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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28647405/docosahexaenoic-acid-promotes-oligodendrocyte-differentiation-via-ppar-%C3%AE-signalling-and-prevents-tumor-necrosis-factor-%C3%AE-dependent-maturational-arrest
#1
A Bernardo, M L Giammarco, C De Nuccio, M A Ajmone-Cat, S Visentin, R De Simone, L Minghetti
Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) is an essential omega-3 fatty acid known to be neuroprotective in several models of human diseases, including multiple sclerosis. The protective effects of DHA are largely attributed to its ability to interfere with the activity of transcription factors controlling immune and inflammatory responses, including the agonist-dependent transcription factor peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ (PPAR-γ). In this study, we used primary oligodendrocyte progenitor (OP) cultures from neonatal rat brain to investigate whether DHA could influence OP maturation and directly promote myelination, as previously reported for selective PPAR-γ agonists...
June 21, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28646259/chronic-administration-of-s-allylcysteine-activates-nrf2-factor-and-enhances-the-activity-of-antioxidant-enzymes-in-the-striatum-frontal-cortex-and-hippocampus
#2
Úrzula Franco-Enzástiga, Ricardo A Santana-Martínez, Carlos A Silva-Islas, Diana Barrera-Oviedo, María Elena Chánez-Cárdenas, Perla D Maldonado
Oxidative stress plays an important role in neurodegenerative diseases and aging. The cellular defense mechanisms to deal with oxidative damage involve the activation of transcription factor related to NF-E2 (Nrf2), which enhances the transcription of antioxidant and phase II enzyme genes. S-allylcysteine (SAC) is an antioxidant with neuroprotective properties, and the main organosulfur compound in aged garlic extract. The ability of SAC to activate the Nrf2 factor has been previously reported in hepatic cells; however this effect has not been studied in normal brain...
June 24, 2017: Neurochemical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28645653/catalase-overexpression-modulates-metabolic-parameters-in-a-new-stress-less-leptin-deficient-mouse-model
#3
Deborah L Amos, Tanner Robinson, Melissa B Massie, Carla Cook, Alexis Hoffsted, Courtney Crain, Nalini Santanam
Oxidative stress plays a key role in obesity by modifying the function of important biological molecules, thus altering obesogenic pathways such as glucose and lipid signaling. Catalase, is an important endogenous antioxidant enzyme that catabolizes hydrogen peroxide produced by the dismutation of superoxide. Recent studies have shown knockdown of catalase exacerbates insulin resistance and leads to obesity. We hypothesized that overexpressing catalase in an obese mouse will modulate obesogenic pathways and protect against obesity...
June 20, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28641235/computer-aided-training-sensorimotor-cortex-functions-in-humans-before-the-upper-limb-transplantation-using-virtual-reality-and-sensory-feedback
#4
Marek Kurzynski, Anna Jaskolska, Jaroslaw Marusiak, Andrzej Wolczowski, Przemyslaw Bierut, Lukasz Szumowski, Jerzy Witkowski, Katarzyna Kisiel-Sajewicz
One of the biggest problems of upper limb transplantation is lack of certainty as to whether a patient will be able to control voluntary movements of transplanted hands. Based on findings of the recent research on brain cortex plasticity, a premise can be drawn that mental training supported with visual and sensory feedback can cause structural and functional reorganization of the sensorimotor cortex, which leads to recovery of function associated with the control of movements performed by the upper limbs. In this study, authors - based on the above observations - propose the computer-aided training (CAT) system, which generating visual and sensory stimuli, should enhance the effectiveness of mental training applied to humans before upper limb transplantation...
June 15, 2017: Computers in Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28640652/protective-effect-against-brain-tissues-oxidative-damage-as-a-possible-mechanism-for-beneficial-effects-of-l-arginine-on-lipopolysaccharide-induced-memory-impairment-in-rats
#5
Mahmoud Hosseini, Akbar Anaeigoudari, Farimah Beheshti, Mohammad Soukhtanloo, Reza Nosratabadi
L-Arginine (LA) and nitric oxide (NO) have been suggested to have some effects on learning, memory, brain tissues oxidative damage, and neuroinflammation. In this study, protective effect against brain tissues oxidative damage as a possible mechanism for beneficial effects of LA on lipopolysaccharide (LPS) induced memory impairment was investigated. The rats were grouped into and treated by (1) control (saline), (2) LPS (1 mg/kg, IP), (3) LA (200 mg/kg) - LPS (4) LA. In passive avoidance (PA) test, LPS administration shortened the latency to enter the dark compartment in LPS group compared to control (p < ...
June 22, 2017: Drug and Chemical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28639111/a-lifetime-s-adventure-in-extracellular-k-regulation-the-scottish-connection
#6
Angus M Brown
In a career that has spanned 45 years and shows no signs of slowing down, Dr Bruce Ransom has devoted considerable time and energy to studying regulation of interstitial K(+). When Bruce commenced his studies in 1969 virtually nothing was known of the functions of glial cells, but Bruce's research contributed to the physiological assignation of function to mammalian astrocytes, namely interstitial K(+) buffering. The experiments that I describe in this review concern the response of the membrane potential (Em) of in vivo cat cortical astrocytes to changes in [K(+)]o, an experimental manoeuvre that was achieved in two different ways...
June 21, 2017: Neurochemical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28623605/cathepsin-c-aggravates-neuroinflammation-involved-in-disturbances-of-behaviour-and-neurochemistry-in-acute-and-chronic-stress-induced-murine-model-of-depression
#7
Yanli Zhang, Kai Fan, Yanna Liu, Gang Liu, Xiaohan Yang, Jianmei Ma
Major depression has been interpreted as an inflammatory disease characterized by cell-mediated immune activation, which is generally triggered by various stresses. Microglia has been thought to be the cellular link between inflammation and depression-like behavioural alterations. The expression of cathepsin C (Cat C), a lysosomal proteinase, is predominantly induced in microglia in neuroinflammation. However, little is known about the role of Cat C in pathophysiology of depression. In the present study, Cat C transgenic mice and wild type mice were subjected to an intraperitoneal injection of LPS (0...
June 16, 2017: Neurochemical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28623134/dysfunction-in-diurnal-synaptic-responses-and-social-behavior-abnormalities-in-cathepsin-s-deficient-mice
#8
Fumiko Takayama, Xinwen Zhang, Yoshinori Hayashi, Zhou Wu, Hiroshi Nakanishi
The expression of cathepsin S (CatS), a microglia-specific lysosomal cysteine protease in the brain, is regulated by the intrinsic microglial circadian clock. We herein report that the diurnal variation of evoked synaptic responses of cortical neurons disappeared in cathepsin S-deficient (CatS(-/-)) mice. The dendritic spine density of the cortical neurons was significantly reduced by incubation with a recombinant CatS. Furthermore, CatS(-/-) mice exhibited impaired social interaction and social novelty recognition in the three-chamber test...
June 13, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28617995/investigation-of-an-n-terminal-prohormone-of-brain-natriuretic-peptide-point-of-care-elisa-in-clinically-normal-cats-and-cats-with-cardiac-disease
#9
A N Harris, S S Beatty, A H Estrada, B Winter, M Bohannon, I Sosa, J Hanscom, C A Mainville, A E Gallagher
BACKGROUND: N-terminal prohormone of brain natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) concentrations may be increased in cats with various cardiac disorders. The point-of-care (POC) ELISA assay uses the same biologic reagents as the quantitative NT-proBNP ELISA. Previous studies have evaluated the sensitivity and specificity of the POC ELISA in cats with cardiac disease. OBJECTIVES: To prospectively evaluate the diagnostic utility of the POC ELISA in a select population of cats...
June 15, 2017: Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28615831/species-diversity-of-the-genus-thelohanellus-kudo-1933-myxozoa-bivalvulida-parasitizing-fishes-in-indian-subcontinent
#10
REVIEW
Harpreet Kaur, Ranjeet Singh, Anu Katoch, Rajni Attri, Shoaib Ali Dar, Aditya Gupta
A synopsis of 52 nominal species of the genus Thelohanellus Kudo, 1933 reported to infect freshwater fishes in India is presented. These species infect various organs such as gills, fins, scales, skin, muscles, gall bladder, kidney etc. The diagnostic features of the genus include tear-shaped myxospores with smooth shell valves and single polar capsule. The members are histozoic in their nature of parasitism infecting fresh water fishes. The present manuscript is aimed to compile the list of reported species in India along with essential information on morphometrics of vegetative stage, host, organ preference and pathogenic effects if any...
June 2017: Journal of Parasitic Diseases: Official Organ of the Indian Society for Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28614779/the-effect-of-the-nitroxide-pirolin-on-oxidative-stress-induced-by-doxorubicin-and-taxanes-in-the-rat-brain
#11
S Tabaczar, J Czepas, A Koceva-Chyla, E Kilanczyk, J Piasecka-Zelga, K Gwozdzinski
The anticancer drugs doxorubicin (DOX), paclitaxel (PTX) and docetaxel (DTX) have been proven to induce oxidative stress (OS)-dependent side-effects in non-targeted tissues. In normal conditions, the blood-brain barrier (BBB) prevents these drugs from penetrating into the brain. However, some studies have demonstrated that small amounts of DOX can penetrate the brain via an oxidatively impaired BBB and cause damage, which suggests that including antioxidants in chemotherapy could possibly protect the brain against the toxicity of anticancer drugs...
April 2017: Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology: An Official Journal of the Polish Physiological Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28610747/cathepsin-b-plays-a-critical-role-in-inducing-alzheimer-s-disease-like-phenotypes-following-chronic-systemic-exposure-to-lipopolysaccharide-from-porphyromonas-gingivalis-in-mice
#12
Zhou Wu, Junjun Ni, Yicong Liu, Jessica L Teeling, Fumiko Takayama, Alex Collcutt, Paul Ibbett, Hiroshi Nakanishi
A number of clinical and experimental studies have revealed a strong association between periodontitis and accelerated cognitive decline in Alzheimer's disease (AD); however, the mechanism of the association is unknown. In the present study, we tested the hypothesis that cathepsin (Cat) B plays a critical role in the initiation of neuroinflammation and neural dysfunction following chronic systemic exposure to lipopolysaccharide from Porphyromonas gingivalis (PgLPS) in mice (1mg/kg, daily, intraperitoneally)...
June 10, 2017: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28606823/alpha-lipoic-acid-attenuates-acute-neuroinflammation-and-long-term-cognitive-impairment-after-polymicrobial-sepsis
#13
Amanda Della Giustina, Mariana Pereira Goldim, Lucinéia Gainski Danielski, Drielly Florentino, Khiany Mathias, Leandro Garbossa, Aloir Neri Oliveira Junior, Maria Eduarda Fileti, Graciela Freitas Zarbato, Naiana da Rosa, Ana Olívia Martins Laurentino, Jucélia Jeremias Fortunato, Francielle Mina, Tatiani Bellettini-Santos, Josiane Budni, Tatiana Barichello, Felipe Dal-Pizzol, Fabricia Petronilho
Sepsis is a complication of an infection which imbalance the normal regulation of several organ systems, including the central nervous system (CNS). Evidence points towards inflammation and oxidative stress as major steps associated with brain dysfunction in sepsis. Thus, we investigated the α-lipoic acid (ALA) effect as an important antioxidant compound on brain dysfunction in rats. Wistar rats were subjected to sepsis by cecal ligation and perforation (CLP) or sham (control) and treated orally with ALA (200 mg/kg after CLP) or vehicle...
June 10, 2017: Neurochemistry International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28602852/repeated-ethanol-exposure-alters-social-behavior-and-oxidative-stress-parameters-of-zebrafish
#14
Talise Ellwanger Müller, Stenio Zimermann Nunes, Ariane Silveira, Vania Lucia Loro, Denis Broock Rosemberg
Repeated ethanol (EtOH) consumption induces neurological disorders in humans and is considered an important public health problem. The physiological effects of EtOH are dose- and time-dependent, causing relevant changes in the social behavior. In addition, alcohol-induced oxidative stress has been proposed as a key mechanism involved in EtOH neurotoxicity. Here we investigate for the first time whether repeated EtOH exposure (REE) alters the social behavior of zebrafish and influences brain oxidation processes...
June 7, 2017: Progress in Neuro-psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28588461/modulation-of-ethanol-metabolizing-enzymes-by-developmental-lead-exposure-effects-in-voluntary-ethanol-consumption
#15
Miriam B Virgolini, Mara S Mattalloni, Paula A Albrecht, Romina Deza-Ponzio, Liliana M Cancela
This review article provides evidence of the impact of the environmental contaminant lead (Pb) on the pattern of the motivational effects of ethanol (EtOH). To find a mechanism that explains this interaction, the focus of this review article is on central EtOH metabolism and the participating enzymes, as key factors in the modulation of brain acetaldehyde (ACD) accumulation and resulting effect on EtOH intake. Catalase (CAT) seems a good candidate for the shared mechanism between Pb and EtOH due to both its antioxidant and its brain EtOH-metabolizing properties...
2017: Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28588354/pax6-binds-to-promoter-sequence-elements-associated-with-immunological-surveillance-and-energy-homeostasis-in-brain-of-aging-mice
#16
Shashank Kumar Maurya, Rajnikant Mishra
BACKGROUND: Patients having mutations of Pax6 bear phenotypes that match age-associated neurological disorders. Mutations affect most cellular functions such as cell division, growth, differentiation, and cell death in brain, eyes, pituitary, pineal, and pancreas. The progressive reduction in the level of Pax6 during aging has also been observed. However, information about downstream targets of Pax6 in brain is unclear. Therefore, it is presumed that age-dependent alterations of Pax6 may also affect cascades of promoter sequence recognition in brain during aging...
May 2017: Annals of Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28577189/the-use-of-tucum%C3%A3-oil-astrocaryum-vulgare-in-alloxan-induced-diabetic-mice-effects-on-behavior-oxidant-antioxidant-status-and-enzymes-involved-in-brain-neurotransmission
#17
Matheus D Baldissera, Carine F Souza, Thirssa H Grando, Michele R Sagrillo, Aleksandro S da Silva, Lenita M Stefani, Silvia G Monteiro
The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of tucumã oil (Astrocaryum vulgare) on memory, enzymatic activities of sodium-potassium pump (Na(+), K(+)-ATPase) and acetylcholinesterase (AChE) in the brain of alloxan-induced diabetic mice. The animals were divided into four groups (n = 6 each): the group A (non-diabetic/water), the group B (non-diabetic/tucumã oil), the group C (diabetic/water), and the group D (diabetic/tucumã oil) treated 14 days with 5.0 mL kg(-1) via oral gavage. Untreated diabetic mice (the group C) showed memory deficit, increased levels of thiobarbituric acid reactive species (TBARS) and protein carbonylation (PC), and decreased (p < 0...
June 2, 2017: Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28561960/acute-respiratory-distress-syndrome-and-septic-shock-in-a-cat-with-disseminated-toxoplasmosis
#18
Natashia A Evans, Julie M Walker, Alison C Manchester, Jonathan F Bach
OBJECTIVE: To describe acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) and septic shock in a cat with disseminated toxoplasmosis. CASE SUMMARY: A 2-year-old neutered male domestic shorthair cat was presented for acute respiratory distress. At the time of presentation it had been receiving cyclosporine for treatment of eosinophilic dermatitis. Thoracic radiographs revealed severe mixed nodular interstitial and alveolar patterns. An endotracheal wash was performed, which confirmed a diagnosis of pulmonary toxoplasmosis...
May 31, 2017: Journal of Veterinary Emergency and Critical Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28550500/acute-and-long-term-effects-of-intracerebroventricular-administration-of-%C3%AE-ketoisocaproic-acid-on-oxidative-stress-parameters-and-cognitive-and-noncognitive-behaviors
#19
Luciane Taschetto, Giselli Scaini, Hugo G Zapelini, Ândrea C Ramos, Giulia Strapazzon, Vanessa M Andrade, Gislaine Z Réus, Monique Michels, Felipe Dal-Pizzol, João Quevedo, Patrícia F Schuck, Gustavo C Ferreira, Emilio L Streck
Maple Syrup Urine Disease (MSUD) is biochemically characterized by elevated levels of leucine, isoleucine and valine, as well as their corresponding transaminated branched-chain α-keto acids in tissue and biological fluids. Neurological symptoms and cerebral abnormalities, whose mechanisms are still unknown, are typical of this metabolic disorder. In the present study, we evaluated the early effects (1 h after injection) and long-term effects (15 days after injection) of a single intracerebroventricular administration of α-ketoisocaproic acid (KIC) on oxidative stress parameters and cognitive and noncognitive behaviors...
May 27, 2017: Metabolic Brain Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28546109/background-activity-and-visual-responsiveness-of-caudate-nucleus-neurons-in-halothane-anesthetized-and-in-awake-behaving-cats
#20
Balázs Barkóczi, Tamás Nagypál, Diána Nyujtó, Xénia Katona, Gabriella Eördegh, Balázs Bodosi, György Benedek, Gábor Braunitzer, Attila Nagy
This study focuses on the important question whether brain activity recorded from anesthetized, paralyzed animals is comparable to that recorded from awake, behaving ones. We compared neuronal activity recorded from the caudate nucleus (CN) of two halothane-anesthetized, paralyzed and two awake, behaving cats. In both models, extracellular recordings were made from the CN during static and dynamic visual stimulation. The anesthesia was maintained during the recordings by a gaseous mixture of air and halothane (1...
May 22, 2017: Neuroscience
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