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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29155788/use-of-synaptic-zinc-histochemistry-to-reveal-different-regions-and-laminae-in-the-developing-and-adult-brain
#1
Reem Khalil, Jonathan B Levitt
Characterization of anatomical and functional brain organization and development requires accurate identification of distinct neural circuits and regions in the immature and adult brain. Here we describe a zinc histochemical staining procedure that reveals differences in staining patterns among different layers and brain regions. Others have utilized this procedure not only to reveal the distribution of zinc-containing neurons and circuits in the brain, but also to successfully delineate areal and laminar boundaries in the developing and adult brain in several species...
October 29, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29152258/in-vitro-screening-of-neuroprotective-activity-of-indian-medicinal-plant-withania-somnifera
#2
Manjeet Singh, Charles Ramassamy
Canine cognitive dysfunction (CCD) is an age-dependent neurodegenerative condition characterised by changes in decline in learning and memory patterns. The neurodegenerative features of CCD in ageing dogs and cats are similar to human ageing and Alzheimer's disease (AD). Discovering neuroprotective disease-modifying therapies against CCD and AD is a major challenge. Strong evidence supports the role of amyloid β peptide deposition and oxidative stress in the pathophysiology of CCD and AD. In both the human and canine brain, oxidative damage progressively increases with age...
2017: Journal of Nutritional Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29142416/protective-effect-of-pluchea-lanceolata-against-aluminum-chloride-induced-neurotoxicity-in-swiss-albino-mice
#3
Ravi Mundugaru, Senthilkumar Sivanesan, Padmaja Udaykumar, Niranjan Rao, Naveen Chandra
Background: Aluminum chloride (AlCl3) is a known potent environmental neurotoxin causing progressive neurodegenerative changes in the brain. The herb Pluchea lanceolata is commonly known as "Rasana" and used as a nerve tonic in neuroinflammatory conditions in Indian system of medicine. Objective: To evaluate the neuroprotective activity of hydroalcoholic extract of P. lanceolata in chronic AlCl3-induced neurotoxicity in Swiss albino mice. Materials and Methods: Albino mice were categorized into four different groups; Group 1served as vehicle control, Group 2 mice were administered with AlCl3, 40 mg/kg body weight by intraperitoneal route for 45 consecutive days...
October 2017: Pharmacognosy Magazine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29141517/protective-effects-of-dietary-omega-3-fatty-acid-supplementation-on-organophosphate-poisoning
#4
Bahattin Avci, S Sirri Bilge, Gokhan Arslan, Omer Alici, Ozge Darakci, Turkhan Baratzada, Engin Ciftcioglu, Turker Yardan, Ayhan Bozkurt
In this study, we aimed to study the possible preventive effect of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), a dietary omega-3 fatty acid, on toxicity caused by chlorpyrifos (CPF). Six groups of Sprague Dawley rats (200-250 g) consisting of equal numbers of males and females (n = 8) were assigned to study. The rats were orally given for 5 days. The control group was administered pure olive oil, which was the vehicle for CPF. The CPF challenge groups were administered oral physiological saline, pure olive oil, or DHA (50, 100 and 400 mg/kg dosages) for 5 days...
January 1, 2017: Toxicology and Industrial Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29137683/tanshinone-i-alleviates-motor-and-cognitive-impairments-via-suppressing-oxidative-stress-in-the-neonatal-rats-after-hypoxic-ischemic-brain-damage
#5
Chunfang Dai, Yannan Liu, Zhifang Dong
Neonatal hypoxia-ischemia is one of the main reasons that cause neuronal damage and neonatal death. Several studies have shown that tanshinone I (TsI), one of the major ingredients of Danshen, exerts potential neuroprotective effect in adult mice exposed to permanent left cerebral ischemia. However, it is unclear whether administration of TsI has neuroprotective effect on neonatal hypoxic-ischemic brain damage (HIBD), and if so, the potential mechanisms also remain unclear. Here, we reported that treatment with TsI (5 mg/kg, i...
November 14, 2017: Molecular Brain
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29136946/neuroprotective-effect-of-hesperetin-and-nano-hesperetin-on-recognition-memory-impairment-and-the-elevated-oxygen-stress-in-rat-model-of-alzheimer-s-disease
#6
Elham Kheradmand, Akbar Hajizadeh Moghaddam, Mahboobeh Zare
Alzheimer disease (AD) is a progressive dementia affecting a large proportion of the aging population. There is evidence that brain tissue in patients with AD is exposed to oxidative stress during the course of the disease. Hesperetin (Hst) is a natural flavonoid, which has been reported to exert various biological activities such as antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effect. The present study aimed to investigate the effects of hesperetin and nano-hesperetin on neurobehavioral activity and superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), glutathione reductase (GRx) and catalase (CAT) enzymes activity, malondialdehyde (MDA) and glutathione (GSH) levels in hippocampal area of rats in an experimental model of AD...
November 9, 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29134984/evaluation-of-neuroprotective-effect-of-hibiscus-sabdariffa-linn-aqueous-extract-against-ischaemic-reperfusion-insult-by-bilateral-common-carotid-artery-occlusion-in-adult-male-rats
#7
Olatunde Owoeye, Micheal Oluwatosin Gabriel
Ischaemic brain injury continues to be devastating, causing social, medical and relationship disruption. Oxidativedamage has been reported to be one of the mechanisms for brain damage following ischaemic stroke. The antioxidant activityof Hibiscus sabdariffa L. was investigated for a possible protective effect against ischaemia-induced brain damage in rats.Adult male Wistar rats (n=35) were divided into five groups of 7 rats per group. Group 1 served as control was given tapwater; Group 2: 500 mg/kg daily of Hibiscus sabdariffa L...
June 30, 2017: Nigerian Journal of Physiological Sciences: Official Publication of the Physiological Society of Nigeria
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29131048/the-correlation-of-serum-brain-natriuretic-peptide-and-interleukin-6-with-quality-of-life-using-chronic-obstructive-pulmonary-disease-assessment-test
#8
Hassan Ghobadi, Mohammad Reza Aslani, Adalat Hosseinian, Esmaeil Farzaneh
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to determine the levels of serum pro-brain natriuretic peptide (pro-BNP) and interleukin (IL)-6 in patients with stable chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and to correlate these markers with health-related quality of life using COPD assessment test (CAT). MATERIALS AND METHOD: Serum pro-BNP and IL-6 levels were measured in 82 patients with stable COPD. Serum pro-BNP and serum IL-6 levels, pulmonary function, and oxygen saturation (Spo2) were measured according to Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease (GOLD) stage and CAT score...
November 2, 2017: Medical Principles and Practice: International Journal of the Kuwait University, Health Science Centre
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29123915/global-cerebral-ischemia-with-subsequent-respiratory-arrest-in-a-cat-after-repeated-use-of-a-spring-loaded-mouth-gag
#9
Emily A Hartman, Robert J McCarthy, Mary A Labato
Case summary: A 10-year-old neutered male domestic shorthair cat was evaluated because of signs of stertorous breathing and reverse sneezing of 8 months' duration. A CT scan performed 1 week before evaluation indicated nasopharyngeal stenosis or collapse. Increased respiratory effort, stertorous breathing, coughing, reverse sneezing, bilateral black ocular discharge and mucoid left nasal discharge were noted. Rhinoscopy suggested possible nasopharyngeal stenosis. Balloon dilation was attempted but unsuccessful...
July 2017: JFMS open reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29114075/interlayer-repulsion-of-retinal-ganglion-cell-mosaics-regulates-spatial-organization-of-functional-maps-in-the-visual-cortex
#10
Jaeson Jang, Se-Bum Paik
In higher mammals, orientation tuning of neurons is organized into a quasi-periodic pattern in the primary visual cortex. Our previous model studies suggested that the topography of cortical orientation maps may originate from moiré interference of ON and OFF retinal ganglion cell (RGC) mosaics, but did not account for how the consistent spatial period of maps could be achieved. Here we address this issue with two crucial findings on the development of RGC mosaics: First, homotypic local repulsion between RGCs can develop a long-range hexagonal periodicity...
November 7, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29108902/development-and-evaluation-of-a-rt-qpcr-assay-for-fast-and-sensitive-rabies-diagnosis
#11
V G Dedkov, A A Deviatkin, Е М Poleshchuk, M V Safonova, E A Blinova, M Yu Shchelkanov, G N Sidorov, E G Simonova, G A Shipulin
Rabies virus is endemic to Russia, among other countries. It is therefore critical to develop a high-quality and high-precision diagnostic procedure for the control and prevention of infection. The main objective of the research presented here was to develop a reliable RT-qPCR assay for rabies diagnostics. For this purpose, a RABV strains from various biological and geographical origins were used. In addition, rabies-positive and rabies-negative samples, as well as nucleic acids from other viruses and DNA extracted from the brain tissues of mice, dogs, cats, bats and humans, were studied using the developed assay...
September 20, 2017: Diagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29102461/effect-of-swarna-jibanti-coelogyne-cristata-lindley-in-alleviation-of-chronic-fatigue-syndrome-in-aged-wistar-rats
#12
Achintya Mitra, Tapas Kumar Sur, Sachhidananda Upadhyay, Dipankar Bhattacharyya, Jayram Hazra
BACKGROUND: Swarna Jibanti scientifically known as Coelogyne cristata Lindley (Orchidaceae), an orchid mentioned in Ayurvedic medicine is used to promote healthy life span. OBJECTIVE: The present work was planned to study the efficacy of hydro-alcoholic extract of pseudobulbs of C.cristata (CCE) to assess its role on chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) induced behavioural and biochemical changes in aged Wistar rats compared to Panax ginseng (PG), a prototype anti-stress agent...
November 1, 2017: Journal of Ayurveda and Integrative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29090969/expression-of-cat-podoplanin-in-feline-squamous-cell-carcinomas
#13
Shunsuke Itai, Shinji Yamada, Mika K Kaneko, Hiroyuki Harada, Yumiko Kagawa, Satoru Konnai, Yukinari Kato
Oral squamous cell carcinoma is an aggressive tumor in cats; however, molecular-targeted therapies against this tumor, including antibody therapy, have not been developed. Sensitive and specific monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) against highly expressed membrane proteins are needed to develop antibody therapies. Podoplanin, a type I transmembrane glycoprotein, is expressed in many human malignant tumors, including brain tumor, esophageal cancer, lung cancer, mesothelioma, and oral cancer. Podoplanin binds to C-type lectin-like receptor-2 (CLEC-2) and activates platelet aggregation, which is involved in cancer metastasis...
November 1, 2017: Monoclonal Antibodies in Immunodiagnosis and Immunotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29080770/atypical-fatal-sarcocystosis-associated-with-sarcocystis-neurona-in-a-white-nosed-coati-nasua-narica-molaris
#14
Jitender P Dubey, John G Trupkiewicz, Shiv K Verma, Joseph D Mowery, Gloria Adedoyin, Tim Georoff, Michael E Grigg
The protozoan parasite Sarcocystis neurona is an important cause of disease in horses (equine protozoal myeloencephalitis, EPM) and marine mammals. Isolated reports of clinical EPM-like disease have been documented in a zebra, raccoon, domestic cat, domestic dog, ferret, skunk, mink, lynx, red panda and fisher. The predominant disease is encephalomyelitis associated with schizonts in neural tissues. Here, we report highly disseminated sarcocystosis, in many tissues of a captive White-nosed coati (Nasua narica molaris)...
November 30, 2017: Veterinary Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29076435/andrographolide-reorganise-hyperglycaemia-and-distorted-antioxidant-profile-in-streptozotocin-induced-diabetic-rats
#15
Ramavat Ravindhar Naik, Praveen Kumar Munipally, Turlapati Nagaraju
Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a constant and illimitable metabolic disorder that can happen even at a young age due to the virtual absence of naturally acting insulin, which uptakes and accumulates glucose; thereby reduce the use of glucose. In the present study, we evaluated the neuroprotective efficacy of andrographolide on streptozotocin (STZ) induced diabetic Sprague dawley rats. Diabetes was induced by intraperitonial injection of STZ (45 mg/kg B.W) in Sprague dawley rats. Andrographolide (2.5 mg/kg B.W) was administered orally to diabetic rats and Glibenclamide (25mg/kg B...
October 26, 2017: Cardiovascular & Hematological Agents in Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29070901/the-neural-representation-of-human-versus-nonhuman-bipeds-and-quadrupeds
#16
Liuba Papeo, Moritz F Wurm, Nikolaas N Oosterhof, Alfonso Caramazza
How do humans recognize humans among other creatures? Recent studies suggest that a preference for conspecifics may emerge already in perceptual processing, in regions such as the right posterior superior temporal sulcus (pSTS), implicated in visual perception of biological motion. In the current functional MRI study, participants viewed point-light displays of human and nonhuman creatures moving in their typical bipedal (man and chicken) or quadrupedal mode (crawling-baby and cat). Stronger activity for man and chicken versus baby and cat was found in the right pSTS responsive to biological motion...
October 25, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29068596/the-evaluation-of-the-changes-in-enzymatic-antioxidant-reserves-and-lipid-peroxidation-in-chosen-parts-of-the-brain-in-an-animal-model-of-parkinson-disease
#17
Ewa B Romuk, Wioletta Szczurek, Michał Oleś, Artur Gabrysiak, Marta Skowron, Przemysław Nowak, Ewa Birkner
BACKGROUND: Parkinson's disease is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder, characterized by the loss of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra pars compacta. The causes of Parkinson's disease are not fully understood; however, increasing evidence implicates oxidative stress. OBJECTIVES: The study was aimed at assessing the nature of the changes in the oxidation-antioxidant balance in the cerebral cortex, striatum, hippocampus, thalamus, and cerebellum in a rat model of Parkinson's disease (PD)...
September 2017: Advances in Clinical and Experimental Medicine: Official Organ Wroclaw Medical University
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29065825/2-hydroxypropyl-%C3%AE-cyclodextrins-and-the-blood-brain-barrier-considerations-for-niemann-pick-disease-type-c1
#18
Pericles Calias
The rare, chronic, autosomal-recessive lysosomal storage disease Niemann-Pick disease type C1 (NPC1) is characterized by progressively debilitating and ultimately fatal neurological manifestations. There is tremendous need for disease-modifying therapies that address NPC1 neurological pathophysiology, and passage through the blood-brain barrier represents an important consideration for novel NPC1 drugs. Animal investigations of 2-hydroxypropyl--cyclodextrins (HPCD) in NPC1 in mice demonstrated that HPCD does not cross the blood-brain barrier in significant amounts but suggested a potential for these complex oligosaccharides to moderately impact CNS manifestations when administered subcutaneously or intraperitoneally at very high doses; however, safety concerns regarding pulmonary toxicity were raised...
October 19, 2017: Current Pharmaceutical Design
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29062197/n-terminal-pro-brain-natriuretic-peptides-in-dogs-and-cats-a-technical-and-clinical-review
#19
REVIEW
Gabriela Vieira de Lima, Felipp da Silveira Ferreira
Biomarkers are quantitative indicators of biological processes performed by an organ or system. In recent years, natriuretic peptides (NPs) have emerged as important tools in the diagnosis and therapeutic monitoring of heart diseases. Research has shown that serum and plasma levels of N-terminal pro brain NP (NT-proBNP) in dogs and cats are the only biomarkers that afford to diagnose and monitor congestive processes and, indirectly, the myocardial function of small animals. The present review discusses the peer-reviewed specialized literature about NT-proBNP and presents and compares the potential clinical applications of this NP in veterinary medicine of small animals, considering diagnosis, follow-up, and prognosis of myocardial or systemic diseases...
September 2017: Veterinary World
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29062190/detection-of-toxoplasma-gondii-in-cat-s-internal-organs-by-immunohistochemistry-methods-labeled-with-strept-avidin-biotin
#20
Muhammad Hanafiah, Raden Wisnu Nurcahyo, Rika Yuniar Siregar, Joko Prastowo, Sri Hartati, Bambang Sutrisno, Dwinna Aliza
AIM: The aims of the study are to detect the presence of Toxoplasma gondii antigen and to determine its distribution location in several organs of domestic cat using immunohistochemistry (IHC) method with Labeled-[Strept] Avidin-Biotin (LAB-SA). MATERIAL AND METHODS: Four domestic cats aged 1-2 years were used as sample in this research. The sample divided into two groups with two cats each. Cats in Group I were positive Toxoplasma based on serologically screening test, while cats in Group II were orally infected with 1×10(6)Toxoplasmaoocyst...
September 2017: Veterinary World
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