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Nanomaterials

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913308/biodegradable-magnetic-silica-iron-oxide-nanovectors-with-ultra-large-mesopores-for-high-protein-loading-magnetothermal-release-and-delivery
#1
Haneen Omar, Jonas G Croissant, Kholod Alamoudi, Shahad Alsaiari, Ibrahim Alradwan, Majed A Majrashi, Dalaver H Anjum, Patricia Martins, Basem Moosa, Abdulaziz Almalik, Niveen M Khashab
The delivery of large cargos of diameter above 15nm for biomedical applications has proved challenging since it requires biocompatible, stably-loaded, and biodegradable nanomaterials. In this study, we describe the design of biodegradable silica-iron oxide hybrid nanovectors with large mesopores for large protein delivery in cancer cells. The mesopores of the nanomaterials spanned from 20 to 60nm in diameter and post-functionalization allowed the electrostatic immobilization of large proteins (e.g. mTFP-Ferritin, ~534kDa)...
November 29, 2016: Journal of Controlled Release: Official Journal of the Controlled Release Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911389/testing-of-nanoparticle-release-from-a-composite-containing-nanomaterial-using-a-chamber-system
#2
Gun Ho Lee, Kang-Ho Ahn, Il Je Yu
With the rapid development of nanotechnology as one of the most important technologies in the 21(st) century, interest in the safety of consumer products containing nanomaterials is also increasing. Evaluating the nanomaterial release from products containing nanomaterials is a crucial step in assessing the safety of these products, and has resulted in several international efforts to develop consistent and reliable technologies for standardizing the evaluation of nanomaterial release. In this study, the release of nanomaterials from products containing nanomaterials is evaluated using a chamber system that includes a condensation particle counter, optical particle counter, and sampling ports to collect filter samples for electron microscopy analysis...
November 22, 2016: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27908256/a-review-on-nano-antimicrobials-metal-nanoparticles-methods-and-mechanisms
#3
Edris Hoseinzadeh, Pouran Makhdoumi, Parisa Taha, John Stelling, Hooshyar Hossini, Mohammad Amjad Kamal, Ghulam Md Ashraf
Nanotechnology is a scientific and engineering technology conducted at the Nano-scale, such as in the fields of compound fabric manufacturing, food processing, agricultural processing, and engineering, as well as in medical and medicinal application. In recent decade, nanomaterial applications for antimicrobial works have been interested by many researchers. Available reports show that some of the metal oxide Nanoparticles including; Al2O3, TiO2, ZnO, CuO, Co3O4, In2O3, MgO, SiO2, ZrO2, Cr2O3, Ni2O3, Mn2O3, CoO, and Nickel oxide have toxicity toward several microorganisms and they could successfully kill numerous bacteria...
December 1, 2016: Current Drug Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27907088/silver-nanoparticle-directed-mast-cell-degranulation-is-mediated-through-calcium-and-pi3k-signaling-independent-of-the-high-affinity-ige-receptor
#4
Nasser B Alsaleh, Indushekhar Persaud, Jared M Brown
Engineered nanomaterial (ENM)-mediated toxicity often involves triggering immune responses. Mast cells can regulate both innate and adaptive immune responses and are key effectors in allergic diseases and inflammation. Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) are one of the most prevalent nanomaterials used in consumer products due to their antimicrobial properties. We have previously shown that AgNPs induce mast cell degranulation that was dependent on nanoparticle physicochemical properties. Furthermore, we identified a role for scavenger receptor B1 (SR-B1) in AgNP-mediated mast cell degranulation...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906146/peanut-skin-extract-mediated-synthesis-of-gold-nanoparticles-silver-nanoparticles-and-gold-silver-bionanocomposites-for-electrochemical-sudan-iv-sensing
#5
Alok Pani, Tran Duy Thanh, Nam Hoon Kim, Joong Hee Lee, Soon-Il Yun
Sustainable methods are needed for rapid and efficient detection of environmental and food pollutants. The Sudan group of dyes has been used extensively as adulterants in food and also are found to be polluting the soil and water bodies. There have been several methods for detection of Sudan dyes, but most of them are not practical enough for common use. In this study, the electrochemical detection efficiency and stability of gold nanoparticle (AuNPs), silver NPs and Au-Ag bionanocomposites, synthesised by peanut skin extract, modified glassy carbon electrode has been investigated...
December 2016: IET Nanobiotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905472/electrochemical-communication-with-the-inside-of-cells-using-micro-patterned-vertical-carbon-nanofibre-electrodes
#6
F J Rawson, M T Cole, J M Hicks, J W Aylott, W I Milne, C M Collins, S K Jackson, N J Silman, P M Mendes
With the rapidly increasing demands for ultrasensitive biodetection, the design and applications of new nano-scale materials for development of sensors based on optical and electrochemical transducers have attracted substantial interest. In particular, given the comparable sizes of nanomaterials and biomolecules, there exist plenty of opportunities to develop functional nanoprobes with biomolecules for highly sensitive and selective biosensing, shedding new light on cellular behaviour. Towards this aim, herein we interface cells with patterned nano-arrays of carbon nanofibers forming a nanosensor-cell construct...
December 1, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27904938/peptide-based-fluorescence-biosensors-for-detection-measurement-of-nanoparticles
#7
Oluyemi Akinloye, Ramanarayan Krishnamurthy, David Wishart, Greg G Goss
The ability to detect and quantify nanoparticles is essential but there is currently no simple, sensitive, and rapid method for the detection of nanomaterials. We have developed a novel peptide-based fluorescence-based biosensor for detection and measurement of negatively charged engineered nanoparticles (ENPs). A peptide biosensor (seven lysine residues linked to a cysteine through a three glycine residue linker) with attached fluorescent probes-fluorescein-5-maleimide (F5M) and tetramethylrhodamine-5-maleimide (TMR5M)-was constructed...
November 30, 2016: Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27901397/a-systems-toxicology-approach-reveals-the-wnt-mapk-crosstalk-pathway-mediated-reproductive-failure-in-caenorhabditis-elegans-exposed-to-graphene-oxide-go-but-not-to-reduced-graphene-oxide-rgo
#8
Nivedita Chatterjee, Young-Ho Kim, Jisu Yang, Carlos P Roca, Sang Woo Joo, Jinhee Choi
The potential hazards of graphene nanomaterials were investigated by exposing the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans to graphene oxide (GO) and reduced graphene oxide (rGO). The underlying mechanisms of the nano-bio interaction were addressed with an integrated systems toxicology approach using global transcriptomics, network-based pathway analysis, and experimental validation of the in-silico-derived hypotheses. Graphene oxide was found to reduce the worms' reproductive health to a greater degree than rGO, but it did not affect survival (24 h endpoint)...
November 30, 2016: Nanotoxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27901317/dendrimer-stabilized-gold-nanostars-as-a-multifunctional-theranostic-nanoplatform-for-ct-imaging-photothermal-therapy-and-gene-silencing-of-tumors
#9
Ping Wei, Jingwen Chen, Yong Hu, Xin Li, Han Wang, Mingwu Shen, Xiangyang Shi
Development of versatile nanomaterials combining diagnostic and therapeutic functionalities within one single nanoplatform is extremely important for tumor theranostics. In this work, the authors report the synthesis of a gold nanostar (Au NS)-based theranostic platform stabilized with cyclic arginine-glycine-aspartic (Arg-Gly-Asp, RGD) peptide-modified amine-terminated generation 3 poly(amidoamine) dendrimers. The formed RGD-modified dendrimer-stabilized Au NSs (RGD-Au DSNSs) are used as a gene delivery vector to complex small interfering RNA (siRNA) for computed tomography (CT) imaging, thermal imaging, photothermal therapy (PTT), and gene therapy of tumors...
November 30, 2016: Advanced Healthcare Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27901105/photodegradation-of-organic-pollutants-rhb-dye-using-uv-simulated-sunlight-on-ceria-based-tio2-nanomaterials-for-antibacterial-applications
#10
Kaviyarasu Kasinathan, John Kennedy, Manikandan Elayaperumal, Mohamed Henini, Maaza Malik
To photo-catalytically degrade RhB dye using solar irradiation, CeO2 doped TiO2 nanocomposites were synthesized hydrothermally at 700 °C for 9 hrs. All emission spectra showed a prominent band centered at 442 nm that was attributed to oxygen related defects in the CeO2-TiO2 nanocrystals. Two sharp absorption bands at 1418 cm(-1) and 3323 cm(-1) were attributed to the deformation and stretching vibration, and bending vibration of the OH group of water physisorbed to TiO2, respectively. The photocatalytic activities of Ce-TiO2 nanocrystals were investigated through the degradation of RhB under UV and UV+ visible light over a period of 8 hrs...
November 30, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27901090/fluorescence-tunable-ag-dna-biosensor-with-tailored-cytotoxicity-for-live-cell-applications
#11
Nelli Bossert, Donny de Bruin, Maria Götz, Dirk Bouwmeester, Doris Heinrich
DNA-stabilized silver clusters (Ag-DNA) show excellent promise as a multi-functional nanoagent for molecular investigations in living cells. The unique properties of these fluorescent nanomaterials allow for intracellular optical sensors with tunable cytotoxicity based on simple modifications of the DNA sequences. Three Ag-DNA nanoagent designs are investigated, exhibiting optical responses to the intracellular environments and sensing-capability of ions, functional inside living cells. Their sequence-dependent fluorescence responses inside living cells include (1) a strong splitting of the fluorescence peak for a DNA hairpin construct, (2) an excitation and emission shift of up to 120 nm for a single-stranded DNA construct, and (3) a sequence robust in fluorescence properties...
November 30, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27901015/laser-induced-phase-separation-of-silicon-carbide
#12
Insung Choi, Hu Young Jeong, Hyeyoung Shin, Gyeongwon Kang, Myunghwan Byun, Hyungjun Kim, Adrian M Chitu, James S Im, Rodney S Ruoff, Sung-Yool Choi, Keon Jae Lee
Understanding the phase separation mechanism of solid-state binary compounds induced by laser-material interaction is a challenge because of the complexity of the compound materials and short processing times. Here we present xenon chloride excimer laser-induced melt-mediated phase separation and surface reconstruction of single-crystal silicon carbide and study this process by high-resolution transmission electron microscopy and a time-resolved reflectance method. A single-pulse laser irradiation triggers melting of the silicon carbide surface, resulting in a phase separation into a disordered carbon layer with partially graphitic domains (∼2...
November 30, 2016: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27900856/nanocomposite-hydrogels-and-their-applications-in-tissue-engineering
#13
Andisheh Motealleh, Nermin Seda Kehr
Nanocomposite (NC) hydrogels, organic-inorganic hybrid materials, are of great interest as artificial three-dimensional (3D) biomaterials for biomedical applications. NC hydrogels are prepared in water by chemically or physically cross-linking organic polymers with nanomaterials (NMs). The incorporation of hard inorganic NMs into the soft organic polymer matrix enhances the physical, chemical, and biological properties of NC hydrogels. Therefore, NC hydrogels are excellent candidates for artificial 3D biomaterials, particularly in tissue engineering applications, where they can mimic the chemical, mechanical, electrical, and biological properties of native tissues...
November 30, 2016: Advanced Healthcare Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27897295/organosilica-hybrid-nanomaterials-with-a-high-organic-content-syntheses-and-applications-of-silsesquioxanes
#14
REVIEW
Jonas G Croissant, Xavier Cattoën, Jean-Olivier Durand, Michel Wong Chi Man, Niveen M Khashab
Organic-inorganic hybrid materials garner properties from their organic and inorganic matrices as well as synergistic features, and therefore have recently attracted much attention at the nanoscale. Non-porous organosilica hybrid nanomaterials with a high organic content such as silsesquioxanes (R-SiO1.5, with R organic groups) and bridged silsesquioxanes (O1.5Si-R-SiO1.5) are especially attractive hybrids since they provide 20 to 80 weight percent of organic functional groups in addition to the known chemistry and stability of silica...
November 29, 2016: Nanoscale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27897245/engineering-genetically-encoded-mineralization-and-magnetism-via-directed-evolution
#15
Xueliang Liu, Paola A Lopez, Tobias W Giessen, Michael Giles, Jeffrey C Way, Pamela A Silver
Genetically encoding the synthesis of functional nanomaterials such as magnetic nanoparticles enables sensitive and non-invasive biological sensing and control. Via directed evolution of the natural iron-sequestering ferritin protein, we discovered key mutations that lead to significantly enhanced cellular magnetism, resulting in increased physical attraction of ferritin-expressing cells to magnets and increased contrast for cellular magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). The magnetic mutants further demonstrate increased iron biomineralization measured by a novel fluorescent genetic sensor for intracellular free iron...
November 29, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27897140/agins2-quantum-dots-for-the-detection-of-trinitrotoluene
#16
Alfred J Baca, Heather A Meylemans, Lawrence Baldwin, Lee R Cambrea, Ji Feng, Yadong Yin, M Joseph Roberts
AgInS2 (AIS) quantum dots (QDs) were synthesized via a thermal decomposition reaction with dodecylamine as the ligand to help stabilize the QDs. This reaction procedure is relatively easy to implement, scalable to large batches (up to hundreds of milligrams of QDs are produced), and a convenient method for the synthesis of chalcogenide QDs. Metal powders of AgNO3 and In(NO3)3, were used as the metal precursors while diethyldithiocarbamate was used as the sulfur source. The AIS QDs were characterized via transmission electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy, and energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy...
November 29, 2016: Nanotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27894687/reprint-of-biomonitoring-of-genotoxic-effects-for-human-exposure-to-nanomaterials-the-challenge-ahead
#17
REVIEW
Laetitia Gonzalez, Micheline Kirsch-Volders
Exposures to nanomaterials (NMs), with their specific physico-chemical characteristics, are likely to increase over the next years, as their production for industrial, consumer and medical applications is steadily rising. Therefore, there is an urgent need for the implementation of human biomonitoring studies of genotoxic effects after NM exposures in order to monitor and assure safety for workers and the general population. In this review, most commonly used biomarkers of early genetic effects were analyzed for their adequacy after NM exposures...
October 2016: Mutation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27894682/molecular-mechanisms-by-which-in-vivo-exposure-to-exogenous-chemical-genotoxic-agents-can-lead-to-micronucleus-formation-in-lymphocytes-in-vivo-and-ex-vivo-in-humans
#18
REVIEW
Michael Fenech, Siegfried Knasmueller, Claudia Bolognesi, Stefano Bonassi, Nina Holland, Lucia Migliore, Fabrizio Palitti, Adayapalam T Natarajan, Micheline Kirsch-Volders
The purpose of this review is to summarise current knowledge on the molecular mechanisms by which in vivo exposure to exogenous chemical genotoxins in humans induces micronuclei (MNi) and other nuclear anomalies in lymphocytes in vivo and ex vivo after nuclear division in vitro. MNi originate from acentric chromosome fragments and/or whole chromosomes that are unable to engage with the mitotic spindle and/or fail to segregate properly to the daughter nuclei during anaphase. The lagging fragments or whole chromosomes are surrounded by membrane and become MNi...
October 2016: Mutation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27894206/occupational-exposure-limits-for-manufactured-nanomaterials-a-systematic-review
#19
Raluca Mihalache, Jos Verbeek, Halshka Graczyk, Vladimir Murashov, Pieter van Broekhuizen
BACKGROUND: The toxicological properties of manufactured nanomaterials (MNMs) can be different from their bulk-material and uncertainty remains about the adverse health effects they may have on humans. Proposals for OELs have been put forward which can be useful for risk management and workers' protection. We performed a systematic review of proposals for OELs for MNMs to better understand the extent of such proposals, as well as their derivation methods. METHODS: We searched PubMed and Embase with an extensive search string and also assessed the references in the included studies...
November 29, 2016: Nanotoxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27894021/toxicity-of-silver-ions-and-differently-coated-silver-nanoparticles-in-allium-cepa-roots
#20
Petra Cvjetko, Anita Milošić, Ana-Marija Domijan, Ivana Vinković Vrček, Sonja Tolić, Petra Peharec Štefanić, Ilse Letofsky-Papst, Mirta Tkalec, Biljana Balen
Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) are the dominating nanomaterial in consumer products due to their well-known antibacterial and antifungal properties. To enhance their properties, different surface coatings may be used, which affect physico-chemical properties of AgNPs. Due to their wide application, there has been concern about possible environmental and health consequences. Since plants play a significant role in accumulation and biodistribution of many environmentally released substances, they are also very likely to be influenced by AgNPs...
November 25, 2016: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
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