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Fragility index

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29217098/prolonged-time-lag-to-final-diagnosis-of-fragile-x-syndrome
#1
Lidia V Gabis, Oded Hochberg, Odelia Leon Attia, Yonit Banet-Levi, Dana Topf, Shahar Shefer
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the diagnostic process in children ultimately diagnosed with fragile X syndrome (FXS), with an emphasis on the time lag between initial presentation and on diagnosis in female vs male children. STUDY DESIGN: Interviews were conducted with 89 families of children with a final diagnosis of FXS and assessment of time intervals between initial presentation and confirmed molecular diagnosis. RESULTS: Screening of 117 patients (25 female patients) from the 89 families revealed that less than 20% of patients obtained a diagnosis within the first year of seeking medical attention...
December 5, 2017: Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29186945/correlation-between-gamma-glutamyltransferase-fractions-and-bone-quality
#2
M Franzini, A Nesti, D Panetta, V Fierabracci, S Marchetti, P D Parchi, L Caponi, A Paolicchi, V Musetti, P Salvadori, M Edmin, A Pucci, E Bonicoli, M Scaglione, N Piolanti
Gamma-glutamyltransferase (GGT) has been recently identified as a bone-resorbing factor. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between plasma GGT fractions levels and bone quality. Plasma GGT fractions were analysed by gel-filtration chromatography. Bone quality was established quantitatively by two micro-CT derived microarchitectural parameters: the BV/TV (mineralised bone volume/total volume), and the SMI (structure model index) that describes the rod-like (low resistant) or plate-like (high-resistant) shape of bone trabeculae...
October 2017: Journal of Biological Regulators and Homeostatic Agents
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29186885/plastic-deformation-of-pressured-metallic-glass
#3
Yun Cheng, Chuanxiao Peng, Zhenting Zhang, Pengfei Wang, Shengzhong Yuan, Li Wang
Although pressured metallic glass (MG) has been reported in the literature; there are few studies focusing on pressure effects on the structure; dynamics and its plastic deformation. In this paper; we report on and characterize; via molecular dynamics simulation, the structure and dynamics heterogeneity of pressured MGs, and explore a causal link between local structures and plastic deformation mechanism of pressured glass. The results exhibit that the dynamical heterogeneity of metallic liquid is more pronounced at high pressure, while the MGs were less fragile after the release of external pressure, reflected by the non-Gaussian parameter (NGP)...
November 27, 2017: Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29171019/cortisol-profiles-differentiated-in-adolescents-and-young-adult-males-with-fragile-x-syndrome-versus-autism-spectrum-disorder
#4
Sara M Matherly, Jessica Klusek, Angela J Thurman, Andrea McDuffie, Leonard Abbeduto, Jane E Roberts
BACKGROUND: Fragile X syndrome (FXS) and non-syndromic autism spectrum disorder (ASD) are distinct disorders with overlapping behavioral features. Both disorders are also highly associated with anxiety with abnormal physiological regulation implied mechanistically. Some reports suggest atypical hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis function, indexed via aberrant cortisol reactivity, in both FXS and non-syndromic ASD. However, no study has compared cortisol reactivity across these two disorders, or its relationship to ASD symptom severity...
November 24, 2017: Developmental Psychobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29168668/the-occurrence-of-fractures-after-adjuvant-treatment-of-breast-cancer-a-dbcg-register-study
#5
Bent Kristensen, Bent Ejlertsen, Maj-Britt Jensen, Henning T Mouridsen
BACKGROUND: Adjuvant treatment in breast cancer patients especially with aromatase inhibitors (AIs) has adverse effects on bone metabolism resulting in an increased occurrence of fractures. In order to demonstrate this occurrence, long-term follow-up studies are necessary. From several national registries in Denmark, it is possible to link data from different sources and analyze this issue. METHODS: A study cohort of 68,842 breast cancer patients prospectively diagnosed and registered in the Danish Breast Cancer Cooperative Group's database during the period 1995-2012 formed the basis of the analysis...
November 23, 2017: Acta Oncologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29167970/independent-association-of-bone-mineral-density-and-trabecular-bone-score-to-vertebral-fracture-in-male-subjects-with-chronic-obstructive-pulmonary-disease
#6
R Watanabe, N Tai, J Hirano, Y Ban, D Inoue, R Okazaki
Osteoporosis is a major comorbidity of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), but the mechanism of bone fragility is unknown. We demonstrated that trabecular bone score, a parameter of bone quality, was associated with systemic inflammation and was a significant determinant of vertebral fracture independent of bone mineral density. INTRODUCTION: COPD is a major cause of secondary osteoporosis. However, the mechanism of bone fragility is unclear. We previously reported that vertebral fracture was highly prevalent in male COPD patients...
November 22, 2017: Osteoporosis International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29153136/randomized-controlled-trials-significant-results-fragile-though
#7
Tri-Long Nguyen, Paul Landais
In their systematic review, Shochet et al. question the robustness of the statistical significance of the results of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) in nephrology reported in high-impact journals (2005-2014). They hypothesized that a high proportion of RCTs in nephrology would be fragile. They calculated a Fragility Index that is a tool for testing robustness of RCTs, based on 107 RCT reports. The observation of an alarming median Fragility Index equal to 3 suggests that in half of the trials, the sole additional occurrence of 3 events would compromise the significance of nominally significant results...
December 2017: Kidney International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29123427/effect-of-age-and-estrogen-on-biochemical-markers-of-bone-turnover-in-postmenopausal-women-a-population-based-study-from-nepal
#8
Bashu Dev Pardhe, Sabala Pathak, Anjeela Bhetwal, Sumitra Ghimire, Shreena Shakya, Puspa Raj Khanal, Sujan Babu Marahatta
Background: Osteoporosis, a common disease worldwide, is characterized by low bone mass and architectural deterioration of bone tissue, leading to enhanced bone fragility and increase in fracture risks. Both menopause and aging are related factors leading to greater risk of bone disease, particularly among postmenopausal women. Hence, the main purpose of this study was to investigate the differences in biochemical markers of bone turnover and to evaluate the association of hormones and age-related factors with biochemical markers between pre- and postmenopausal women...
2017: International Journal of Women's Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29117250/effect-of-nitrogen-levels-and-nitrogen-ratios-on-lodging-resistance-and-yield-potential-of-winter-wheat-triticum-aestivum-l
#9
Mingwei Zhang, Hui Wang, Yuan Yi, Jinfeng Ding, Min Zhu, Chunyan Li, Wenshan Guo, Chaonian Feng, Xinkai Zhu
Lodging is one of the constraints that limit wheat yields and quality due to the unexpected bending or breaking stems on wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) production worldwide. In addition to choosing lodging resistance varieties, husbandry practices also have a significant effect on lodging. Nitrogen management is one of the most common and efficient methods. A field experiment with Yangmai 20 as research material (a widely-used variety) was conducted to study the effects of different nitrogen levels and ratios on culm morphological, anatomical characters and chemical components and to explore the nitrogen application techniques for lodging tolerance and high yield...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29116088/statistical-parity-time-symmetric-lasing-in-an-optical-fibre-network
#10
Ali K Jahromi, Absar U Hassan, Demetrios N Christodoulides, Ayman F Abouraddy
Parity-time (PT)-symmetry in optics is a condition whereby the real and imaginary parts of the refractive index across a photonic structure are deliberately balanced. This balance can lead to interesting optical phenomena, such as unidirectional invisibility, loss-induced lasing, single-mode lasing from multimode resonators, and non-reciprocal effects in conjunction with nonlinearities. Because PT-symmetry has been thought of as fragile, experimental realisations to date have been usually restricted to on-chip micro-devices...
November 7, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29115684/bone-material-strength-index-as-measured-by-impact-microindentation-in-postmenopausal-women-with-distal-radius-and-hip-fractures
#11
Tamara D Rozental, Kempland C Walley, Serkalem Demissie, Signe Caksa, Adriana Martinez-Betancourt, Amber M Parker, Joy N Tsai, Elaine W Yu, Mary L Bouxsein
We tested whether cortical bone tissue properties assessed by in vivo impact microindentation would distinguish postmenopausal women with recent distal radius (DRF) or hip fracture (HF) from non-fracture controls (CONT). We enrolled postmenopausal women with recent DRF (n=57), HF (n=41) or CONT (n=93), and used impact microindentation to assess bone material strength index (BMSi) at the anterior surface of the mid-tibia diaphysis. Areal BMD (g/cm(2) ) of the femoral neck (FN), total hip (TH) and lumbar spine (LS) were measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA)...
November 8, 2017: Journal of Bone and Mineral Research: the Official Journal of the American Society for Bone and Mineral Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29106548/comprehensive-geriatric-assessment-for-identifying-older-people-at-risk-of-hip-fracture-cross-sectional-study-with-comparative-group
#12
Raquel Ramírez-Martín, María Victoria Castell Alcalá, Teresa Alarcón, Rocío Queipo, Peggy Paola Ríos Germán, Ángel Otero Puime, Juan Ignacio González-Montalvo
Background: Hip fracture (HF) is by far the most common serious fragility fracture. Its care is a major challenge to all healthcare systems. Aim: To determine whether there are characteristics of older people identified via comprehensive geriatric assessment (CGA) that help identify those with an increased risk of HF. Methods: The demographic, functional, cognitive and nutritional data of a cohort of patients admitted for acute HF were compared with those of a population cohort representing community-dwelling older people in the same urban district without HF...
November 16, 2017: Family Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29084183/dietary-magnesium-may-be-protective-for-aging-of-bone-and-skeletal-muscle-in-middle-and-younger-older-age-men-and-women-cross-sectional-findings-from-the-uk-biobank-cohort
#13
Ailsa A Welch, Jane Skinner, Mary Hickson
Although fragility fractures, osteoporosis, sarcopenia, and frailty are becoming more prevalent in our aging society the treatment options are limited and preventative strategies are needed. Despite magnesium being integral to bone and muscle physiology, the relationship between dietary magnesium and skeletal muscle and bone health has not been investigated concurrently to date. We analysed cross-sectional associations between dietary magnesium and skeletal muscle mass (as fat free mass-FFM), grip strength, and bone density (BMD) in 156,575 men and women aged 39-72 years from the UK Biobank cohort...
October 30, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29083352/injuries-of-the-trochanteric-region-can-analysis-of-radiographic-indices-help-in-prediction-of-recurrent-osteoporotic-hip-fractures
#14
Andrea Pellegrini, Fabrizio Tacci, Massimiliano Leigheb, Cosimo Costantino, Alessio Pedrazzini, Giuseppe Pedrazzi, Enrico Vaienti, Francesco Ceccarelli, Francesco Pogliacomi
OBJECTIVE: In a context of bone fragility, primitive and subsequent fractures are a growing problem in the industrialized countries where the mean age of the population is constantly increasing. Among the various factors that favor a fragility fracture, the most important is osteoporosis, a pathology that can be prevented through diagnostic screenings and treated by pharmacological and rehabilitative therapies. The aim of this study is to identify the subjects who are likely to have a higher risk of subsequent fractures of the trochanteric region through a retrospective radiographic evaluation of patients affected by low-energy trochanteric fractures and operated by intramedullary fixation between June 2013 and June 2015, so they can be targeted for prevention interventions...
October 18, 2017: Acta Bio-medica: Atenei Parmensis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29065145/a-markovian-model-of-evolving-world-input-output-network
#15
Vahid Moosavi, Giulio Isacchini
The initial theoretical connections between Leontief input-output models and Markov chains were established back in 1950s. However, considering the wide variety of mathematical properties of Markov chains, so far there has not been a full investigation of evolving world economic networks with Markov chain formalism. In this work, using the recently available world input-output database, we investigated the evolution of the world economic network from 1995 to 2011 through analysis of a time series of finite Markov chains...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29038673/thiazides-and-osteoporotic-spinal-fractures-a-suspected-linkage-investigated-by-means-of-a-two-center-case-control-study
#16
Renato De Vecchis, Carmelina Ariano, Giuseppina Di Biase, Michel Noutsias
BACKGROUND: An alleged association of chronic use of thiazide diuretics with an increased risk of bone fragility fractures has been highlighted by a relatively recent prospective cohort study. However, the concept that thiazides exert a beneficial effect on osteoporosis is still a predominant view. This effect would be mediated by the decrease in renal clearance of calcium ions, a pharmacological feature recognized for a long time now to this class of drugs, as opposed to the increase in calcium urinary excretion attributed instead to loop diuretics, i...
November 2017: Journal of Clinical Medicine Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29037877/unbreakable-an-analysis-of-the-fragility-of-randomized-trials-that-support-diabetes-treatment-guidelines
#17
B Chase Kruse, B Matt Vassar
AIMS: To analyze the robustness of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) referenced in the American Diabetes Association's Standards of Medical Care in Diabetes-2017 using the Fragility Index (FI) and Fragility Quotient (FQ). METHODS: We performed a systematic survey of all RCTs referenced in the Standards of Medical Care in Diabetes-2017. One investigator screened for trials and then recorded data from them, including sample size per group, event rate per group, and the dichotomous outcome analyzed by trialists...
October 14, 2017: Diabetes Research and Clinical Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29020086/violence-insecurity-and-the-risk-of-polio-a-systematic-analysis
#18
Kia Guarino, Arend Voorman, Maxime Gasteen, Donte Stewart, Jay Wenger
BACKGROUND: Since the introduction of polio vaccines in the 1950's and 60's, eradication of poliovirus from the world has been technically feasible. Progress towards this goal, however, has been uneven and influenced by social and political factors that challenge the implementation of robust immunization programs. While violence and insecurity are often cited as barriers to eradication, current global risk models are largely based on virologic and immunologic indicators measured at national levels...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29019551/caries-experience-and-salivary-aspects-in-individuals-with-fragile-x-syndrome
#19
Cristhiane Olívia Ferreira do Amaral, Fabiana Gouveia Straioto, Marcelo Henrique Napimoga, Elizabeth Ferreira Martinez
Fragile X syndrome (FXS) is the most common cause of hereditary mental retardation, but studies on the oral health condition of these patients are rare. The aim of this study was to determine the experience of dental caries in individuals with FXS, by examining the saliva profile, oral hygiene, socioeconomic characteristics and use of controlled drugs in these patients. Dental health was estimated using the decayed, missing and filled teeth index (DMF-T) and sialometry, and the pH value and buffering capacity of the saliva, colony forming units of S...
September 28, 2017: Brazilian Oral Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28987093/presence-of-global-and-local-%C3%AE-relaxations-in-an-alkyl-phosphate-glass-former
#20
Tao Wu, Xiao Jin, Manoj K Saini, Ying Dan Liu, K L Ngai, Li-Min Wang
The dynamics of a molecular glass former, tributyl phosphate (TBP), with an alkyl phosphate structure (three alkyl branches emanating from a polar core of PO4) is studied in the supercooled regime by dielectric and thermal (or enthalpic) relaxations. The dielectric fragility index md and the stretching exponent βd of the Kohlrausch-Williams-Watts correlation function are determined. Analyses of the enthalpic relaxation data by the Tool-Narayanaswamy-Moynihan-Hodge formalism yield the enthalpic fragility index mH and stretching exponent βH...
October 7, 2017: Journal of Chemical Physics
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