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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27923479/immune-cell-infiltration-in-feline-meningioma
#1
R McBride, E A Sloma, H N Erb, A D Miller
Meningioma is the most common primary brain tumour in the cat. Although most of these tumours are considered to be benign based on histological characteristics, little is known regarding microenvironmental changes associated with the tumour. The characterization of the immune-cell infiltrate in human and canine meningiomas has been described; however, there are no data regarding the cat equivalent. Seventeen formalin-fixed, paraffin wax-embedded samples of feline meningioma were evaluated by light microscopy and immunohistochemistry (IHC) for expression of CD3, Pax5, Iba-1, HLA-DR, MAC387, CD163 and Ki67...
December 3, 2016: Journal of Comparative Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27919636/adrenomedullin-and-angiotensin-ii-signaling-pathways-involved-in-the-effects-on-cerebellar-antioxidant-enzymes-activity
#2
Figueira Leticia, Israel Anita
Human adrenomedullin (AM) is a 52-amino acid peptide involved in cardiovascular control. AM has two specific receptors formed by the calcitonin-receptor-like receptor (CRLR) and receptor activity-modifying protein (RAMP) 2 or 3, known as AM1 and AM2 receptors, respectively. In addition, AM has appreciable affinity for the calcitonin gene-1 related peptide receptor (CGRP1), composed of CRLR/RAMP1. In brain, AM and their receptors are expressed in several localized areas, including the cerebellum. AM has been reported as an antioxidant...
December 2, 2016: Brain Research Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27917958/functional-complexity-emerging-from-anatomical-constraints-in-the-brain-the-significance-of-network-modularity-and-rich-clubs
#3
Gorka Zamora-López, Yuhan Chen, Gustavo Deco, Morten L Kringelbach, Changsong Zhou
The large-scale structural ingredients of the brain and neural connectomes have been identified in recent years. These are, similar to the features found in many other real networks: the arrangement of brain regions into modules and the presence of highly connected regions (hubs) forming rich-clubs. Here, we examine how modules and hubs shape the collective dynamics on networks and we find that both ingredients lead to the emergence of complex dynamics. Comparing the connectomes of C. elegans, cats, macaques and humans to surrogate networks in which either modules or hubs are destroyed, we find that functional complexity always decreases in the perturbed networks...
December 5, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27901472/effects-of-low-and-high-deprenyl-dose-on-antioxidant-enzyme-activities-in-the-adult-rat-brain
#4
Maria Lalkovicova, Frantiska Horvathova, Igor Sulla, Jozef Mihalik, Viera Danielisova
We evaluated the effects of low dose deprenyl (LDD, 0.0025 mg/kg per day) and high dose deprenyl (HDD, 0.25 mg/kg per day) treatment of male Wistar rats for 30 days on the activities of SOD and CAT in the cortex, striatum, and hippocampus. Total SOD and MnSOD activities were increased with LDD (p <0.05) in the cortex (0.74 ± 0.03; 0.31 ± 0.02), striatum (0.75 ± 0.02; 0.27 ± 0.03) and CA1 region of the hippocampus (0.75 ± 0.02; 0.29 ± 0.03) compared to the control (0.53 ± 0.02; 0.15 ± 0.02), but reduced (p <0...
November 30, 2016: General Physiology and Biophysics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27901381/effects-of-fisetin-on-hyperhomocysteinemia-induced-experimental-endothelial-dysfunction-and-vascular-dementia
#5
Boyina Hemanth Kumar, Ravula Arun Reddy, Jerald Mahesh Kumar, B Dinesh Kumar, Prakash V Diwan
This study was designed to investigate the effects of fisetin (FST) on hyperhomocysteinemia (HHcy)-induced experimental endothelial dysfunction (ED) and vascular dementia (VaD) in rats. Wistar rats were randomly divided into 8 groups: control, vehicle control, l-methionine, FST (5, 10, and 25 mg/kg, p.o.), FST-per se (25 mg/kg, p.o.), and donepezil (0.1 mg/kg, p.o.). l-Methionine administration (1.7 g/kg, p.o.) for 32 days induced HHcy. ED and VaD induced by HHcy were determined by vascular reactivity measurements, behavioral analysis using Morris water maze and Y-maze, along with a biochemical and histological evaluation of thoracic aorta and brain tissues...
August 11, 2016: Canadian Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27896903/imaging-diagnosis-magnetic-resonance-imaging-of-a-neuronal-heterotopia-in-the-brain-of-a-cat
#6
Antonia DeJesus, Bradley J Turek, Evelyn Galban, Jantra Ngosuwan Suran
A domestic shorthair kitten was presented for evaluation and further treatment of seizures. Magnetic resonance imaging of the brain revealed a large multilobulated mass in the third ventricle extending into the right lateral ventricle with secondary obstructive hydrocephalus. The mass was homogeneously isointense to gray matter on T2W, T2-FLAIR, T2(*) W, T1W, and ADC images, and hyperintense on DW-EPI. There was no appreciable contrast enhancement. Seizures were managed medically and with subsequent ventriculoperitoneal shunt placement...
November 28, 2016: Veterinary Radiology & Ultrasound
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27895098/brain-aluminium-accumulation-and-oxidative-stress-in-the-presence-of-calcium-silicate-dental-cements
#7
K Demirkaya, B Can Demirdöğen, Z Öncel Torun, O Erdem, E Çırak, Y M Tunca
Mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA) is a calcium silicate dental cement used for various applications in dentistry. This study was undertaken to test whether the presence of three commercial brands of calcium silicate dental cements in the dental extraction socket of rats would affect the brain aluminium (Al) levels and oxidative stress parameters. Right upper incisor was extracted and polyethylene tubes filled with MTA Angelus, MTA Fillapex or Theracal LC, or left empty for the control group, were inserted into the extraction socket...
November 27, 2016: Human & Experimental Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27886567/evaluation-of-8-hydroxy-2-deoxyguanosine-and-nfkb-activation-oxidative-stress-response-acetylcholinesterase-activity-and-histopathological-changes-in-rainbow-trout-brain-exposed-to-linuron
#8
Ahmet Topal, Gonca Alak, Serdar Altun, Hüseyin Serkan Erol, Muhammed Atamanalp
Linuron is a widely used herbicide to control grasses and annual broad leaf weeds. It is known that linuron has toxic effects on different organisms. However, the toxic effects of linuron on aquatic organisms, especially fish, is completely unknown. Thus, we aimed to investigate changes in 8-hydroxy-2-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) and nuclear factor kappa B (NFkB) activity, histopathological changes, antioxidant responses and acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity in rainbow trout brain after exposure to linuron. Fish were exposed to 30μg/L, 120μg/L and 240μg/L concentrations of linuron for twenty-one days...
November 13, 2016: Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27872573/toxicity-of-silver-nanoparticles-on-the-brain-of-oreochromis-niloticus-and-tilapia-zillii
#9
Mohamed Afifi, Salina Saddick, Osama A Abu Zinada
BACKGROUND: Silver nanoparticles (Ag-NPs) are widely used nowadays in a variety of commercial applications including medical, health care, textiles and household supplies. OBJECTIVES: The current study was designed to determine the median lethal dose (LC50) of Ag-NPs on Oreochromis niloticus and Tilapia zillii. METHODS: Acute and sub-acute toxicity study of the Ag-NPs on brain tissues was carried out using different concentrations of the NPs at 2 mg L and 4 mg L...
November 2016: Saudi Journal of Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27872027/how-the-emotional-motor-system-controls-the-pelvic-organs
#10
REVIEW
Gert Holstege
INTRODUCTION: The brain has two goals: survival of the individual and survival of the species. It ensures that the body resides in safe circumstances and can obtain sufficient drink and food. It also has to produce and protect offspring. Its most important tool is its motor system, which consists of the voluntary and emotional motor systems. AIM: To explain how the brain uses its emotional motor system to control the pelvic organs. METHODS: Anatomic and physiologic data in cats and humans are used to find out how this motor system works and what parts of the brain and brainstem are involved...
October 2016: Sexual Medicine Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27863455/what-did-we-learn-from-the-animal-studies-of-body-weight-supported-treadmill-training-and-where-do-we-go-from-here
#11
Ray de Leon, Christine Dy
Body weight supported treadmill training (BWSTT) developed from animal studies of spinal cord injury (SCI). Evidence that spinal cats, i.e. cats that have a complete surgical transection of the cord, could regain the ability to step on a moving treadmill indicated a vast potential for spinal circuits to generate walking without the brain. BWSTT represented a means to unlock that potential. As the technique was adapted as a rehabilitation intervention for humans with SCI, shortcomings in the translation to walking in the real world were exposed...
November 18, 2016: Journal of Neurotrauma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27859822/expression-of-steroidogenic-enzymes-and-steroid-receptors-in-foetal-gonads-of-domestic-cat-sex-similarities-and-differences
#12
B C Braun, K Jewgenow
Foetal gonads already produce steroid hormones and by this influence the further development of external and internal genitalia as well as of the brain. Beside this, foetal gonads themselves can be influenced by foetal or maternal hormones. The time course of foetal gonadal development can differ between species. As knowledge on processes in domestic cats is very limited, the steroidogenic enzyme expressions as well as these of steroid receptors were analysed in foetal gonads of domestic cats. We investigated a period from beginning of the second half of pregnancy to the beginning of the third trimester; a phase, where also gonadal development proceeds...
November 15, 2016: Reproduction in Domestic Animals, Zuchthygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27859771/engineering-a-gene-silencing-viral-construct-that-targets-the-cat-hypothalamus-to-induce-permanent-sterility-an-update
#13
G A Dissen, K Adachi, A Lomniczi, T Chatkupt, B L Davidson, H Nakai, S R Ojeda
The intent of this contribution is to provide an update of the progress we have made towards developing a method/treatment to permanently sterilize cats. Our approach employs two complementary methodologies: RNA interference (RNAi) to silence genes involved in the central control of reproduction and a virus-based gene therapy system intended to deliver RNAi selectively to the hypothalamus (where these genes are expressed) via the systemic administration of modified viruses. We selected the hypothalamus because it contains neurons expressing Kiss1 and Tac3, two genes essential for reproduction and fertility...
November 17, 2016: Reproduction in Domestic Animals, Zuchthygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27849520/cellular-and-neurochemical-basis-of-sleep-stages-in-the-thalamocortical-network
#14
Giri P Krishnan, Sylvain Chauvette, Isaac Shamie, Sara Soltani, Igor Timofeev, Sydney S Cash, Eric Halgren, Maxim Bazhenov
The link between the combined action of neuromodulators in the brain and global brain states remains a mystery. In this study, using biophysically realistic models of the thalamocortical network, we identified the critical intrinsic and synaptic mechanisms, associated with the putative action of acetylcholine (ACh), GABA and monoamines, which lead to transitions between primary brain vigilance states (waking, non-rapid eye movement sleep [NREM] and REM sleep) within an ultradian cycle. Using ECoG recordings from humans and LFP recordings from cats and mice, we found that during NREM sleep the power of spindle and delta oscillations is negatively correlated in humans and positively correlated in animal recordings...
November 16, 2016: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27844058/western-high-fat-diet-consumption-during-adolescence-increases-susceptibility-to-traumatic-stress-while-selectively-disrupting-hippocampal-and-ventricular-volumes
#15
Priya Kalyan-Masih, Julio David Vega-Torres, Christina Miles, Elizabeth Haddad, Sabrina Rainsbury, Mohsen Baghchechi, Andre Obenaus, Johnny D Figueroa
Psychological trauma and obesity co-occur frequently and have been identified as major risk factors for psychiatric disorders. Surprisingly, preclinical studies examining how obesity disrupts the ability of the brain to cope with psychological trauma are lacking. The objective of this study was to determine whether an obesogenic Western-like high-fat diet (WD) predisposes rats to post-traumatic stress responsivity. Adolescent Lewis rats (postnatal day 28) were fed ad libitum for 8 weeks with either the experimental WD diet (41...
September 2016: ENeuro
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27843905/cat-scratch-disease-expanded-spectrum
#16
Hassan A Aziz, Thomas P Plesec, Camille Sabella, Unni K Udayasankar, Arun D Singh
BACKGROUND: To expand the spectrum of ophthalmic manifestations in cat scratch disease. METHODS: Case report. RESULTS: A 7-year-old male was referred for evaluation of his left optic disc after failing vision screening test at school. His visual acuity was 20/20 OD and light perception OS. Fundus examination showed a left optic disc lesion associated with an exudative retinal detachment and vitreous seeding. Ultrasonography revealed a 7 × 7...
October 2016: Ocular Oncology and Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27830988/cell-cycle-s-phase-markers-are-expressed-in-cerebral-neuron-nuclei-of-cats-infected-by-the-feline-panleukopenia-virus
#17
Luc Poncelet, Mutien Garigliany, Kunie Ando, Mathieu Franssen, Daniel Desmecht, Jean-Pierre Brion
The cell cycle-associated neuronal death hypothesis, which has been proposed as a common mechanism for most neurodegenerative diseases, is notably supported by evidencing cell cycle effectors in neurons. However, in naturally occurring nervous system diseases, these markers are not expressed in neuron nuclei but in cytoplasmic compartments. In other respects, the Feline Panleukopenia Virus (FPV) is able to complete its cycle in mature brain neurons in the feline species. As a parvovirus, the FPV is strictly dependent on its host cell reaching the cell cycle S phase to start its multiplication...
November 10, 2016: Cell Cycle
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27829315/transplants-of-neurotrophin-producing-autologous-fibroblasts-promote-recovery-of-treadmill-stepping-in-the-acute-sub-chronic-and-chronic-spinal-cat
#18
Alexander James Krupka, Itzhak Fischer, Michel A Lemay
Adult cats show limited spontaneous locomotor capabilities following spinal transection, but recover treadmill stepping with body-weight supported training. Delivery of neurotrophic factors such as brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and neurotrophic factor 3 (NT-3) can substitute for body-weight supported training and promotes a similar recovery in a shorter period of time. Autologous cell grafts would negate the need for the immunosuppressive agents currently used with most grafts, but have not shown functional benefits in incomplete spinal cord injury models and have never been tested in complete transection or chronic injury models...
November 9, 2016: Journal of Neurotrauma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27827801/shape-of-the-feline-cerebellum-and-occipital-bone-related-to-breed-on-mri-of-200-cats
#19
Xander Huizing, Andy Sparkes, Ruth Dennis
OBJECTIVES: The MRI features of the feline cerebellum and occipital bone have not previously been described in the literature. The aims of this study were three-fold. Firstly, to document variations in cerebellar shape on MRI in neurologically normal cats to support our hypothesis that crowding of the contents of the caudal fossa or herniation of the cerebellar vermis through the foramen magnum occurs frequently as an anatomical variant. Secondly, to document variations in the morphology of the occipital bone...
November 8, 2016: Journal of Feline Medicine and Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27827800/quantification-of-cerebral-lateral-ventricular-volume-in-cats-by-low-and-high-field-mri
#20
Paulina Przyborowska, Zbigniew Adamiak, Yauheni Zhalniarovich
OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to evaluate variations in lateral ventricles in the examined feline population with the use of quantitative analysis methods to determine whether sex or body weight influenced the size of the ventricles, and to identify any significant differences in the results of low- and high-field MRI. METHODS: Twenty healthy European Shorthair cats, aged 1-3 years, with body weight of 2.85-4.35 kg, were studied. MRI of brain structures was performed in a low- and a high-field MRI system...
November 8, 2016: Journal of Feline Medicine and Surgery
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