopold, Jeff H Duyn
Cortical activity during periods of rest is punctuated by widespread, synchronous events in both electrophysiological and hemodynamic signals, but their behavioral relevance remains unclear. Here we report that these events correspond to momentary drops in cortical arousal and are associated with activity changes in the basal forebrain and thalamus. Combining fMRI and electrophysiology in macaques, we first establish that fMRI transients co-occur with spectral shifts in local field potentials (LFPs) toward low frequencies...
January 26, 2018: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29370245/metamaterial-based-transmit-and-receive-system-for-whole-body-magnetic-resonance-imaging-at-ultra-high-magnetic-fields
#11
Tim Herrmann, Thorsten Liebig, Johannes Mallow, Christian Bruns, Jörg Stadler, Judith Mylius, Michael Brosch, Jan Taro Svedja, Zhichao Chen, Andreas Rennings, Henning Scheich, Markus Plaumann, Marcus J B Hauser, Johannes Bernarding, Daniel Erni
Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) at ultra-high fields (UHF), such as 7 T, provides an enhanced signal-to-noise ratio and has led to unprecedented high-resolution anatomic images and brain activation maps. Although a variety of radio frequency (RF) coil architectures have been developed for imaging at UHF conditions, they usually are specialized for small volumes of interests (VoI). So far, whole-body coil resonators are not available for commercial UHF human whole-body MRI systems. The goal of the present study was the development and validation of a transmit and receive system for large VoIs that operates at a 7 T human whole-body MRI system...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29367627/diversity-of-meso-scale-architecture-in-human-and-non-human-connectomes
#12
Richard F Betzel, John D Medaglia, Danielle S Bassett
Brain function is reflected in connectome community structure. The dominant view is that communities are assortative and segregated from one another, supporting specialized information processing. However, this view precludes the possibility of non-assortative communities whose complex inter-community interactions could engender a richer functional repertoire. We use weighted stochastic blockmodels to uncover the meso-scale architecture of Drosophila, mouse, rat, macaque, and human connectomes. We find that most communities are assortative, though others form core-periphery and disassortative structures, which better recapitulate observed patterns of functional connectivity and gene co-expression in human and mouse connectomes compared to standard community detection techniques...
January 24, 2018: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29366950/human-behavioural-discrimination-of-human-chimpanzee-and-macaque-affective-vocalisations-is-reflected-by-the-neural-response-in-the-superior-temporal-sulcus
#13
Thomas Fritz, Karsten Mueller, Anika Guha, Andre Gouws, Liat Levita, Timothy J Andrews, Katie E Slocombe
Accurate perception of the emotional content of vocalisations is essential for successful social communication and interaction. However, it is not clear whether our ability to perceive emotional cues from vocal signals is specific to human signals, or can be applied to other species' vocalisations. Here, we address this issue by evaluating the perception and neural response to affective vocalisations from different primate species (humans, chimpanzees and macaques). We found that the ability of human participants to discriminate emotional valence varied as a function of phylogenetic distance between species...
January 20, 2018: Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29364068/methods-for-chair-restraint-and-training-of-the-common-marmoset-on-oculomotor-tasks
#14
Kevin D Johnston, Kevin Barker, Lauren Schaeffer, David J Schaeffer, Stefan Everling
The oculomotor system is the most thoroughly understood sensorimotor system in the brain, due in large part to electrophysiological studies carried out in macaque monkeys trained to perform ocuolomotor tasks. A disadvantage of the macaque model is that many cortical oculomotor areas of interest lie within sulci, making high-density array and laminar recordings impractical. Many techniques of molecular biology developed in rodents, such as optogenetic manipulation of neuronal subtypes, are also limited in this species...
January 24, 2018: Journal of Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29363843/what-does-scalp-eeg-coherence-tell-us-about-long-range-cortical-networks
#15
Adam C Snyder, Deepa Issar, Matthew A Smith
Long-range interactions between cortical areas are undoubtedly key to the computational power of the brain. For healthy human subjects the premier method for measuring brain activity on fast timescales is EEG, and coherence between EEG signals is often used to assay functional connectivity between different brain regions. However, the nature of the underlying brain activity that is reflected in EEG coherence is currently the realm of speculation, because seldom have EEG signals been recorded simultaneously with intracranial recordings near cell bodies in multiple brain areas...
January 24, 2018: European Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29361383/how-primate-brains-vary-and-evolve
#16
Aida Gómez-Robles
Studies of brain evolution tend to focus on differences across species rather than on variation within species. A new study measures and compares intraspecific variation in macaque and human brain anatomy to explore the effect that short-term diversity has on long-term evolution.
January 17, 2018: Trends in Cognitive Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29359099/simultaneous-acquisition-of-neuronal-morphology-and-cytoarchitecture-in-the-same-golgi-stained-brain
#17
Xiao Chen, Xiaoyu Zhang, Qiuyuan Zhong, Qingtao Sun, Jie Peng, Hui Gong, Jing Yuan
Acquiring an accurate orientation reference is a prerequisite for precisely analysing the morphological features of Golgi-stained neurons in the whole brain. However, the same reflective imaging contrast of Golgi staining for morphology and Nissl staining for cytoarchitecture leads to the failure of distinguishing soma morphology and simultaneously co-locate cytoarchitecture. Here, we developed the dual-mode micro-optical sectioning tomography (dMOST) method to simultaneously image the reflective and fluorescent signals in three dimensions...
January 1, 2018: Biomedical Optics Express
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29357477/emergent-coordination-underlying-learning-to-reach-to-grasp-with-a-brain-machine-interface
#18
Mukta Vaidya, Karthikeyan Balasubramanian, Joshua Southerland, Islam Badreldin, Ahmed Eleryan, Kelsey Shattuck, Suchin Gururangan, Marc W Slutzky, Leslie C Osborne, Andrew H Fagg, Karim G Oweiss, Nicholas G Hatsopoulos
The development of coordinated reach to grasp has been well-studied in infants and children (Kuhtz-Buschbeck, Stolze, Jöhnk, Boczek-Funcke, & Illert, 1998; von Hofsten, 1984a). However, the role of motor cortex during this development is unclear because it is difficult to study in humans. We took the approach using a brain-machine interface (BMI) paradigm in rhesus macaques with prior therapeutic amputations to examine the emergence of novel, coordinated reach-to-grasp. Previous research has shown that after amputation, the cortical area previously involved in the control of the lost limb undergoes reorganization (Qi, Stepniewska, & Kaas, 2000; Schieber & Deuel, 1997; Wu & Kaas, 1999), but prior BMI work has largely relied on finding neurons that already encode specific movement-related information...
December 13, 2017: Journal of Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29344928/morphine-mediated-brain-region-specific-astrocytosis-involves-the-er-stress-autophagy-axis
#19
Susmita Sil, Palsamy Periyasamy, Ming-Lei Guo, Shannon Callen, Shilpa Buch
A recent study from our lab has revealed a link between morphine-mediated autophagy and synaptic impairment. The current study was aimed at investigating whether morphine-mediated activation of astrocytes involved the ER stress/autophagy axis. Our in vitro findings demonstrated upregulation of GFAP indicating astrocyte activation with a concomitant increase in the production of proinflammatory cytokines in morphine-exposed human astrocytes. Using both pharmacological and gene-silencing approaches, it was demonstrated that morphine-mediated defective autophagy involved upstream activation of ER stress with subsequent downstream astrocyte activation via the μ-opioid receptor (MOR)...
January 17, 2018: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29343650/decoder-calibration-with-ultra-small-current-sample-set-for-intracortical-brain-machine-interface
#20
Peng Zhang, Xuan Ma, Luyao Chen, Jin Zhou, Changyong Wang, Wei Li, Jiping He
OBJECTIVE: Intracortical brain-machine interfaces (iBMIs) aim to restore efficient communication and movement ability for paralyzed patients. However, frequent recalibration is required for consistency and reliability, and every recalibration will require relatively large most current sample set. The aim in this study is to develop an effective decoder calibration method that can achieve good performance while minimizing recalibration time. APPROACH: Two rhesus macaques implanted with intracortical microelectrode arrays were trained separately on movement and sensory paradigm...
January 18, 2018: Journal of Neural Engineering
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