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Smoking AND multiple sclerosis

Kirsten S Dorans, Jennifer Massa, Tanuja Chitnis, Alberto Ascherio, Kassandra L Munger
OBJECTIVE: To study whether physical activity during adulthood or early life is associated with multiple sclerosis (MS) incidence in 2 prospective cohorts of women. METHODS: Women in the Nurses' Health Study (NHS) (n = 81,723; 1986-2004) and NHS II (n = 111,804; 1989-2009) reported recent physical activity at baseline and in selected follow-up questionnaires. Using this information, we calculated total metabolic equivalent hours of physical activity per week, a measure of energy expenditure...
September 28, 2016: Neurology
Rebecca Straus Farber, Robert Gross, Elina Zakin, Michelle Fabian
BACKGROUND: Neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder (NMOSD) patients may be at increased risk of venous thromboembolism (VTE) not only due to ambulatory disability but also due to systemic autoimmune and inflammatory mechanisms altering the hemostatic balance. OBJECTIVE: To compare the risk of VTE in NMOSD versus multiple sclerosis (MS) patients hospitalized for acute relapses. METHODS: Hospital admissions for MS or NMOSD exacerbations were retrospectively identified...
September 26, 2016: Multiple Sclerosis: Clinical and Laboratory Research
Kjetil Bjørnevik, Trond Riise, Inger Bostrom, Llaria Casetta, Marianna Cortese, Enrico Granieri, Trygve Holmøy, Margitta T Kampman, Anne-Marie Landtblom, Sandra Magalhaes, Maura Pugliatti, Christina Wolfson, Kjell-Morten Myhr
BACKGROUND: Results from previous studies on a possible interaction between smoking and Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) in the risk of multiple sclerosis (MS) are conflicting. OBJECTIVES: To examine the interaction between smoking and infectious mononucleosis (IM) in the risk of MS. METHODS: Within the case-control study on Environmental Factors In Multiple Sclerosis (EnvIMS), 1904 MS patients and 3694 population-based frequency-matched healthy controls from Norway, Italy, and Sweden reported on prior exposure to smoking and history of IM...
September 23, 2016: Multiple Sclerosis: Clinical and Laboratory Research
Brooke Rhead, Maria Bäärnhielm, Milena Gianfrancesco, Amanda Mok, Xiaorong Shao, Hong Quach, Ling Shen, Catherine Schaefer, Jenny Link, Alexandra Gyllenberg, Anna Karin Hedström, Tomas Olsson, Jan Hillert, Ingrid Kockum, M Maria Glymour, Lars Alfredsson, Lisa F Barcellos
OBJECTIVE: We sought to estimate the causal effect of low serum 25(OH)D on multiple sclerosis (MS) susceptibility that is not confounded by environmental or lifestyle factors or subject to reverse causality. METHODS: We conducted mendelian randomization (MR) analyses using an instrumental variable (IV) comprising 3 single nucleotide polymorphisms found to be associated with serum 25(OH)D levels at genome-wide significance. We analyzed the effect of the IV on MS risk and both age at onset and disease severity in 2 separate populations using logistic regression models that controlled for sex, year of birth, smoking, education, genetic ancestry, body mass index at age 18-20 years or in 20s, a weighted genetic risk score for 110 known MS-associated variants, and the presence of one or more HLA-DRB1*15:01 alleles...
October 2016: Neurology. Genetics
D S Goodin
MS-pathogenesis involves both genetic-susceptibility and environmental determinants. Three (or more) sequential environmental-factors are implicated. The first acts near birth, the second acts during childhood/adolescence, and the third acts subsequently. Two candidate factors (vitamin D deficiency and Epstein-Barr viral infection) seem particularly well-suited to the first two environmental-events but other factors (e.g., obesity and smoking behavior) seem also to be involved in the causal scheme. MS-pathogenesis can be modeled by incorporating both the environmental and genetic-factors into a causal scheme, which can then help to explain some of the changes in MS-epidemiology (e...
2016: Handbook of Clinical Neurology
Emmanuelle Waubant, Anne-Louise Ponsonby, Maura Pugliatti, Heather Hanwell, Ellen M Mowry, Rogier Q Hintzen
The onset of multiple sclerosis (MS) occurs in childhood in about 5% of all patients with MS. The disease in adults has a complex genetic and environmental inheritability. One of the main risk factors, also confirmed in pediatric MS, is HLA DRB1*1501 In addition to genetic factors, a large part of disease susceptibility in adults is conferred by environmental risk factors such as low vitamin D status, exposure to cigarette smoking, and remote Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection. In children, both exposure to cigarette smoking and prior EBV infection have been reported consistently as risk factors for MS...
August 30, 2016: Neurology
George A Jelinek, Alysha M De Livera, Claudia H Marck, Chelsea R Brown, Sandra L Neate, Keryn L Taylor, Tracey J Weiland
OBJECTIVE: Emerging evidence links modifiable lifestyle risk factors to disease progression in multiple sclerosis (MS). We sought further evidence around this hypothesis through detailed analysis of the association with disability of lifestyle behaviours of a large international sample of people with MS. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 2469 people with MS from 57 countries provided self-reported data via cross-sectional online survey on lifestyle (mostly with validated tools) and the primary outcome measure, disability (Patient Determined Disease Steps), categorised from 8 steps into 3 categories, mild, moderate and major disability...
2016: PloS One
Pamela Newland, Louise Flick, Hong Xian, Florian P Thomas
BACKGROUND: The impact of tobacco on the multiple sclerosis (MS) disease process and symptoms is complex and not clearly understood. Tobacco may be used to self-treat some symptoms but also seems to intensify others. Studies to date have not characterized co-occurring symptoms (symptom patterns) and their association with tobacco use. METHODS: This study describes tobacco use in patients with relapsing-remitting MS and associated symptoms and symptom co-occurrences...
July 2016: International Journal of MS Care
Giulia Di Dalmazi, Jason Hirshberg, Daniel Lyle, Joudeh B Freij, Patrizio Caturegli
Reactive oxygen species (ROS) have been extensively studied in the induction of inflammation and tissue damage, especially as it relates to aging. In more recent years, ROS have been implicated in the pathogenesis of autoimmune diseases. Here, ROS accumulation leads to apoptosis and autoantigen structural changes that result in novel specificities. ROS have been implicated not only in the initiation of the autoimmune response but also in its amplification and spreading to novel epitopes, through the unmasking of cryptic determinants...
December 2016: Auto- Immunity Highlights
Mohammad Mahdi Eftekharian, Masoud Sabouri Ghannad, Mohammad Taheri, Ghodratollah Roshanaei, Mehrdokht Mazdeh, Mehrnoosh Musavi, Mona Bahmani Hormoz
OBJECTIVES: Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a complicated disease which occurs due to relationship between genes and environmental factors that causes tissue damage by autoimmune mechanisms.We investigated and illustrated the hypotheses correlated to the evidence of several putative environmental risk factors for MS onset and progression in this part of Iran. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Univariate logistic regression was used to detect the effects of environmental factors on the risk of MS...
June 8, 2016: Human Antibodies
Kaitlin A Hagan, Kassandra L Munger, Alberto Ascherio, Francine Grodstein
OBJECTIVES: To review the contribution of the Nurses' Health Study (NHS) to identifying the role of lifestyle, diet, and genetic or biological factors in several neurodegenerative diseases, including cognitive decline, multiple sclerosis, Parkinson's disease, and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. METHODS: We completed a narrative review of the publications of the NHS and NHS II between 1976 and 2016. RESULTS: In primary findings for cognitive function, higher intake of nuts, moderate alcohol consumption, and higher physical activity levels were associated with better cognitive function...
September 2016: American Journal of Public Health
Graham A Colditz, Sydney E Philpott, Susan E Hankinson
OBJECTIVES: To summarize the overall impact of the Nurses' Health Study (NHS) over the past 40 years on the health of populations through its contributions on prevention, translation, and control. METHODS: We performed a narrative review of the findings of the NHS, NHS II, and NHS3 between 1976 and 2016. RESULTS: The NHS has generated significant findings about the associations between (1) smoking and type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular diseases, colorectal and pancreatic cancer, psoriasis, multiple sclerosis, and eye diseases; (2) physical activity and cardiovascular diseases, breast cancer, psoriasis, and neurodegeneration; (3) obesity and cardiovascular diseases, numerous cancer sites, psoriasis, multiple sclerosis, kidney stones, and eye diseases; (4) oral contraceptives and cardiovascular disease, melanoma, and breast, colorectal, and ovarian cancer; (5) hormone therapy and cardiovascular diseases, breast and endometrial cancer, and neurodegeneration; (6) endogenous hormones and breast cancer; (7) dietary factors and type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular diseases, breast and pancreatic cancer, non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, neurodegeneration, multiple sclerosis, kidney stones, and eye diseases; and (8) sleep and shift work and chronic diseases...
September 2016: American Journal of Public Health
Víctor Manuel Rivera-Olmos, Marisela C Parra-Bernal
The consumption of marijuana extracted from Cannabis sativa and indica plants involves an important cultural impact in Mexico. Their psychological stimulatory effect is widely recognized; their biochemical and molecular components interact with CB1 and CB2 (endocannabinoid system) receptors in various central nervous system structures (CNS) and immune cells. The psychoactive element Δ-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) can be reproduced synthetically. Systematic reviews show evidence of therapeutic effectiveness of therapeutic marijuana only for certain symptoms of multiple sclerosis (spasticity, spasms and pain), despite attempts for its widespread use, including refractory childhood epilepsy...
September 2016: Revista Médica del Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social
I Backhaus, A Mannocci, P H H M Lemmens, G La Torre
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to improve and update the pool of available studies included in the previous meta-analyses, and to provide further evidence about smoking as a risk factor for MS. MATERIAL AND METHODS: PubMed and Scopus searches were undertaken to identify studies investigating the association between cigarette smoking and MS. Odds ratio (OR), relative risk (RR) together with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated for case-control and cohort studies and prevalence rate for cross sectional...
May 2016: La Clinica Terapeutica
Vahid Shaygannejad, Nooshin Rezaie, Zamzam Paknahad, Freshteh Ashtari, Helia Maghzi
BACKGROUND: Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a demyelinating and degenerating disease which involves central nervous system. Environmental risk factors have a key role in MS susceptibility. Here we aim to investigate different risk factors effect on MS susceptibility in a large population of MS patients in Isfahan, Iran. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This study is a cross-sectional hospital-based study, which was conducted on a large group of MS patients registered in Kashani hospital and a control group from normal healthy population...
2016: Advanced Biomedical Research
Chia-Chun Tseng, Shun-Jen Chang, Wen-Chan Tsai, Tsan-Teng Ou, Cheng-Chin Wu, Wan-Yu Sung, Ming-Chia Hsieh, Jeng-Hsien Yen
Past studies have shown inconsistent results on whether there is an association between multiple sclerosis (MS) and rheumatoid arthritis. To investigate the possible relationship between the 2 autoimmune diseases, we performed a nationwide cohort study utilizing the National Health Insurance Research Database and the Registry of Catastrophic Illness.A total of 1456 newly diagnosed patients with MS and 10,362 control patients were matched for age, sex, and initial diagnosis date. Patients with MS had a higher incidence of rheumatoid arthritis (age-adjusted standardized incidence ratio: 1...
June 2016: Medicine (Baltimore)
Nitin Shivappa, James R Hebert, Maryam Behrooz, Bahram Rashidkhani
BACKGROUND: Diet and inflammation have been suggested to be important risk factors for multiple sclerosis (MS). OBJECTIVES: In this study, we examined the ability of the dietary inflammatory index (DII) to predict MS in a case-control study conducted in Iran. METHODS: This study included 68 MS cases and 140 controls hospitalized for acute non-neoplastic diseases. The DII was computed based on dietary intake assessed by a previously validated food frequency questionnaire...
2016: Neuroepidemiology
Johan Öckinger, Michael Hagemann-Jensen, Susanna Kullberg, Benita Engvall, Anders Eklund, Johan Grunewald, Fredrik Piehl, Tomas Olsson, Jan Wahlström
Cigarette smoking is a risk factor for multiple sclerosis (MS), and the risk is further multiplied for HLA-DRB1*15(+) smokers. To define the smoke-induced immune responses in the lung we performed bronchoscopy with bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) on smokers and non-smokers, both MS-patients and healthy volunteers. In the BAL, non-smokers with MS showed an increased preformed CD40L expression in CD4(+) T-cells while smokers displayed an increase in proliferating (Ki-67(+)) T-cells. In addition, our results confirm that smoking induces an increase of alveolar macrophages in BAL, and further defined a significant attenuation of this response in carriers of the HLA-DRB1*15 allele, in both MS patients and healthy controls...
August 2016: Clinical Immunology: the Official Journal of the Clinical Immunology Society
K Y Neven, M Piola, L Angelici, F Cortini, C Fenoglio, D Galimberti, A C Pesatori, E Scarpini, V Bollati
BACKGROUND: Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a complex disorder of the central nervous system whose cause is currently unknown. Evidence is increasing that DNA methylation alterations could be involved in inflammatory and neurodegenerative diseases and could contribute to MS pathogenesis. Repetitive elements Alu, LINE-1 and SAT-α, are widely known as estimators of global DNA methylation. We investigated Alu, LINE-1 and SAT-α methylation levels to evaluate their difference in a case-control setup and their role as a marker of disability...
2016: BMC Genetics
Abdulla Watad, Shir Azrielant, Alessandra Soriano, Danielle Bracco, Arsalan Abu Much, Howard Amital
Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic inflammatory disease that affects the central nervous system. MS is causing progressive and relapsing neurological disability, due to demyelination and axonal damage. The etiopathogenesis of MS is poorly understood. A number of environmental factors have been previously suggested, including: month of birth, vitamin D levels, smoking and viral infections. Previous studies assessing seasonal variation of relapses in multiple sclerosis have had conflicting results. The aim of this review is to assess the association between seasonal factors and MS, in terms of disease onset, relapses and activity...
May 25, 2016: European Journal of Epidemiology
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