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Cat brain

Hong-Jing Zhou, Chen-Ye Zeng, Ting-Ting Yang, Fang-Yi Long, Xi Kuang, Jun-Rong Du
AIMS: Oxidative stress caused by aging aggravates neuropathological changes and cognitive deficits. Klotho, an anti-aging protein, shows an anti-oxidative effect. The aims of the present study were to determine the potential therapeutic effect of klotho in aging-related neuropathological changes and memory impairments in senescence-accelerated mouse prone-8 (SAMP8) mice, and identify the potential mechanism of these neuroprotective effects. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A lentiviral was used to deliver and sustain the expression of klotho...
March 12, 2018: Life Sciences
Phaniendra Alugoju, Vkd Krishan Swamy, Latha Periyasamy
Aging is characterized by gradual accumulation of macromolecular damage leading to progressive loss of physiological function and increased susceptibility to diverse diseases. Effective anti-aging strategies involving caloric restriction or antioxidant supplementation are receiving growing attention to attenuate macromolecular damage in age associated pathology. In the present study, we for the first time investigated the effect of quercetin, caloric restriction and combined treatment (caloric restriction with quercetin) on oxidative stress parameters, acetylcholinesterase and ATPases enzyme activities in the cerebral cortex of aged male wistar rat brain...
March 14, 2018: CNS & Neurological Disorders Drug Targets
Deborah J Bird, William J Murphy, Lester Fox-Rosales, Iman Hamid, Robert A Eagle, Blaire Van Valkenburgh
The evolution of mammalian olfaction is manifested in a remarkable diversity of gene repertoires, neuroanatomy and skull morphology across living species. Olfactory receptor genes (ORGs), which initiate the conversion of odorant molecules into odour perceptions and help an animal resolve the olfactory world, range in number from a mere handful to several thousand genes across species. Within the snout, each of these ORGs is exclusively expressed by a discrete population of olfactory sensory neurons (OSNs), suggesting that newly evolved ORGs may be coupled with new OSN populations in the nasal epithelium...
March 14, 2018: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
Sapto Yuliani, Mustofa, Ginus Partadiredja
INTRODUCTION: Oxidative stress is known to contribute to the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative disorders. An ethanolic turmeric (Curcuma longa L.) extract containing curcumin has been reported to produce antioxidant effects. OBJECTIVE: The present study aims to investigate the possible neuroprotective effects of the ethanolic turmeric extract against trimethyltin (TMT)-induced oxidative stress in Sprague Dawley rats. METHODS: The ethanolic turmeric extract and citicoline were administered to the TMT exposed rats from day 1 to day 28 of the experiment...
March 7, 2018: Nutritional Neuroscience
Michael Samarkos, Vasiliki Antoniadou, Aristeidis G Vaiopoulos, Mina Psichogiou
We report the case of a 53-year-old healthy man, presenting with confusion. The patient had been clinically diagnosed with cat-scratch disease (CSD) and prescribed a 10-day course of doxycycline orally. Approximately a week after he had completed the treatment, he was admitted to our department with confusion. Neurological examination revealed expressive dysphasia with no motor or sensory deficits. Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) examination showed only increased content. Imaging with CT and MRI of the brain did not reveal any abnormalities, and funduscopy was normal...
March 5, 2018: BMJ Case Reports
Maurizio Gallucci, Cinzia Piovesan, Maria Elena Di Battista
BACKGROUND: Frailty is a condition which is characterized by a reduction in the homeostatic reserves of the individual and which entails an increased vulnerability to stressful endogenous and exogenous agents. The Frailty Index (FI), proposed by Rockwood, was designed following an accumulation of deficits model: the greater the number of deficits in a given individual, the greater the degree of frailty. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to verify the existence of associations between FI and cerebral atrophy...
February 28, 2018: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
Madhuri Shelar, Sadhana Nanaware, S Arulmozhi, Sathiyanarayanan Lohidasan, Kakasaheb Mahadik
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Sarasvata ghrita (SG), a polyherbal formulation from ayurveda, an ancient medicinal system of India, has been used to improve intelligence and memory, treat speech delay, speaking difficulties and low digestion power in children. AIM OF THE STUDY: Study aimed to validate the ethno use of SG in memory enhancement through systematic scientific protocol. The effect of SG and modern extracts of ingredients of SG was compared on cognitive function and neuroprotection in amyloid-β peptide 25-35(Aβ25-35) induced memory impairment in wistar rats...
February 28, 2018: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
Marios Charalambous, Akos Pakozdy, Sofie F M Bhatti, Holger A Volk
BACKGROUND: Understanding the efficacy and safety profile of antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) in feline epilepsy is a crucial consideration for managing this important brain disease. However, there is a lack of information about the treatment of feline epilepsy and therefore a systematic review was constructed to assess current evidence for the AEDs' efficacy and tolerability in cats. The methods and materials of our former systematic reviews in canine epilepsy were mostly mirrored for the current systematic review in cats...
March 2, 2018: BMC Veterinary Research
Halina Binde Doria, Marianna Boia Ferreira, Silvia Daniele Rodrigues, Sze Mei Lo, Cinthia Eloise Domingues, Lia Sumie Nakao, Sandro Xavier de Campos, Ciro Alberto de Oliveira Ribeiro, Marco Antonio Ferreira Randi
The circadian clock is a key cellular timing system that coordinates physiology and behavior. Light is a key regulator of the clock mechanism via its activation of Per and Cry clock gene expression. Evidence points to a key role of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in resetting this process. In this context, the aim of the present study was to explore copper as a ROS generator, using an innovative approach investigating its effects on circadian timing. Liver and brain from Danio rerio specimens exposed to 0, 5, 25 and 45 μg/L copper concentrations were obtained...
February 27, 2018: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
Cristiano Cuppini, Barry E Stein, Benjamin A Rowland
The ability to integrate information across its multiple senses enhances the brain's ability to detect, localize, and identify external events. This process has been well-documented in single neurons in the superior colliculus (SC), which synthesize concordant combinations of visual, auditory, and/or somatosensory signals to enhance the vigor of their responses. This increases the physiological salience of cross-modal events and, in turn, the speed and accuracy of SC-mediated behavioral responses to them. However, this capability is not an innate feature of the circuit, and only develops postnatally after the animal acquires sufficient experience with covariant cross-modal events to form links between their modality-specific components...
March 1, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
K Nithin Prabhu, Shrikrishna Isloor, B Hanchinal Veeresh, Doddamane Rathnamma, R Sharada, Lekshmi J Das, M L Satyanarayana, Nagendra R Hegde, Sira Abdul Rahman
Accurate and early diagnosis of animal rabies is critical for undertaking public health measures. Whereas the direct fluorescent antibody (DFA) technique is the recommended test, the more convenient, direct rapid immunochemistry test (dRIT), as well as the more sensitive, reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), have recently been employed for the laboratory diagnosis of rabies. We compared the three methods on brain samples from domestic (dog, cat, cattle, buffalo, horse, pig and goat) and wild (leopard, wolf and jackal) animals from various parts of India...
February 28, 2018: Veterinary Sciences
Li-Yun Zhu, Yong-Sheng Gao, Lin-Zhen Song, Su-Fang Li, Jun-Qing Qian
In order to study the potential application value of lavender volatile oil (LVO), the chemical composition of the volatile oil of lavender was analyzed by GC-MS, and the mouse model of Alzheimer's disease (AD) was established. Additionally, the antioxidant enzymes activity of T-SOD, GSH-PX, CAT and MDA content were studied. Experimental results showed that 55 kinds of chemical constituents including terpene, terpene alcohol and ester compounds from LVO were identified, and the content of linalool and linalyl acetate was the highest, accounting for 49...
December 2017: Zhongguo Zhong Yao za Zhi, Zhongguo Zhongyao Zazhi, China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica
Hank Bink, Madineh Sedigh-Sarvestani, Ivan Fernandez-Lamo, Lohith Kini, Hoameng Ung, Duygu Kuzum, Flavia Vitale, Brian Litt, Diego Contreras
New devices that use targeted electrical stimulation to treat refractory localization-related epilepsy have shown great promise, though it is not well known which targets most effectively prevent the initiation and spread of seizures. To better understand how the brain transitions from healthy to seizing on a local scale, we induced focal epileptiform activity in the visual cortex of five anesthetized cats with local application of the GABAA blocker picrotoxin while simultaneously recording local field potentials on a high-resolution electrocorticography array and laminar depth probes...
February 28, 2018: Journal of Neurophysiology
Austin T Kerns, Kelsey A Brakel, Christopher Premanandan, Ashlie Saffire, Sarah A Moore
Case summary: A 9-year-old spayed female domestic shorthair cat with clinical signs suggestive of chronic recurrent otitis media and recent seizures was presented with multifocal nervous system disease, including bilateral central and/or peripheral vestibular, cerebellar and forebrain deficits. Prior to presentation, there was inadequate improvement after 6 weeks of treatment for bilateral middle ear effusion from which a highly susceptible Staphylococcus species was cultured. This was followed by the development of seizures...
January 2018: JFMS Open Reports
Manish Kumar, Nitin Bansal
The present study was undertaken to elucidate the role of PI3-kinase signaling in memory enhancing potential of caffeic acid phenethyl ester (CAPE) against cognitive defects in rats after centrally administered streptozotocin as a model of Alzheimer's disease. The Morris water maze and elevated plus maze paradigms showed profound loss of memory in adult Wistar rats (180-200 g) injected with streptozotocin (3 mg/kg) bilaterally (STZ-ICV) on day 1 and 3. Intraperitoneal administration of CAPE (6 mg/kg, i...
February 24, 2018: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
Gönül Çatlı, Ahmet Anık, Sezer Acar, Tuncay Küme, Melike Karabulut, Özlem Gürsoy Çalan, Bumin Nuri Dündar, Ayhan Abacı
AIM: To investigate serum levels of brain injury markers in diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) and the relation of these markers with clinical and radiological findings of brain injury and laboratory results. METHODS: Twenty-nine patients with DKA, 30 with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM), and 35 healthy children were included. Clinical and laboratory findings, and the Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) were recorded. In the DKA group, Neuron-Specific Enolase (NSE), S100 calcium-binding protein B (S100B) and Glial Fibrillary Acidic Protein (GFAP) levels were measured at baseline and 6 and 12 hours after treatment...
February 27, 2018: Pediatric Diabetes
Efthalia Kerasioti, Dimitrios Stagos, Aristides M Tsatsakis, Demetrios A Spandidos, Ioannis Taitzoglou, Demetrios Kouretas
The purpose of the present study is to estimate the effects of sheep/goat whey protein dietary supplementation on the redox status of blood and tissues of rats. Twelve male Wistar rats were divided into the control group (standard commercial diet) and whey group [standard commercial diet + sheep/goat whey protein (1 g kg b.w/day)] (6 rats/group). The animals were maintainted on their respective diet for 28 days. At the end of the experimental period, reduced glutathione, catalase activity, total antioxidant capacity, thiobarbituric reactive substances, protein carbonyls and the decomposition rate of H2O2 were measured in blood and tissues of rats...
February 20, 2018: Molecular Medicine Reports
Héctor Martínez-Rodríguez, Kingsley Donkor, Sharon Brewer, Marcela Galar-Martínez, Nely SanJuan-Reyes, Hariz Islas-Flores, Livier Sánchez-Aceves, Armando Elizalde-Velázquez, Leobardo Manuel Gómez-Oliván
During the last decade, β-blockers such as metoprolol (MTP) have been frequently detected in surface water, aquatic systems and municipal water at concentrations of ng/L to μg/L. Only a small number of studies exist on the toxic effects induced by this group of pharmaceuticals on aquatic organisms. Therefore, the present study aimed to evaluate the oxidative damage induced by MTP in the common carp Cyprinus carpio, using oxidative stress biomarkers. To this end, indicators of cellular oxidation such as hydroperoxide content (HPC), lipid peroxidation (LPX) and protein carbonyl content (PCC) were determined, as well as the activity of the antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT)...
February 18, 2018: Aquatic Toxicology
Thais Ceresér Vilela, Pauline Souza Effting, Giulia Dos Santos Pedroso, Hemelin Farias, Lara Paganini, Helen Sorato Rebelo, Renata Tiescoski Nesi, Vanessa Moraes de Andrade, Ricardo Aurino de Pinho
Skeletal muscle aging is associated with loss of mass, function, and strength-a condition known as sarcopenia. It has been reported that sarcopenia can be attenuated by physical exercise. Therefore, we investigated whether 2 different physical exercise protocols could modulate and induce changes in oxidative and inflammatory parameters, as well as in BDNF and DNA repair enzyme levels in skeletal muscle tissue of aged rats. Aging Wistar rats performed treadmill or strength training for 50 min 3 to 4 times a week for 8 weeks...
February 19, 2018: Experimental Gerontology
Linda Rhodes, Bill Zollers, Jessica A Wofford, Ernst Heinen
Ghrelin is a hormone, secreted from cells in the stomach, which is important in the regulation of appetite and food intake in mammals. It exerts its action by binding to a specific G-protein-coupled receptor, the growth hormone secretagogue receptor 1a (GHS-R1a) which is found in areas of the brain associated with the regulation of food intake. Ghrelin causes a release of growth hormone (GH) through binding to GHS-R1a in the hypothalamus and pituitary gland. A class of compounds known as growth hormone secretagogues, or ghrelin receptor agonists, were developed for therapeutic use in humans for the stimulation of GH in the frail elderly, and have subsequently been studied for their effects on increasing appetite and food intake, increasing body weight, building lean muscle mass, and treating cachexia...
February 2018: Veterinary Medicine and Science
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