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Cat brain

Cherian K Kandathil, Olga Stakhovskaya, Patricia A Leake
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 20, 2016: Hearing Research
Ye Chen, Yu Lei, Li-Qun Mo, Jun Li, Mao-Hua Wang, Ji-Cheng Wei, Jun Zhou
Sepsis is associated with high morbidity and mortality. This study was to investigate the protective effects of electroacupuncture (EA) pretreatment with different waveforms on septic brain injury in rats and its mechanism. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were pretreated by EA with different waveforms (continuous wave, dilatational wave, or intermittent wave) at Baihui (GV20) and Tsusanli (ST36) acupoints for 30min, and underwent cecal ligation and puncture (CLP) or sham operation. The results showed that EA pretreatment with different waveforms improved survival rate, attenuated encephaledema, brain injury, neuronal apoptosis and cognitive dysfunction, and preserved blood-brain barrier(BBB)...
October 19, 2016: Brain Research Bulletin
Deepak Suresh Mohale, Alok Shiomurthi Tripathi, Abhijit V Shrirao, Amol G Jawarkar, Anil V Chandewar
AIM: The aim of this study was to analyze the ethyl acetate extract of Nerium indicum (NIE) flower for its antioxidant effect in anxious Sprague-Dawley rats. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Animals were divided into six groups (n = 6) and treated with 200 mg/kg and 400 mg/kg p.o. of NIE for 21 days to assess its preventive and curative effects. Anxiety was induced by isolating animals socially for 21 days. Elevated plus maze (EPM) and light and dark model were used for measuring anxiety in animals...
July 2016: Indian Journal of Pharmacology
I Kafantaris, B Kotsampasi, V Christodoulou, E Kokka, P Kouka, Z Terzopoulou, K Gerasopoulos, D Stagos, C Mitsagga, I Giavasis, S Makri, K Petrotos, D Kouretas
Grape pomace is a by-product of winemaking process and rich in bioactive compounds such as plant polyphenols having antioxidant and antimicrobial activities. As known, oxidative stress may cause a number of pathological conditions in farm animals and thus affecting animal welfare and production. Moreover, pathogenic bacteria affect animals' health status. Thus, the objective of this study was to investigate whether lambs' feed supplemented with grape pomace enhances the antioxidant mechanisms and reduces the growth of pathogenic bacteria...
October 18, 2016: Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition
Alan J Wein
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 2016: Journal of Urology
Özgür Kasımay Çakır, Nurfitnat Ellek, Nabila Salehin, Rabia Hamamcı, Hülya Keleş, Damla Gökçeoğlu Kayalı, Dilek Akakın, Meral Yüksel, Dilek Özbeyli
INTRODUCTION: Caffeine is an adrenergic antagonist that enhances neuronal activity. Psychological stress depresses cognitive function. AIM: To investigate the effects of acute and chronic low dose caffeine on anxiety-like behavior and cognitive functions of acute or chronic psychological stressed rats. MATERIAL-METHOD: Acute or chronic caffeine (3mg/kg) was administered to male Sprague Dawley rats (200-250g, n=42) before acute (cat odor) and chronic variable psychological stress (restraint overcrowding stress, elevated plus maze, cat odor, forced swimming) induction...
October 13, 2016: Physiology & Behavior
Karinne Saucedo-Vence, Armando Elizalde-Velázquez, Octavio Dublán-García, Marcela Galar-Martínez, Hariz Islas-Flores, Nely SanJuan-Reyes, Sandra García-Medina, María Dolores Hernández-Navarro, Leobardo Manuel Gómez-Oliván
Sucralose (SUC) is an artificial sweetener that is now widely used in North American and Europe; it has been detected in a wide variety of aquatic environments. It is considered safe for human consumption but its effects in the ecosystem have not yet been studied in depth, since limited ecotoxicological data are available in the peer-reviewed literature. This study aimed to evaluate potential SUC-induced toxicological hazard in the blood, brain, gill, liver and muscle of Cyprinus carpio using oxidative stress biomarkers...
October 13, 2016: Science of the Total Environment
Manmeet K Mamik, Eugene L Asahchop, Wing F Chan, Yu Zhu, William G Branton, Brienne A McKenzie, Eric A Cohen, Christopher Power
: HIV-1 infection of the brain causes the neurodegenerative syndrome HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND), for which there is no specific treatment. Herein, we investigated the actions of insulin using ex vivo and in vivo models of HAND. Increased neuroinflammatory gene expression was observed in brains from patients with HIV/AIDS. The insulin receptor was detected on both neurons and glia, but its expression was unaffected by HIV-1 infection. Insulin treatment of HIV-infected primary human microglia suppressed supernatant HIV-1 p24 levels, reduced CXCL10 and IL-6 transcript levels, and induced peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPAR-γ) expression...
October 12, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
Catherine Lau, Mark Hebert, Marc A Vani, Sue Walling, Shawn Hayley, Diane C Lagace, Jacqueline Blundell
Traumatic events contribute to a variety of neuropsychiatric disorders including post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Identifying the neural mechanisms that affect the stress response may improve treatment for stress-related disorders. Neurogenesis, the production of neurons, occurs within the adult brain and disturbances in neurogenesis in the subgranular zone (SGZ) of the hippocampus have been linked to mood and anxiety disorders. Chronic stress models have mainly suggested correlations with stress reducing adult SGZ neurogenesis, whereas acute stress models and those with a naturalistic component that are also associated with long-lasting behavioral changes have produced inconsistent results...
October 7, 2016: Neuroscience
Steven F Merkel, Allison M Andrews, Evan M Lutton, Dakai Mu, Eloise Hudry, Bradley T Hyman, Casey A Maguire, Servio H Ramirez
Developing therapies for central nervous system (CNS) diseases is exceedingly difficult due to the blood-brain barrier (BBB). Notably, emerging technologies may provide promising new options for the treatment of CNS disorders. Adeno-associated virus serotype 9 (AAV9) has been shown to transduce cells in the CNS following intravascular administration in rodents, cats, pigs, and non-human primates. These results suggest that AAV9 is capable of crossing the BBB. However, mechanisms that govern AAV9 transendothelial trafficking at the BBB remain unknown...
October 8, 2016: Journal of Neurochemistry
Lie-Qiang Xu, You-Liang Xie, Shu-Hua Gui, Xie Zhang, Zhi-Zhun Mo, Chao-Yue Sun, Cai-Lan Li, Dan-Dan Luo, Zhen-Biao Zhang, Zi-Ren Su, Jian-Hui Xie
Accumulating evidence has shown that chronic injection of d-galactose (d-gal) can mimic natural aging, with accompanying liver and brain injury. Oxidative stress and apoptosis play a vital role in the aging process. In this study, the antioxidant ability of polydatin (PD) was investigated using four established in vitro systems. An in vivo study was also conducted to investigate the possible protective effect of PD on d-gal-induced liver and brain damage. The results showed that PD had remarkable in vitro free radical scavenging activity on 2,2-diphenyl-1-picryl-hydrazyl (DPPH˙), 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzo-thiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS(+)˙) radical ions, and hydroxyl and superoxide anions...
October 7, 2016: Food & Function
Thomas Deneux, Amiram Grinvald
Spontaneous internal activity plays a major role in higher brain functions. The question of how it modulates sensory evoked activity and behavior has been explored in anesthetized rodents, cats, monkeys and in behaving human subjects. However, the complementary question of how a brief sensory input modulates the internally generated activity in vivo remains unresolved, and high-resolution mapping of these bidirectional interactions was never performed. Integrating complementary methodologies, at population and single cells levels, we explored this question...
October 5, 2016: Cerebral Cortex
Panpan Zhao, Ying Guo, Wen Zhang, Hongliang Chai, Houjuan Xing, Mingwei Xing
Arsenic, a naturally occurring heavy metal pollutant, is one of the functioning risk factors for neurological toxicity in humans. However, little is known about the effects of arsenic on the nervous system of Gallus Gallus. To investigate whether arsenic induce neurotoxicity and influence the oxidative stress and heat shock proteins (Hsps) response in chickens, seventy-two 1-day-old male Hy-line chickens were treated with different doses of arsenic trioxide (As2O3). The histological changes, antioxidant enzyme activity, and the expressions of Hsps were detected...
January 2017: Chemosphere
Amanda Poulsen, Heather Fritz, Deana L Clifford, Patricia Conrad, Austin Roy, Elle Glueckert, Janet Foley
We investigated the prevalence of Toxoplasma gondii in 2011-15 to assess its potential threat on the endangered Amargosa vole ( Microtus californicus scirpensis) in the US and California. Surveillance was simultaneously performed on populations of syntopic rodent species. We detected antibodies to T. gondii in sera from 10.5% of 135 wild-caught Amargosa voles; 8% of 95 blood samples were PCR-positive for the T. gondii B1 gene, and 5.0% of 140 sympatric rodent brain samples were PCR-positive. Exposure to T. gondii did not change the probability that an animal would be recaptured in the field study...
September 30, 2016: Journal of Wildlife Diseases
Maria Teresa Mandara, Luca Motta, Pietro Calò
In cats, lymphoma (lymphosarcoma) is the most common neoplasm affecting the spinal cord and the second most common intracranial tumour. Although lymphoma commonly develops in the spinal cord as a part of a multicentric process, a primary form may occur. Lymphoma can exhibit a wide range of morphological patterns, including intraparenchymal brain mass, lymphomatosis cerebri, intravascular lymphoma, lymphomatous choroiditis and meningitis, extradural, intradural-extramedullary or intramedullary lymphoma in the spinal cord, or neurolymphomatosis in the peripheral nerves...
October 2016: Veterinary Journal
P Przyborowska, Z Adamiak, P Holak, Y Zhalniarovich
The intention of the comparison of both low and high field was to examine which anatomical brain structures of cats were visible on low field images, as in clinical veterinary practice, 3 Tesla (T) magnets were of limited availability. The research was performed on 20 European short-haired male and female cats, aged 1-3 years, with body weight of 2-4 kg. 0.25 T magnetic resonance images of neurocranium were acquired in all using T2-weighted fast spin echo sequences with repetition time (TR) of 4010 ms and echo time (TE) of 90 ms in dorsal and transverse plane, and T2-weighted fast spine echo sequences with TR of 4290 ms and TE of 120 ms in sagittal plane...
September 25, 2016: Anatomia, Histologia, Embryologia
Andrea L Cheville, Jeffrey R Basford, Ian Parney, Ping Yang, Felix E Diehn
OBJECTIVES: To test whether the presence of patient- and imaging-level characteristics: 1) are associated with clinically meaningful changes in mobility among late stage cancer patients with metastatic brain involvement; and 2) can predict their risk of near-term functional decline. DESIGN: Prospective nested cohort study SETTING: Quaternary academic medical center PARTICIPANTS: The study population consisted of a nested cohort of the 66 patients with imaging confirmed brain metastases among a larger cohort of 311 patients with late stage lung cancer...
September 22, 2016: Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation
Tiago Siebert Altavini, Sergio Andres Conde Ocazionez, David Eriksson, Thomas Wunderle, Kerstin Erika Schmidt
Ongoing brain activity exhibits patterns resembling neural ensembles co-activated by stimulation or task performance. Such patterns have been attributed to the brain's functional architecture, e.g. selective long-range connections. Here, we directly investigate the contribution of selective connections between hemispheres to spontaneous and evoked maps in cat area 18 close to the 17/18 border. We recorded voltage-sensitive dye imaging maps and spiking activity while manipulating interhemispheric input by reversibly deactivating corresponding contralateral areas...
September 21, 2016: NeuroImage
Rafael Calixto Bortolin, Juciano Gasparotto, Amanda Rodrigues de Vargas, Maurilio da Silva Morrone, Alice Kunzler, Bernardo Saldanha Henkin, Paloma Rodrigues Chaves, Sabrina Roncato, Daniel Pens Gelain, José Cláudio Fonseca Moreira
Most scientific studies are too long to be conducted in a single day or even in a few days. Thus, there is a need to store samples for subsequent investigations. There is sparse information about specific sample storage protocols that minimize analytical error and variability in evaluations of redox parameters. Therefore, the effects of storage temperature and freezing time on enzymatic activities, protein oxidative damage, and CAT (catalase) and SOD1 (superoxide dismutase) immunocontent of blood, liver, and brain from rats were determined for two different sample forms (frozen homogenized tissue or frozen intact tissue)...
September 23, 2016: Biopreservation and Biobanking
Joanna Skalska, Beata Dąbrowska-Bouta, Lidia Strużyńska
While it is known that silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) can enter the brain, our knowledge of AgNP-induced neurotoxicity remains incomplete. We investigated the ability of 10 nm citrate-stabilized AgNPs to generate oxidative stress in brain and liver of adult male Wistar rats after repeated oral exposure for 14 days, using a low dose of 0.2 mg/kg b.w. as compared with the same dose of ionic silver (silver citrate). In AgNP-exposed animals, the level of reactive oxygen species (ROS), lipid peroxidation (MDA) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activity were found to be significantly higher in brain relative to the control group receiving saline...
September 19, 2016: Food and Chemical Toxicology
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