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Cardiovascular tomography

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29679631/possible-early-detection-of-coronary-artery-calcium-progression-in-type-1-diabetes-a-case-control-study-of-normoalbuminuric-type-1-diabetes-patients-and-matched-controls
#1
Henrik Ø Hjortkjær, Tonny Jensen, Jannik Hilsted, Helle Corinth, Ulrik M Mogensen, Lars Køber, Andreas Fuchs, Børge G Nordestgaard, Klaus F Kofoed
AIMS: Coronary artery calcium (CAC) is associated with cardiovascular (CV) disease and progression of CAC is an independent predictor of mortality. Type 1 diabetes is associated with increased CV risk, especially in persons with cardiovascular autonomic neuropathy (CAN). This study aimed to examine whether short-term progression of CAC is increased in persons with type 1 diabetes compared to matched controls and if CAN increases risk of CAC progression. METHODS: Fifty-three normoalbuminuric persons with long-term type 1 diabetes (20 with CAN) were matched in a 1:2 ratio with 106 controls without diabetes according to age, sex and baseline CAC...
April 18, 2018: Diabetes Research and Clinical Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29678337/relation-of-coronary-culprit-lesion-morphology-determined-by-optical-coherence-tomography-and-cardiac-outcomes-to-serum-uric-acid-levels-in-patients-with-acute-coronary-syndrome
#2
Nobuaki Kobayashi, Noritake Hata, Masafumi Tsurumi, Yusaku Shibata, Hirotake Okazaki, Akihiro Shirakabe, Masamichi Takano, Yoshihiko Seino, Wataru Shimizu
The aims of the present study were to elucidate features of culprit lesion plaque morphology using optical coherence tomography (OCT) in relation to elevated serum uric acid (sUA) levels and to clarify the impact of sUA levels on adverse clinical outcomes in patients with acute coronary syndrome (ACS). Clinical data and outcomes were compared between ACS patients with sUA ≥6 mg/dl (high-sUA; n = 506) and sUA <6.0 mg/dl (low-sUA; n = 608). Angiography and OCT findings were analyzed in patients with preintervention OCT and compared between groups of high-sUA (n = 206) and low-sUA (n = 273)...
March 28, 2018: American Journal of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29677630/resting-heart-rate-and-the-incidence-and-progression-of-valvular-calcium-the-multi-ethnic-study-of-atherosclerosis-mesa
#3
Kojo Amoakwa, Oluwaseun E Fashanu, Martin Tibuakuu, Di Zhao, Eliseo Guallar, Seamus P Whelton, Wesley T O'Neal, Wendy S Post, Matthew J Budoff, Erin D Michos
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Left-sided valvular calcification is associated with cardiovascular disease (CVD) morbidity and mortality. Resting heart rate (RHR) may influence valvular calcium progression through shear stress. Whether RHR, an established CVD risk factor, is associated with valvular calcium progression is unknown. We assessed whether RHR predicts incidence and progression of mitral annular calcium (MAC) and aortic valve calcium (AVC) in a community-based cohort free of CVD at baseline...
April 6, 2018: Atherosclerosis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29671882/electrocardiography-scar-quantification-correlates-with-scar-size-of-hypertrophic-cardiomyopathy-seen-by-multidetector-computed-tomography
#4
Tiago Costa Bignoto, Dalmo Antônio Ribeiro Moreira, Ricardo Garbe Habib, Edileide de Barros Correia, Ricardo Carneiro Amarante, Tannas Jatene, Mario Barbosa Guedes Nunes, Tiago Senra, Luiz Eduardo Mastrocolla
BACKGROUND: Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM), a genetically transmitted disease, is the most common genetic cardiovascular disease. Current strategies to stratify risk are expensive and concentrated in wealthy centers. Twelve-lead electrocardiography (ECG) is inexpensive and universally available and can be readily used for Selvester QRS scoring, which estimates scar size. This study aimed to establish the relation between ECG scar quantification and myocardial fibrosis (extent of myocardial delayed enhancement) in multidetector computed tomography (MDCT)...
April 19, 2018: Clinical Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29671538/stable-coronary-artery-disease-treatment
#5
Michael M Braun, William A Stevens, Craig H Barstow
Stable coronary artery disease refers to a reversible supply/demand mismatch related to ischemia, a history of myocardial infarction, or the presence of plaque documented by catheterization or computed tomography angiography. Patients are considered stable if they are asymptomatic or their symptoms are controlled by medications or revascularization. Treatment involves risk factor management, antiplatelet therapy, and antianginal medications. Tobacco cessation, exercise, and weight loss are the most important lifestyle modifications...
March 15, 2018: American Family Physician
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29671172/effects-of-whole-grain-wheat-bread-on-visceral-fat-obesity-in-japanese-subjects-a-randomized-double-blind-study
#6
Yosuke Kikuchi, Satomi Nozaki, Miki Makita, Shoji Yokozuka, Shin-Ichi Fukudome, Takashi Yanagisawa, Seiichiro Aoe
Metabolic syndrome is a risk factor for cardiovascular diseases and has become increasingly common in Japan. Epidemiological studies show inverse associations between intake of whole wheat grains and metabolic syndrome, but few dietary intervention trials have investigated the effect of whole wheat grain consumption. It was investigated whether a diet in which refined wheat bread (RW diet) was substituted by whole grain wheat bread (WW diet) would reduce visceral fat obesity in Japanese subjects. A randomized double-blind placebo-controlled intervention study was conducted in 50 Japanese subjects with body mass index (BMI) ≥ 23 kg/m2 ...
April 18, 2018: Plant Foods for Human Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29663117/review-of-cardiovascular-imaging-in-the-journal-of-nuclear-cardiology-in-2017-part-2-of-2-myocardial-perfusion-imaging
#7
Fadi G Hage, Wael A AlJaroudi
In 2017, the Journal of Nuclear Cardiology published many high-quality articles. In this review, we will summarize a selection of these articles to provide a concise review of the main advancements that have recently occurred in the field. In the first article of this 2-part series, we focused on publications dealing with positron emission tomography, computed tomography, and magnetic resonance. This review will place emphasis on myocardial perfusion imaging using single-photon emission computed tomography summarizing advances in the field including prognosis, safety and tolerability, the impact of imaging on management, and the use of novel imaging protocols...
April 16, 2018: Journal of Nuclear Cardiology: Official Publication of the American Society of Nuclear Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29655571/a-rapid-access-chest-pain-clinic-racpc-initial-australian-experience
#8
C Yu, M J Sheriff, A C C Ng, S Brazete, J Gullick, D B Brieger, L Kritharides, H C Lowe
Chest pain is the second most common presenting symptom to emergency departments (ED) in Australia, although up to 85% of these patients do not have an acute coronary syndrome (ACS). Cardiologist-led rapid access chest pain clinics (RACPC) have been proposed overseas to assist in the management of such patients, with prompt outpatient assessment if patients are deemed low risk and discharged from the ED. The use of RACPCs in Australia has been only recently proposed; we therefore sought to examine one such RACPC in an Australian context...
December 11, 2017: Heart, Lung & Circulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29650121/prediction-of-abnormal-myocardial-relaxation-from-signal-processed-surface-ecg
#9
Partho P Sengupta, Hemant Kulkarni, Jagat Narula
BACKGROUND: Myocardial relaxation is impaired in almost all cases with left ventricular diastolic dysfunction (LVDD) and is a strong predictor of cardiovascular and all-cause mortality. OBJECTIVES: This study investigated the feasibility of signal-processed surface electrocardiography (spECG) as a diagnostic tool for predicting the presence of abnormal cardiac muscle relaxation. METHODS: A total of 188 outpatients referred for coronary computed tomography (CT) angiography underwent an echocardiogram for assessment of LVDD...
April 17, 2018: Journal of the American College of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29628189/development-of-a-congenital-cardiovascular-computed-tomography-imaging-registry-rationale-and-implementation
#10
B Kelly Han, Susan Casey, Dawn Witt, Jonathon Leipsic, Andrew Crean, Edward Nicol, Thomas Semple, James Shambrook, Ashwin Prakash, Puja Banka, Ross Garberich, Cynthia Rigsby, Anthony Hlavacek, John Lesser
BACKGROUND: The cumulative exposure and risk of anesthesia, vascular access, contrast agents and radiation is emerging as a significant lifelong burden in patients with congenital heart disease (CHD). Latest generation computerized tomographic (CT) scanners are increasingly used for high resolution cardiovascular imaging and have both hardware and post processing radiation dose reduction strategies that can be implemented. Currently, these dose reduction strategies are not uniformly applied and there is a large variability in radiation dose used for the performance of CT in CHD...
March 16, 2018: Journal of Cardiovascular Computed Tomography
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29627490/genetically-determined-enlargement-of-carotid-body-evaluated-using-computed-angiotomography
#11
Przemysław Jaźwiec, Paweł Gać, Monika Chaszczewska-Markowska, Katarzyna Bogunia-Kubik, Grzegorz Mazur, Rafał Poręba
It has recently been established that carotid bodies play a significant role in the regulation of activities of the cardiovascular system as well as in the pathogenesis of arterial hypertension, heart failure and diabetes. Aim of study was to determinate the influence of polymorphisms within genes of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) on the volume of the carotid bodies (CB) in patients with hypertension (HTA). The study group consisted of 77 patients with HTA. All patients were genotyped for single-nucleotide polymorphisms of genes coding for: angiotensinogen: rs4762, rs5049, rs5051 and rs699; angiotensin-converting enzyme: rs4343; angiotensin receptor type 1 gene (AGTR1): rs5182 and rs5186; and the aldosterone synthase: rs1799998...
April 5, 2018: Respiratory Physiology & Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29627372/psoas-and-paraspinous-muscle-index-as-a-predictor-of-mortality-in-african-american-men-with-type-2-diabetes-mellitus
#12
Mariana Murea, Leon Lenchik, Thomas C Register, Gregory B Russell, Jianzhao Xu, S Carrie Smith, Donald W Bowden, Jasmin Divers, Barry I Freedman
AIM: Recent studies revealed a correlation between skeletal muscle mass index and density with longevity; these studies largely evaluated appendicular skeletal muscles in older Caucasians. This retrospective cohort study assessed the association between axial skeletal muscles size and density with survival in African Americans with type 2 diabetes mellitus. METHODS: Psoas and paraspinous muscle mass index (cross sectional area/height2 ) and radiographic density (in Hounsfield Units) were measured using computed tomography in African American-Diabetes Heart Study participants, 314 women and 256 men, with median (25th, 75th quartile) age 55...
March 19, 2018: Journal of Diabetes and its Complications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29626940/pet-mri-in-infection-and-inflammation
#13
REVIEW
Martina Sollini, Raffaella Berchiolli, Margarita Kirienko, Alexia Rossi, A W J M Glaudemans, Riemer Slart, Paola Anna Erba
Hybrid positron emission tomography/magnetic resonance imaging (PET/MR) systems are now more and more available for clinical use. PET/MR combines the unique features of MR including excellent soft tissue contrast, diffusion-weighted imaging, dynamic contrast-enhanced imaging, fMRI and other specialized sequences as well as MR spectroscopy with the quantitative physiologic information that is provided by PET. Most of the evidence of the potential clinical utility of PET/MRI is available for neuroimaging. Other areas, where PET/MR can play a larger role include head and neck, upper abdominal, and pelvic tumours...
May 2018: Seminars in Nuclear Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29624499/adaptation-of-cardiovascular-system-stent-implants
#14
Vytautas Ostasevicius, Yahor Tretsyakou-Savich, Mantas Venslauskas, Agne Bertasiene, Vladimir Minchenya, Pavel Chernoglaz
Time-consuming design and manufacturing processes are a serious disadvantage when adapting human cardiovascular implants as they cause unacceptable delays after the decision to intervene surgically has been made. An ideal cardiovascular implant should have a broad range of characteristics such as strength, viscoelasticity and blood compatibility. The present research proposes the sequence of the geometrical adaptation procedures and presents their results. The adaptation starts from the identification of a person's current health status while performing abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) imaging, which is a point of departure for the mathematical model of a cardiovascular implant...
April 6, 2018: Biomedizinische Technik. Biomedical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29623849/cardiac-imaging-in-systemic-diseases-what-the-clinician-should-know
#15
Cesar J Herrera, Pamela Pina Santana, Jorge Martinez, Mario J Garcia
IMPORTANCE: Systemic diseases that affect the cardiovascular system constitute a diagnostic and therapeutic challenge for all specialists involved; imaging tools along with clinical suspicion play an essential role in their evaluation. These entities share neurological, immunological, renal, hematologic, oncologic, infectious and endocrine processes, all of which may have associated cardiac involvement. OBSERVATIONS: Recent advances in cardiac ultrasound, computed tomography (CT), cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) and nuclear scintigraphy have impacted the management of these conditions when involving the heart since they provide valuable anatomical and functional information while avoiding the use of invasive techniques...
April 5, 2018: Current Cardiology Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29622992/the-degree-of-hair-graying-as-an-independent-risk-marker-for-coronary-artery-disease-a-ct-coronary-angiography-study
#16
Amr Abdel Aziz ElFaramawy, Irini Samuel Hanna, Reham Mohamed Darweesh, Ahmed Shehata Ismail, Hossam Ibrahim Kandil
Background: Cardiovascular disease is a leading cause of death worldwide. Aging is an unavoidable coronary risk factor and is associated with dermatological signs that could be a marker for increased coronary risk. We tested the hypothesis that hair graying as a visible marker of aging is associated with risk of coronary artery disease (CAD) independent of chronological age. Methods: This cross-sectional study included 545 males who underwent a computed tomography coronary angiography (CTCA) for suspicious of CAD, patients were divided into subgroups according to the percentage of gray/white hairs (Hair Whitening Score, HWS: 1-5) and to the absence or presence of CAD...
March 2018: The Egyptian heart journal: (EHJ): official bulletin of the Egyptian Society of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29618760/association-between-optical-coherence-tomography-based-retinal-microvasculature-characteristics-and-myocardial-infarction-in-young-men
#17
Robert Kromer, Eike Tigges, Nargis Rashed, Inga Pein, Maren Klemm, Stefan Blankenberg
Incident myocardial infarction (MI) is a leading cause of adult mortality in the United States. However, because MI has a relatively low incidence in the young population, little information exists on the disease in younger adults. Because the retina has the unique quality that its vasculature is readily and noninvasively visible, the retina is frequently studied to evaluate correlations between vessels and cardiovascular diseases. In the current study, we evaluated the retinal microvasculature of patients who had experienced an MI before 50 years of age (n = 53 subjects) and age- and sex-matched patients who had not experienced an MI (n = 53 patients)...
April 4, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29618696/subclinical-leaflet-thrombosis-in-transcatheter-aortic-valve-replacement-detected-by-multidetector-computed-tomography-a-review-of-current-evidence
#18
Hashrul N Rashid, Adam J Brown, Liam M McCormick, Ameera S Amiruddin, Kim K Be, James D Cameron, Arthur Nasis, Robert P Gooley
Subclinical leaflet thrombosis (SLT) following transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR) has been increasingly recognized. SLT has the hallmark features of hypo-attenuated leaflet thickening (HALT) on multidetector computed tomography (MDCT), which may result in hypoattenuation affecting motion (HAM). The actual prevalence of this condition is uncertain, with limited observational registries. SLT has caught the attention of the cardiovascular community because of concerns regarding its clinical sequelae, specifically the potential increased incidence of cerebrovascular events...
April 4, 2018: Circulation Journal: Official Journal of the Japanese Circulation Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29617001/personalized-statin-therapy-and-coronary-atherosclerotic-plaque-burden-in-asymptomatic-low-intermediate-risk-individuals
#19
Ranganath Muniyappa, Radwa A Noureldin, Khaled Z Abd-Elmoniem, Riham H El Khouli, Jatin Raj Matta, Ahmed Hamimi, Siri Ranganath, Colleen Hadigan, Lynnette K Nieman, Ahmed M Gharib
BACKGROUND: Current guidelines for the primary prevention of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease are based on the estimation of a predicted 10-year cardiovascular disease risk and the average relative risk reduction estimates from statin trials. In the clinical setting, however, decision-making is better informed by the expected benefit for the individual patient, which is typically lacking. Consequently, a personalized statin benefit approach based on absolute risk reduction over 10 years (ARR10 benefit threshold ≥2...
March 26, 2018: Cardiorenal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29607968/the-sglt2-inhibitor-dapagliflozin-significantly-improves-the-peripheral-microvascular-endothelial-function-in-patients-with-uncontrolled-type-2-diabetes-mellitus
#20
Seigo Sugiyama, Hideaki Jinnouchi, Noboru Kurinami, Kunio Hieshima, Akira Yoshida, Katsunori Jinnouchi, Hiroyuki Nishimura, Tomoko Suzuki, Fumio Miyamoto, Keizo Kajiwara, Tomio Jinnouchi
Objective Sodium-glucose cotransporter-2 (SGLT2) inhibitors reduce cardiovascular events and decrease the body fat mass in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). We examined whether or not the SGLT2-inhibitor dapagliflozin can improve the endothelial function associated with a reduction in abdominal fat mass. Methods We prospectively recruited patients with uncontrolled (hemoglobin A1c [HbA1c] >7.0%) T2DM who were not being treated by SGLT2 inhibitors. Patients were treated with add-on dapagliflozin (5 mg/day) or non-SGLT2 inhibitor medicines for 6 months to improve their HbA1c...
March 30, 2018: Internal Medicine
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