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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29782958/changes-in-behavioural-parameters-oxidative-stress-and-neurotrophins-in-the-brain-of-adult-offspring-induced-to-an-animal-model-of-schizophrenia-the-effects-of-fa-deficient-or-fa-supplemented-diet-during-the-neurodevelopmental-phase
#1
L Canever, T G Freire, G A Mastella, L Damázio, S Gomes, I Fachim, C Michels, G Carvalho, A K Godói, B R Peterle, F F Gava, S Valvassori Sda, J Budni, J Quevedo, A I Zugno
A deficiency of maternal folic acid (FA) can compromise the function and development of the brain, and may produce a susceptibility to diseases such as schizophrenia (SZ) in the later life of offspring. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of both FA deficient and FA supplemented diets during gestation and lactation on behavioural parameters, the markers of oxidative stress and neurotrophic factors in adult offspring which had been subjected to an animal model of SZ. Female mother rats (Dam's) were separated into experimental maternal groups, which began receiving a special diet (food) consisting of the AIN-93 diet, a control diet, or an FA deficient diet during the periods of pregnancy and lactation...
May 18, 2018: Progress in Neuro-psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29777754/hmgb1-neutralization-attenuates-hippocampal-neuronal-death-and-cognitive-impairment-in-rats-with-chronic-cerebral-hypoperfusion-via-suppressing-inflammatory-responses-and-oxidative-stress
#2
Yue Hei, Rong Chen, Xicai Yi, Qianfa Long, Dakuan Gao, Weiping Liu
High mobility group box-1 (HMGB1) acts as a proinflammatory molecule once released into the extracellular space and inhibition of HMGB1 signaling has been reported be neuroprotective in neurodegenerative diseases. Besides, chronic cerebral hypoperfusion (CCH) causes cognitive impairment in neurodegenerative diseases. Here we tested the protective role of HMGB1 inhibition using anti-HMGB1 neutralizing antibody (Ab) against CCH in rats after bilateral common carotid artery occlusion (2VO). 169 male Sprague-Dawley rats underwent 2VO or sham operation...
May 16, 2018: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29766765/control-of-transitions-between-locomotor-like-and-paw-shake-like-rhythms-in-a-model-of-a-multistable-central-pattern-generator
#3
Jessica Rae Parker, Brain Bondy, Boris I Prilutsky, Gennady S Cymbalyuk
The ability of the same neuronal circuit to control different motor functions is an actively debated concept. Previously, we have shown in a model that a single multistable CPG could produce two different rhythmic motor patterns, slow and fast, corresponding to cat locomotion and paw-shaking. A locomotor-like rhythm (~2 Hz) and a paw-shake-like rhythm (~10 Hz) did coexist and, by applying a single pulse of current, we could switch the CPG from one regime to another (Bondy et al. 2016). Here, we investigate roles of slow intrinsic ionic currents in this multistability...
May 16, 2018: Journal of Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29766365/iron-overload-prevents-oxidative-damage-to-rat-brain-after-chlorpromazine-administration
#4
Natacha E Piloni, Andres A Caro, Susana Puntarulo
The hypothesis tested is that Fe administration leads to a response in rat brain modulating the effects of later oxidative challenges such as chlorpromazine (CPZ) administration. Either a single dose (acute Fe overload) or 6 doses every second day (sub-chronic Fe overload) of 500 or 50 mg Fe-dextran/kg, respectively, were injected intraperitoneally (ip) to rats. A single dose of 10 mg CPZ/kg was injected ip 8 h after Fe treatment. DNA integrity was evaluated by quantitative PCR, lipid radical (LR· ) generation rate by electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR), and catalase (CAT) activity by UV spectrophotometry in isolated brains...
May 15, 2018: Biometals: An International Journal on the Role of Metal Ions in Biology, Biochemistry, and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29745257/beneficial-effects-of-urtica-dioica-on-scopolamine-induced-memory-impairment-in-rats-protection-against-acetylcholinesterase-activity-and-neuronal-oxidative-damage
#5
Simagol Ghasemi, Malihe Moradzadeh, Mahmoud Hosseini, Farimah Beheshti, Hamid Reza Sadeghnia
This study was conducted to investigate protective effects of Urtica dioica extract on acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity and the oxidative damage of brain tissues in scopolamine-induced memory impairment model. The rats were treated with (1) saline (control), (2) scopolamine, and (3-5) the plant extract (20, 50, or 100 mg/kg) before scopolamine. The traveled distance and the latency to find the platform in Morris water maze (MWM) by scopolamine-treated group were longer while the time spent in target quadrant was shorter than those of the control...
May 10, 2018: Drug and Chemical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29730825/-18-f-f13640-preclinical-evaluation-in-rodent-cat-and-primate-as-a-5-ht-1a-receptor-agonist-for-pet-neuroimaging
#6
Benjamin Vidal, Sylvain Fieux, Matthieu Colom, Thierry Billard, Caroline Bouillot, Olivier Barret, Cristian Constantinescu, Gilles Tamagnan, Adrian Newman-Tancredi, Luc Zimmer
Serotonin 1A receptors are known to play an important role in many psychiatric and neurodegenerative disorders. Currently, all available 5-HT1A receptor PET radiopharmaceuticals that are radiolabeled with fluorine-18 are antagonists. As agonists bind preferentially to the high-affinity state of receptors, it would be of great interest to develop agonist radioligands which could provide a measure of the functional 5-HT1A receptors in pathophysiological processes. The 5-HT1A receptor agonist candidates we recently proposed had promising in vitro properties but were not optimal in terms of PET imaging...
May 5, 2018: Brain Structure & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29719448/effects-of-cinnamic-acid-on-memory-deficits-and-brain-oxidative-stress-in-streptozotocin-induced-diabetic-mice
#7
Ali Asghar Hemmati, Soheila Alboghobeish, Akram Ahangarpour
The present study aimed to evaluate the cinnamic acid effect on memory impairment, oxidative stress, and cholinergic dysfunction in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic model in mice. In this experimental study, 48 male Naval Medical Research Institute (NMRI) mice (30-35 g) were chosen and were randomly divided into six groups: control, cinnamic acid (20 mg/kg day, i.p. ), diabetic, and cinnamic acid-treated diabetic (10, 20 and 40 mg/kg day, i.p. ). Memory was impaired by administering an intraperitoneal STZ injection of 50 mg/kg...
May 2018: Korean Journal of Physiology & Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29715481/mapping-of-neuron-soma-size-as-an-effective-approach-to-delineate-differences-between-neural-populations
#8
Alexander J Lingley, Joshua C Bowdridge, Reza Farivar, Kevin R Duffy
BACKGROUND: A single histological marker applied to a slice of tissue often reveals myriad cytoarchitectonic characteristics that can obscure differences between neuron populations targeted for study. Isolation and measurement of a single feature from the tissue is possible through a variety of approaches, however, visualizing the data numerically or through graphs alone can preclude being able to identify important features and effects that are not obvious from direct observation of the tissue...
April 28, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29708550/a-semantic-priming-event-related-potential-erp-task-to-study-lexico-semantic-and-visuo-semantic-processing-in-autism-spectrum-disorder
#9
Emily L Coderre
Individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) have characteristic deficits in understanding the meaning of language, or semantic processing. However, some evidence indicates that semantic processing of non-linguistic stimuli is intact, suggesting that semantic deficits may be language-specific. To appropriately characterize semantic processing deficits in individuals with ASD, comparison of within-modality linguistic (e.g., written words) and non-linguistic (e.g., pictures) stimuli is required. This paper describes such a methodology that makes use of a semantic priming paradigm during concurrent recording of electroencephalographic (EEG) data...
April 12, 2018: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29704452/neuroprotective-effect-of-%C3%AF-3-polyunsaturated-fatty-acids-on-bilirubin-encephalopathy-in-vitro-and-in-vivo
#10
Wei Hao, Jia Song, Gang Li
BACKGROUND Bilirubin encephalopathy is a serious complication in neonatal jaundice and is associated with high mortality and disability in newborns. The present study aimed to investigate the neuroprotective effects of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (ω-3 PUFA) on bilirubin encephalopathy in vitro and in vivo. MATERIAL AND METHODS The cytotoxicity of unconjugated bilirubin (UCB) to neurons and neuroprotection of ω-3 PUFA were investigated using MTT assays and apoptosis evaluations. Superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) enzyme activity were measured to investigate the anti-oxidative effect of ω-3 PUFA...
April 28, 2018: Medical Science Monitor: International Medical Journal of Experimental and Clinical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29695906/silica-nanoparticle-induced-oxidative-stress-and-mitochondrial-damage-is-followed-by-activation-of-intrinsic-apoptosis-pathway-in-glioblastoma-cells
#11
Magdalena Kusaczuk, Rafał Krętowski, Monika Naumowicz, Anna Stypułkowska, Marzanna Cechowska-Pasko
Introduction: Recently, the focus of oncological research has been on the optimization of therapeutic strategies targeted at malignant diseases. Nanomedicine utilizing silicon dioxide nanoparticles (SiNPs) is one such strategy and is rapidly developing as a promising tool for cancer diagnosis, imaging, and treatment. Nevertheless, little is known about the mechanisms of action of SiNPs in brain tumors. Materials and methods: Here, we explored the effects of 5-15 nm SiNPs in the human glioblastoma cell line LN229...
2018: International Journal of Nanomedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29684446/angiotensin-receptor-blocker-losartan-ameliorates-neuroinflammation-and-behavioral-consequences-of-lipopolysaccharide-injection
#12
Hossein Salmani, Mahmoud Hosseini, Farimah Beheshti, Yousef Baghcheghi, Hamid Reza Sadeghnia, Mohammad Soukhtanloo, Mohammad Naser Shafei, Majid Khazaei
AIMS: Neuroinflammation has a critical role in brain diseases. Angiotensin II (Ang II) is an important player in inflammation via stimulating of Ang II type 1 receptor (AT1R). In this study, the effects of losartan, an Ang II receptor blocker, on the brain inflammation, oxidative stress and behavioral consequences of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) injection were investigated. MAIN METHODS: Rats were intraperitoneally (i.p.) injected with 1 or 3 mg/kg losartan or saline for 24 continuous days...
April 20, 2018: Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29678922/enzymatic-synthesis-of-6-sialyllactose-a-dominant-sialylated-human-milk-oligosaccharide-by-a-novel-exo-%C3%AE-sialidase-from-bacteroides-fragilis-nctc9343
#13
Longcheng Guo, Xiaodi Chen, Li Xu, Min Xiao, Lili Lu
Gut bacteria provide a rich source of glycosidases that can recognize and/or hydrolyze glycans for nutritions. Interestingly, some glycosidases are also found to catalyze transglycosylation reactions in vitro and thus can be used for oligosaccharide synthesis. In this work, six putative and one known exo -α-sialidase genes, including three from Bacteroides fragilis NCTC9343, three from Clostridium perfringens ATCC13124, and one known from Bifidobacterium bifidum JCM1254, were subjected to gene cloning and heterogeneous expression in Escherichia coli The recombinant enzymes were purified, characterized for substrate specificity, and screened for transglycosylation activity...
April 20, 2018: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29660468/ethyl-acetate-fraction-of-trichilia-catigua-protects-against-oxidative-stress-and-neuroinflammation-after-cerebral-ischemia-reperfusion
#14
Jacqueline Godinho, Anacharis Babeto de Sa-Nakanishi, Lucas Stafuza Moreira, Rúbia Maria Weffort de Oliveira, Claudia Hitomi Huzita, João Carlos P Mello, André Oliveira Fernandes da Silva, Celso Vataru Nakamura, Isolde Santos Previdelli, Matheus Henrique Dal Molin Ribeiro, Humberto Milani
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Trichilia catigua A. Juss (Meliaceae) preparations have been used in folk medicine to alleviate fatigue, stress, and improve memory. Antinociceptive, antiinflammatory, and in vitro neuroprotective effects have been observed in animals. Cerebral ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) leads to severe neuropsychological deficits that are largely associated with oxidative stress, inflammation and neurodegeneration. We reported previously that an ethyl-acetate fraction (EAF) of T...
April 13, 2018: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29657017/assessment-of-the-antigenic-and-neuroprotective-activity-of-the-subunit-anti-toxoplasma-vaccine-in-t-gondii-experimentally-infected-mice
#15
Justyna Gatkowska, Marek Wieczorek, Bożena Dziadek, Katarzyna Dzitko, Jarosław Dziadek, Henryka Długońska
The aim of this study was to evaluate the immunogenic and immunoprotective activities and to determine the neuroprotective capacity of the tetravalent vaccine containing selected recombinant T. gondii antigens (ROP2 + ROP4 + SAG1 + MAG1) administered with safe adjuvants (MPL and alum) using male and female inbred mice. The tested antigenic combination provided partial protection against brain cyst formation, especially in males (reduction in cyst burden by 72%). The decrease in cyst burden was observed for the whole brain as well as for specified brain regions associated with natural defensive behaviors, emotion processing and integration of motor and sensory stimuli...
April 30, 2018: Veterinary Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29649857/oxidative-stress-and-hepatic-injury-induced-in-mice-fed-with-sarcocystis-hirsuta-cyst-extract
#16
Maryam Sasani, Reza Nabavi, Mohammad Reza Hajinezhad, Parisa Hasanein
We studies toxic effects of Sarcocystis hirsuta cyst extract in mice. Degenerative changes were found in the mice received fresh, frozen and heated S. hirsuta cyst extract. There were increases in the levels of serum aspartate aminotransferase and alanine aminotransferase (AST and ALT) as well as hepatic and brain malondialdehyde (MDA) levels with a concomitant decrease in catalase (CAT) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activities of mice received fresh and frozen S. hirsuta extracts. Gavage feeding of heated S...
April 12, 2018: Journal of Veterinary Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29649627/overexpression-of-hipk2-attenuates-spinal-cord-injury-in-rats-by-modulating-apoptosis-oxidative-stress-and-inflammation
#17
Renbo Li, Jingbo Shang, Wei Zhou, Li Jiang, Donghui Xie, Guanjun Tu
HIPK2 is considered to be a tumor suppressor. It also has been implicated in several functions such as apoptosis and inflammation that are linked to spinal cord injury (SCI). However, whether HIPK2 ameliorates the neurological pain of SCI remains unclear. Here, we investigated the effects of HIPK2 on neurological function, oxidative stress, levels of inflammatory cytokines and expression of Bcl-2/Bax in an SCI model. Firstly, we evaluated the therapeutic effects of HIPK2 on neurological pain in the SCI rat using the Basso, Beattie and Bresnahan scores and H & E staining...
April 9, 2018: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29620512/astragaloside-%C3%A2-protects-against-a%C3%AE-1-42-induced-oxidative-stress-neuroinflammation-and-cognitive-impairment-in-rats
#18
Yan-Fang Pan, Xiao-Tao Jia, Er-Fei Song, Xiao-Zhong Peng
Objective To investigate the neuroprotective action of astragaloside Ⅳ (AS-Ⅳ) on spatial learning and memory impairment induced by amyloid-beta 1-42 (Aβ1-42) in rats and elucidate its underlying molecular mechanisms. Methods Adult-male Sprague-Dawley rats (230-250 g) were divided into six groups randomly: control, Aβ1-42, AS-Ⅳ, Aβ1-42 plus 5 mg/kg·d AS-Ⅳ, Aβ1-42 plus 25 mg/kg·d AS-Ⅳ, and Aβ1-42 plus 50 mg/kg·d AS-Ⅳ groups. Aβ1-42 were delivered by intracerebroventricular injection under the guidance of a brain stereotaxic apparatus...
March 30, 2018: Chinese Medical Sciences Journal, Chung-kuo i Hsüeh K'o Hsüeh Tsa Chih
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29610441/modified-origins-of-cortical-projections-to-the-superior-colliculus-in-the-deaf-dispersion-of-auditory-efferents
#19
Blake E Butler, Julia K Sunstrum, Stephen G Lomber
Following the loss of a sensory modality, such as deafness or blindness, crossmodal plasticity is commonly identified in regions of the cerebrum that normally process the deprived modality. It has been hypothesized that significant changes in the patterns of cortical afferent and efferent projections may underlie these functional crossmodal changes. However, studies of thalamocortical and corticocortical connections have refuted this hypothesis, instead revealing a profound resilience of cortical afferent projections following deafness and blindness...
April 18, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29608159/two-photon-calcium-imaging-in-neuronal-dendrites-in-brain-slices
#20
Olivier Camiré, Lisa Topolnik
Calcium (Ca2+ ) imaging is a powerful tool to investigate the spatiotemporal dynamics of intracellular Ca2+ signals in neuronal dendrites. Ca2+ fluctuations can occur through a variety of membrane and intracellular mechanisms and play a crucial role in the induction of synaptic plasticity and regulation of dendritic excitability. Hence, the ability to record different types of Ca2+ signals in dendritic branches is valuable for groups studying how dendrites integrate information. The advent of two-photon microscopy has made such studies significantly easier by solving the problems inherent to imaging in live tissue, such as light scattering and photodamage...
March 15, 2018: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
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