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late-stage neuroendocrine prostate cancer

Justin Lack, Marc Gillard, Maggie Cam, Gladell P Paner, David J VanderWeele
BACKGROUND: Genetic analysis of advanced cancer is limited by availability of representative tissue. Biopsies of prostate cancer metastasized to bone are invasive with low quantity of tumor tissue. The prostate cancer genome is dynamic, however, with temporal heterogeneity requiring repeated evaluation as the disease evolves. Circulating tumor cells (CTCs) offer an alternative, "liquid biopsy", though single CTC sequencing efforts are laborious with high failure rates. METHODS: We performed exome sequencing of matched treatment-naïve tumor tissue, castrate resistant tumor tissue, and pooled CTC samples, and compared mutations identified in each...
February 23, 2017: Journal of Translational Medicine
H Choe, A Sboner, H Beltran, D Nanus, S T Tagawa
INTRODUCTION: Neuroendocrine prostate cancer (NEPC) is an aggressive late-stage variant of PC that is often androgen-receptor negative. Most clinicians believe the VTE rate with NEPC is higher than with standard metastatic castration-resistant PC (mCRPC), but NEPC tends to present with bulkier visceral disease and include platinum chemotherapy unlike standard PC. In many solid tumors, a more aggressive phenotype correlates with increased VTE risk and elevated expression of coagulation factors...
April 2016: Thrombosis Research
John K Lee, John W Phillips, Bryan A Smith, Jung Wook Park, Tanya Stoyanova, Erin F McCaffrey, Robert Baertsch, Artem Sokolov, Justin G Meyerowitz, Colleen Mathis, Donghui Cheng, Joshua M Stuart, Kevan M Shokat, W Clay Gustafson, Jiaoti Huang, Owen N Witte
MYCN amplification and overexpression are common in neuroendocrine prostate cancer (NEPC). However, the impact of aberrant N-Myc expression in prostate tumorigenesis and the cellular origin of NEPC have not been established. We define N-Myc and activated AKT1 as oncogenic components sufficient to transform human prostate epithelial cells to prostate adenocarcinoma and NEPC with phenotypic and molecular features of aggressive, late-stage human disease. We directly show that prostate adenocarcinoma and NEPC can arise from a common epithelial clone...
April 11, 2016: Cancer Cell
Daniel H Shevrin
In spite of the development of new treatments for late stage prostate cancer, significant challenges persist to match individuals with effective targeted therapies. Genomic classification using high-throughput sequencing technologies has the potential to achieve this goal and make precision medicine a reality in the management of men with castrate-resistant prostate cancer. This chapter reviews some of the most recent studies that have resulted in significant progress in determining the landscape of somatic genomic alterations in this cohort and, more importantly, have provided clinically actionable information that could guide treatment decisions...
July 2016: Asian Journal of Andrology
Mark P Labrecque, Mandeep K Takhar, Rebecca Nason, Stephanie Santacruz, Kevin J Tam, Shabnam Massah, Anne Haegert, Robert H Bell, Manuel Altamirano-Dimas, Colin C Collins, Frank J S Lee, Gratien G Prefontaine, Michael E Cox, Timothy V Beischlag
Loss of tumor suppressor proteins, such as the retinoblastoma protein (Rb), results in tumor progression and metastasis. Metastasis is facilitated by low oxygen availability within the tumor that is detected by hypoxia inducible factors (HIFs). The HIF1 complex, HIF1α and dimerization partner the aryl hydrocarbon receptor nuclear translocator (ARNT), is the master regulator of the hypoxic response. Previously, we demonstrated that Rb represses the transcriptional response to hypoxia by virtue of its association with HIF1...
April 26, 2016: Oncotarget
Bryan A Smith, Artem Sokolov, Vladislav Uzunangelov, Robert Baertsch, Yulia Newton, Kiley Graim, Colleen Mathis, Donghui Cheng, Joshua M Stuart, Owen N Witte
Evidence from numerous cancers suggests that increased aggressiveness is accompanied by up-regulation of signaling pathways and acquisition of properties common to stem cells. It is unclear if different subtypes of late-stage cancer vary in stemness properties and whether or not these subtypes are transcriptionally similar to normal tissue stem cells. We report a gene signature specific for human prostate basal cells that is differentially enriched in various phenotypes of late-stage metastatic prostate cancer...
November 24, 2015: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Panagiotis J Vlachostergios, Christos N Papandreou
Neuroendocrine prostate carcinoma, either co-present with the local adenocarcinoma disease or as a result of transdifferentiation later in time, was described as one major process of emerging resistance to androgen deprivation therapies, and at the clinical level it is consistent with the development of rapidly progressive visceral disease, often in the absence of elevated serum prostate-specific antigen level. Until present, platinum-based chemotherapy has been the only treatment modality, able to produce a fair amount of responses but of short duration...
2015: Frontiers in Oncology
Juan Miguel Mosquera, Himisha Beltran, Kyung Park, Theresa Y MacDonald, Brian D Robinson, Scott T Tagawa, Sven Perner, Tarek A Bismar, Andreas Erbersdobler, Rajiv Dhir, Joel B Nelson, David M Nanus, Mark A Rubin
Neuroendocrine prostate cancer (NEPC), also referred to as anaplastic prostate cancer, is a lethal tumor that most commonly arises in late stages of prostate adenocarcinoma (PCA) with predilection to metastasize to visceral organs. In the current study, we explore for evidence that Aurora kinase A (AURKA) and N-myc (MYCN) gene abnormalities are harbingers of treatment-related NEPC (t-NEPC). We studied primary prostate tissue from 15 hormone naïve PCAs, 51 castration-resistant prostate cancers, and 15 metastatic tumors from 72 patients at different stages of disease progression to t-NEPC, some with multiple specimens...
January 2013: Neoplasia: An International Journal for Oncology Research
Teresa A Almeida, Yurena Rodriguez, Mariano Hernández, Ricardo Reyes, Aixa R Bello
Neurotensin is a neuroendocrine peptide acting as a trophic factor in a variety of cells in vivo but it can also function as an autocrine growth factor in human prostate cancer cells in vitro. In addition, the high-affinity G protein-coupled NT receptor (NTS1) is overexpressed in prostate cancer cell lines. Increasing evidence argues for a direct correlation between specific alternative splice variants and cancer. We detected four splice variants of the NTS1 receptor in human prostate cancer cell lines. These isoforms include one or more exons skipping as well as an alternative 5' splice donor site and are expressed in the late-stage androgen independent prostate cancer cell lines PC3 and DU145, but not in the early-stage androgen-sensitive LNCaP or in normal prostate tissue, which only express the normal transcript...
February 2010: Peptides
Tatyana Isayeva, Diptiman Chanda, Lisa Kallman, Isam-Eldin A Eltoum, Selvarangan Ponnazhagan
Antiangiogenic therapy is a promising alternative for prostate cancer growth and metastasis and holds great promise as an adjuvant therapy. The present study evaluated the potential of stable expression of angiostatin and endostatin before the onset of neoplasia and during the early and late stages of prostate cancer progression in transgenic adenocarcinoma of mouse prostate (TRAMP) mice. Groups of 5-, 10-, and 18-week-old male TRAMP mice received recombinant adeno-associated virus-6 encoding mouse endostatin plus angiostatin (E+A) by i...
June 15, 2007: Cancer Research
G P Amorino, P D Deeble, S J Parsons
Neuroendocrine (NE)-like cells are hypothesized to contribute to the progression of prostate cancer by producing factors that enhance the growth, survival or metastatic capabilities of surrounding tumor cells. Many of the factors known to be secreted by NE-like cells, such as neurotensin (NT), parathyroid hormone-related peptide, serotonin, bombesin, etc., are agonists for G-protein-coupled receptors, but the signaling pathways activated by these agonists in prostate tumor cells are not fully defined. Identification of such pathways could provide insights into novel methods of treating late-stage disease...
February 1, 2007: Oncogene
Masahiro Yashi, Fumihito Terauchi, Akinori Nukui, Masanori Ochi, Masayuki Yuzawa, Yosuke Hara, Tatsuo Morita
BACKGROUND: Small-cell neuroendocrine carcinoma has been recognized as a rare histologic variant occurring in only 0.5% to 2% of prostatic primary tumors. However, recent autopsy studies suggest development to this phenotype in up to 10% to 20% of the cases with hormone-refractory disease. CASE PRESENTATION: A case of conventional adenocarcinoma before androgen-ablation therapy but showing progression to small-cell neuroendocrine carcinoma at the recurrence. The immunohistochemistry of the tumor showed strong positive staining for progastrin-releasing peptide (ProGRP), a carboxy terminal region common to 3 precursors for gastrin-releasing peptide, but almost negative staining for chromogranin-A and prostate-specific antigen...
July 2006: Urologic Oncology
Manal Y Gabril, Wenming Duan, Guojun Wu, Madeleine Moussa, Jonathan I Izawa, Chandra J Panchal, Hideki Sakai, Jim W Xuan
Preclinical studies of prostate cancer (CaP) have employed a genetically engineered mouse model, since there is no naturally occurring CaP in rodents. We have previously reported a new knock-in mouse adenocarcinoma prostate (KIMAP) model. In this study, we demonstrate that the new model possesses a tumor architecture of heterogeneity and multifocality similar to that of human CaP, by utilizing a new compound scoring system to compare with the PSP94 (approved gene symbol Msmb) gene-directed transgenic mouse CaP model (TGMAP)...
March 2005: Molecular Therapy: the Journal of the American Society of Gene Therapy
Paula J Kaplan-Lefko, Tsuey-Ming Chen, Michael M Ittmann, Roberto J Barrios, Gustavo E Ayala, Wendy J Huss, Lisette A Maddison, Barbara A Foster, Norman M Greenberg
BACKGROUND: Animal models that closely mimic clinical disease can be exploited to hasten the pace of translational research. To this end, we have defined windows of opportunity in the transgenic adenocarcinoma of the mouse prostate (TRAMP) model of prostate cancer as a paradigm for designing pre-clinical trials. METHODS: The incidence of cancer, metastasis, and distribution of pathology were examined as a function of time in TRAMP mice. The expression of various markers of differentiation were characterized...
May 15, 2003: Prostate
Lawrence D True, Kent Buhler, Janna Quinn, Emily Williams, Peter S Nelson, Nigel Clegg, Jill A Macoska, Thomas Norwood, Alvin Liu, William Ellis, Paul Lange, Robert Vessella
The late stages of progression of prostate carcinoma are typically characterized by an androgen-insensitive, rapidly proliferative state. Some late-stage tumors are composed predominantly of neuroendocrine cells. Virtually no animal models of a neuroendocrine/small cell variant of prostate carcinoma are available for experimental studies. We report a human neuroendocrine/small cell prostate carcinoma xenograft that was developed from a nodal metastasis of a human prostate carcinoma and that has been propagated as serial subcutaneous implants in severe combined immunodeficient mice for >4 years...
August 2002: American Journal of Pathology
L J Deftos, P A Abrahamsson
OBJECTIVES: The importance of the expression of granin A (GRN-A, chromogranin-A) has become appreciated in the neuroendocrine differentiation of prostate cancer. We studied the expression of GRN-A in prostate cancer using serum immunoassay and tissue immunohistology procedures for this protein in order to define the clinical value of its measurements. METHODS: GRN-A production was measured by immunoassay in serum samples from patients with prostate cancer. Immunohistology procedures were used to assess GRN-A expression in paraffin-embedded prostate tissue samples...
May 1998: Urology
O Cussenot, J M Villette, A Valeri, G Cariou, F Desgrandchamps, A Cortesse, P Meria, P Teillac, J Fiet, A Le Duc
PURPOSE: Approximately 50% of all malignant prostatic tumors contain neuroendocrine cells, which cannot be attributed to small cell prostatic carcinoma or carcinoid-like tumors, and which represent only 1 to 2% of all prostatic malignancies. Only limited data are available concerning the plasma levels of neuroendocrine markers in patients with prostatic tumors. Therefore, we determine the incidence of high plasma levels of neuroendocrine markers in patients with benign and malignant prostatic disease...
April 1996: Journal of Urology
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