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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29200477/evolutionary-algorithm-optimization-of-biological-learning-parameters-in-a-biomimetic-neuroprosthesis
#1
S Dura-Bernal, S A Neymotin, C C Kerr, S Sivagnanam, A Majumdar, J T Francis, W W Lytton
Biomimetic simulation permits neuroscientists to better understand the complex neuronal dynamics of the brain. Embedding a biomimetic simulation in a closed-loop neuroprosthesis, which can read and write signals from the brain, will permit applications for amelioration of motor, psychiatric, and memory-related brain disorders. Biomimetic neuroprostheses require real-time adaptation to changes in the external environment, thus constituting an example of a dynamic data-driven application system. As model fidelity increases, so does the number of parameters and the complexity of finding appropriate parameter configurations...
March 2017: IBM Journal of Research and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29192186/inverted-activity-patterns-in-ventromedial-prefrontal-cortex-during-value-guided-decision-making-in-a-less-is-more-task
#2
Georgios K Papageorgiou, Jerome Sallet, Marco K Wittmann, Bolton K H Chau, Urs Schüffelgen, Mark J Buckley, Matthew F S Rushworth
Ventromedial prefrontal cortex has been linked to choice evaluation and decision-making in humans but understanding the role it plays is complicated by the fact that little is known about the corresponding area of the macaque brain. We recorded activity in macaques using functional magnetic resonance imaging during two very different value-guided decision-making tasks. In both cases ventromedial prefrontal cortex activity reflected subjective choice values during decision-making just as in humans but the relationship between the blood oxygen level-dependent signal and both decision-making and choice value was inverted and opposite to the relationship seen in humans...
December 1, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29192021/contributions-of-primate-prefrontal-cortex-and-medial-temporal-lobe-to-temporal-order-memory
#3
Yuji Naya, He Chen, Cen Yang, Wendy A Suzuki
Neuropsychological and neurophysiological studies have emphasized the role of the prefrontal cortex (PFC) in maintaining information about the temporal order of events or items for upcoming actions. However, the medial temporal lobe (MTL) has also been considered critical to bind individual events or items to their temporal context in episodic memory. Here we characterize the contributions of these brain areas by comparing single-unit activity in the dorsal and ventral regions of macaque lateral PFC (d-PFC and v-PFC) with activity in MTL areas including the hippocampus (HPC), entorhinal cortex, and perirhinal cortex (PRC) as well as in area TE during the encoding phase of a temporal-order memory task...
November 30, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29187554/clustering-of-heading-selectivity-and-perception-related-activity-in-the-ventral-intraparietal-area
#4
Mengmeng Shao, Gregory C DeAngelis, Dora E Angelaki, Aihua Chen
The ventral intraparietal area (VIP) of the macaque brain is a multimodal cortical region, with many cells tuned to both optic flow and vestibular stimuli. Responses of many VIP neurons also show robust correlations with perceptual judgments during a fine heading discrimination task. Previous studies have shown that heading tuning based on optic flow is represented in a clustered fashion in VIP. However, it is unknown whether vestibular self-motion selectivity is clustered in VIP. Moreover, it is not known whether stimulus- and choice-related signals in VIP show clustering in the context of a heading discrimination task...
November 29, 2017: Journal of Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29186348/spiking-suppression-precedes-cued-attentional-enhancement-of-neural-responses-in-primary-visual-cortex
#5
Michele A Cox, Kacie Dougherty, Geoffrey K Adams, Eric A Reavis, Jacob A Westerberg, Brandon S Moore, David A Leopold, Alexander Maier
Attending to a visual stimulus increases its detectability, even if gaze is directed elsewhere. This covert attentional selection is known to enhance spiking across many brain areas, including the primary visual cortex (V1). Here we investigate the temporal dynamics of attention-related spiking changes in V1 of macaques performing a task that separates attentional selection from the onset of visual stimulation. We found that preceding attentional enhancement there was a sharp, transient decline in spiking following presentation of an attention-guiding cue...
November 23, 2017: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29181724/persistence-of-siv-in-the-brain-of-siv-infected-chinese-rhesus-macaques-with-or-without-antiretroviral-therapy
#6
Stefanie Perez, Ann-Marie Johnson, Shi-Hua Xiang, Jian Li, Brian T Foley, Lara Doyle-Meyers, Antonito Panganiban, Amitinder Kaur, Ronald S Veazey, Yuntao Wu, Binhua Ling
Persistence of HIV-1 reservoirs in the central nervous system (CNS) is an obstacle to cure strategies. However, little is known about residual viral distribution, viral replication levels, and genetic diversity in different brain regions of HIV-infected individuals on combination antiretroviral therapy (cART). Because myeloid cells particularly microglia are likely major reservoirs in the brain, and more microglia exist in white matter than gray matter in a human brain, we hypothesized the major viral reservoirs in the brain are the white matter reflected by higher levels of viral DNA...
November 27, 2017: Journal of Neurovirology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29181387/camp-response-element-binding-protein-expression-in-the-hippocampus-of-rhesus-macaques-with-chronic-ephedrine-addiction
#7
Zongbo Sun, Ye Ma, Shouxing Duan, Lei Xie, Junyao Lv, Jinzhuang Huang, Zhirong Lin, Ruiwei Guo, Shuhua Ma
Background: Drug addiction is classified as a chronic relapse nature brain disease with complicated neurobiology mechanisms. There are an increasing number of researchers that are investigating the possible mechanisms for solving the thorny problem. Methods: The model of chronic addiction of rhesus monkey ephedrine was established, where changes in body weight and behavior were monitored. The expression of cAMP response element binding protein (CREB) in the hippocampus of rhesus monkeys was identified by real-time PCR and Western blot...
2017: BioMed Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29170230/molecular-and-cellular-reorganization-of-neural-circuits-in-the-human-lineage
#8
André M M Sousa, Ying Zhu, Mary Ann Raghanti, Robert R Kitchen, Marco Onorati, Andrew T N Tebbenkamp, Bernardo Stutz, Kyle A Meyer, Mingfeng Li, Yuka Imamura Kawasawa, Fuchen Liu, Raquel Garcia Perez, Marta Mele, Tiago Carvalho, Mario Skarica, Forrest O Gulden, Mihovil Pletikos, Akemi Shibata, Alexa R Stephenson, Melissa K Edler, John J Ely, John D Elsworth, Tamas L Horvath, Patrick R Hof, Thomas M Hyde, Joel E Kleinman, Daniel R Weinberger, Mark Reimers, Richard P Lifton, Shrikant M Mane, James P Noonan, Matthew W State, Ed S Lein, James A Knowles, Tomas Marques-Bonet, Chet C Sherwood, Mark B Gerstein, Nenad Sestan
To better understand the molecular and cellular differences in brain organization between human and nonhuman primates, we performed transcriptome sequencing of 16 regions of adult human, chimpanzee, and macaque brains. Integration with human single-cell transcriptomic data revealed global, regional, and cell-type-specific species expression differences in genes representing distinct functional categories. We validated and further characterized the human specificity of genes enriched in distinct cell types through histological and functional analyses, including rare subpallial-derived interneurons expressing dopamine biosynthesis genes enriched in the human striatum and absent in the nonhuman African ape neocortex...
November 24, 2017: Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29167818/a-validation-dataset-for-macaque-brain-mri-segmentation
#9
Yaël Balbastre, Denis Rivière, Nicolas Souedet, Clara Fischer, Anne-Sophie Hérard, Susannah Williams, Michel E Vandenberghe, Julien Flament, Romina Aron-Badin, Philippe Hantraye, Jean-François Mangin, Thierry Delzescaux
Validation data for segmentation algorithms dedicated to preclinical images is fiercely lacking, especially when compared to the large number of databases of Human brain images and segmentations available to the academic community. Not only is such data essential for validating methods, it is also needed for objectively comparing concurrent algorithms and detect promising paths, as segmentation challenges have shown for clinical images. The dataset we present here is a first step in this direction. It comprises 10 T2-weighted MRIs of healthy adult macaque brains, acquired on a 7 T magnet, along with corresponding manual segmentations into 17 brain anatomic labelled regions spread over 5 hierarchical levels based on a previously published macaque atlas (Calabrese et al...
February 2018: Data in Brief
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29162827/intranasal-infection-and-contact-transmission-of-zika-virus-in-guinea-pigs
#10
Yong-Qiang Deng, Na-Na Zhang, Xiao-Feng Li, Ya-Qing Wang, Min Tian, Ye-Feng Qiu, Jun-Wan Fan, Jia-Nan Hao, Xing-Yao Huang, Hao-Long Dong, Hang Fan, Yu-Guang Wang, Fu-Chun Zhang, Yi-Gang Tong, Zhiheng Xu, Cheng-Feng Qin
Zika virus (ZIKV) is primarily transmitted to humans through mosquito bites or sexual contact. The excretion and persistence of contagious ZIKV in various body fluids have been well documented in ZIKV patients; however, the risk of direct contact exposure remains unclear. Here, we show that guinea pigs are susceptible to ZIKV infection via subcutaneous inoculation route; infected guinea pigs exhibit seroconversion and significant viral secretion in sera, saliva, and tears. Notably, ZIKV is efficiently transmitted from infected guinea pigs to naïve co-caged animals...
November 21, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29162522/loss-of-consciousness-is-related-to-hyper-correlated-gamma-band-activity-in-anesthetized-macaques-and-sleeping-humans
#11
Michał Bola, Adam B Barrett, Andrea Pigorini, Lino Nobili, Anil K Seth, Artur Marchewka
Loss of consciousness can result from a wide range of causes, including natural sleep and pharmacologically induced anesthesia. Important insights might thus come from identifying neuronal mechanisms of loss and re-emergence of consciousness independent of a specific manipulation. Therefore, to seek neuronal signatures of loss of consciousness common to sleep and anesthesia we analyzed spontaneous electrophysiological activity recorded in two experiments. First, electrocorticography (ECoG) acquired from 4 macaque monkeys anesthetized with different anesthetic agents (ketamine, medetomidine, propofol) and, second, stereo-electroencephalography (sEEG) from 10 epilepsy patients in different wake-sleep stages (wakefulness, NREM, REM)...
November 21, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29157936/short-parietal-lobe-connections-of-the-human-and-monkey-brain
#12
Marco Catani, Naianna Robertsson, Ahmad Beyh, Vincent Huynh, Francisco de Santiago Requejo, Henrietta Howells, Rachel L C Barrett, Marco Aiello, Carlo Cavaliere, Tim B Dyrby, Kristine Krug, Maurice Ptito, Helen D'Arceuil, Stephanie J Forkel, Flavio Dell'Acqua
The parietal lobe has a unique place in the human brain. Anatomically, it is at the crossroad between the frontal, occipital, and temporal lobes, thus providing a middle ground for multimodal sensory integration. Functionally, it supports higher cognitive functions that are characteristic of the human species, such as mathematical cognition, semantic and pragmatic aspects of language, and abstract thinking. Despite its importance, a comprehensive comparison of human and simian intraparietal networks is missing...
November 2, 2017: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29145469/development-of-visual-cortical-function-in-infant-macaques-a-bold-fmri-study
#13
Tom J Van Grootel, Alan Meeson, Matthias H J Munk, Zoe Kourtzi, J Anthony Movshon, Nikos K Logothetis, Lynne Kiorpes
Functional brain development is not well understood. In the visual system, neurophysiological studies in nonhuman primates show quite mature neuronal properties near birth although visual function is itself quite immature and continues to develop over many months or years after birth. Our goal was to assess the relative development of two main visual processing streams, dorsal and ventral, using BOLD fMRI in an attempt to understand the global mechanisms that support the maturation of visual behavior. Seven infant macaque monkeys (Macaca mulatta) were repeatedly scanned, while anesthetized, over an age range of 102 to 1431 days...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29142239/differential-overexpression-of-serpina3-in-human-prion-diseases
#14
S Vanni, F Moda, M Zattoni, E Bistaffa, E De Cecco, M Rossi, G Giaccone, F Tagliavini, S Haïk, J P Deslys, G Zanusso, J W Ironside, I Ferrer, G G Kovacs, G Legname
Prion diseases are fatal neurodegenerative disorders with sporadic, genetic or acquired etiologies. The molecular alterations leading to the onset and the spreading of these diseases are still unknown. In a previous work we identified a five-gene signature able to distinguish intracranially BSE-infected macaques from healthy ones, with SERPINA3 showing the most prominent dysregulation. We analyzed 128 suitable frontal cortex samples, from prion-affected patients (variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (vCJD) n = 20, iatrogenic CJD (iCJD) n = 11, sporadic CJD (sCJD) n = 23, familial CJD (gCJD) n = 17, fatal familial insomnia (FFI) n = 9, Gerstmann-Sträussler-Scheinker syndrome (GSS)) n = 4), patients with Alzheimer disease (AD, n = 14) and age-matched controls (n = 30)...
November 15, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29141529/experimental-autoimmune-encephalomyelitis-eae-model-of-cynomolgus-macaques-induced-by-recombinant-human-mog1-125-rhmog1-125-protein-and-mog34-56-peptide
#15
Yunxiao Sun, Zhen Peng, Libiao Zhang, Huaqian Wang, Xiangyang He, Xingwen Peng, Qin Zhang, Hui Liu, Junhua Rao, Haifeng Wang, Jie Wu
Experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) induced by self-myelin antigen is a widely used multiple sclerosis (MS) model for preclinical studies of new therapeutics and potential pathogenesis. By comparison with rodent EAE models, EAE models in primates are more similar to MS. Some groups have developed EAE models in primates by using common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus). However, this model has some limitations. EAE in cynomolgus monkey (Macaque fasciculrais) could overcome these limitations. In this study, EAE was induced in cynomolgus monkey by immunizing with the recombinant human myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein extracellular domain (1-125) (rhMOG1-125) and a synthetic peptide, representing peptide 34-56 of human myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG34-56) in complete Freund's adjuvant (CFA) and in combination with intravenous injection of pertussis toxin, and subsequent booster immunizations with the same dose of antigen in incomplete Freund's adjuvant (IFA) until the animals developed clinically significant EAE (score≥2)...
November 9, 2017: Protein and Peptide Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29136119/the-bat-as-a-new-model-of-cortical-development
#16
Verónica Martínez-Cerdeño, Jasmin Camacho, Jeanelle Ariza, Hailee Rogers, Kayla Horton-Sparks, Anna Kreutz, Richard Behringer, John J Rasweiler, Stephen C Noctor
The organization of the mammalian cerebral cortex shares fundamental features across species. However, while the radial thickness of grey matter varies within one order of magnitude, the tangential spread of the cortical sheet varies by orders of magnitude across species. A broader sample of model species may provide additional clues for understanding mechanisms that drive cortical expansion. Here, we introduce the bat Carollia perspicillata as a new model species. The brain of C. perspicillata is similar in size to that of mouse but has a cortical neurogenic period at least 5 times longer than mouse, and nearly as long as that of the rhesus macaque, whose brain is 100 times larger...
November 9, 2017: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29136024/severe-oxidative-stress-in-an-acute-inflammatory-demyelinating-model-in-the-rhesus-monkey
#17
Jordon Dunham, Reinofke van de Vis, Jan Bauer, Jacqueline Wubben, Nikki van Driel, Jon D Laman, Bert A 't Hart, Yolanda S Kap
Oxidative stress is increasingly implicated as a co-factor of tissue injury in inflammatory/demyelinating disorders of the central nervous system (CNS), such as multiple sclerosis (MS). While rodent experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) models diverge from human demyelinating disorders with respect to limited oxidative injury, we observed that in a non-human primate (NHP) model for MS, namely EAE in the common marmoset, key pathological features of the disease were recapitulated, including oxidative tissue injury...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29133438/normal-topography-and-binocularity-of-the-superior-colliculus-in-strabismus
#18
John R Economides, Brittany C Rapone, Daniel L Adams, Jonathan C Horton
In subjects with alternating strabismus either eye can be used to saccade to visual targets. The brain must calculate the correct vector for each saccade, which will depend on the eye chosen to make it. The superior colliculus, a major midbrain center for saccade generation, was examined to determine if the maps serving each eye were shifted to compensate for strabismus.Alternating exotropia was induced in two male macaques at age one month by sectioning the tendons of the medial recti. Once the animals grew to maturity, they were trained to fixate targets with either eye...
November 13, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29130452/augmenting-intracortical-brain-machine-interface-with-neurally-driven-error-detectors
#19
Nir Even-Chen, Sergey D Stavisky, Jonathan C Kao, Stephen I Ryu, Krishna V Shenoy
OBJECTIVE: Making mistakes is inevitable, but identifying them allows us to correct or adapt our behavior to improve future performance. Current brain-machine interfaces (BMIs) make errors that need to be explicitly corrected by the user, thereby consuming time and thus hindering performance. We hypothesized that neural correlates of the user perceiving the mistake could be used by the BMI to automatically correct errors. However, it was unknown whether intracortical outcome error signals were present in the premotor and primary motor cortices, brain regions successfully used for intracortical BMIs...
November 13, 2017: Journal of Neural Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29129799/post-exposure-treatment-with-the-oxime-rs194b-rapidly-reactivates-and-reverses-advanced-symptoms-of-lethal-inhaled-paraoxon-in-macaques
#20
Yvonne J Rosenberg, Jerry Wang, Tara Ooms, Narayanan Rajendran, Lingjun Mao, Xiaoming Jiang, Jonathan Lees, Lori Urban, Jeremiah Romper, Yadire Sepulveda, Yan-Jye Shyong, Palmer Taylor
Fatalities from organophosphate (OP) insecticide result from both occupational and deliberate exposure; significantly impacting human health. Like nerve agents, insecticides are neurotoxins which target and inhibit acetylcholinesterases (AChE) in central and peripheral synapses in the cholinergic nervous system. Post-exposure therapeutic countermeasures generally include administration of atropine with a pyridinium aldoximes e.g. pralidoxime, to reactivate the OP-inhibited AChE. However, commonly used oximes inefficiently cross the blood brain barrier and are rapidly cleared and their benefit is debated...
November 9, 2017: Toxicology Letters
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