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nasal mucosa

Aleksandar Peric, Cveta Spadijer-Mirkovic, Svjetlana Matkovic-Jozin, Ljiljana Jovancevic, Danilo Vojvodic
Introduction Granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) is a strong proinflammatory cytokine that takes part in allergic nasal inflammation as an eosinophil colony-stimulating factor. However, the role of GM-CSF in non-allergic rhinitis has not been fully explored. Objectives The aim of this investigation was to assess the concentration of GM-CSF in nasal secretions of patients with non-allergic rhinitis with eosinophilia syndrome (NARES) in comparison to patients with perennial allergic rhinitis (PAR) and healthy subjects, as well as to assess the relationship with the degree of eosinophilic inflammation and clinical characteristics of the patients...
October 2016: International Archives of Otorhinolaryngology
Snehal R Patel, Shivank Madan, Omar Saeed, Mohammed Algodi, Anne Luke, Marc Gibber, Daniel J Goldstein, Ulrich P Jorde
OBJECTIVES: This study sought to determine whether the nasal mucosa can serve as a surrogate for evaluating arteriovenous malformations (AVMs) related gastrointestinal (GI) bleeding in patients supported by continuous flow left ventricular assist devices (CF LVADs). BACKGROUND: Bleeding from the mucosal surfaces of GI tract, particularly AVMs, is the most common complication of CF LVAD support. The pathophysiology of AVM formation during CF LVAD support is of critical interest yet poorly understood; in large part because of the length and accessibility of the GI tract...
September 29, 2016: JACC. Heart Failure
Hyun Jin Shin, Kyung In Woo, Yoon-Duck Kim
OBJECTIVE: To determine the factors associated with rhinostomy shape after endoscopic dacryocystorhinostomy (DCR) in patients with primary acquired nasolacrimal duct obstruction. DESIGN: Retrospective comparative study. SETTING: University hospital. PARTICIPANTS: 102 cases in 70 patients were included in the study. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE: All cases were classified into three groups according to the healed appearance of the rhinostomy: flat, ladle, and ice scoop type...
October 11, 2016: Clinical Otolaryngology
Julia P Bünter, Helena M B Seth-Smith, Simon Rüegg, Annamari Heikinheimo, Nicole Borel, Sophia Johler
Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is one of the leading causes of nosocomial infections and a major public health concern worldwide. During the last decade, MRSA of CC398 have emerged as important colonizers of livestock. These strains also represent an increasing cause of human infections. A recent study reporting a new dominant spa type among MRSA from Finish fattening pigs (CC398/t2741) identified a strain lacking both the global virulence regulator gene locus agr and the adhesion gene fnbB...
October 5, 2016: Research in Microbiology
L Ludwig, L McWhirter, S Williams, C Derry, J Stone
Functional coma - here defined as a prolonged motionless dissociative attack with absent or reduced response to external stimuli - is a relatively rare presentation. In this chapter we examine a wide range of terms used to describe states of unresponsiveness in which psychologic factors are relevant to etiology, such as depressive stupor, catatonia, nonepileptic "pseudostatus," and factitious disorders, and discuss the place of functional or psychogenic coma among these. Historically, diagnosis of functional coma has sometimes been reached after prolonged investigation and exclusion of other diagnoses...
2017: Handbook of Clinical Neurology
Mélanie Faria da Cunha, Juliette Simonin, Ali Sassi, Romain Freund, Aurélie Hatton, Charles-Henry Cottart, Nadia Elganfoud, Rachid Zoubairi, Corina Dragu, Jean Philippe Jais, Alexandre Hinzpeter, Aleksander Edelman, Isabelle Sermet-Gaudelus
The nasal epithelium of the mouse closely mimics the bioelectrical phenotype of the human airways. Ion transport across the nasal epithelium induces a nasal transepithelial potential difference. Its measurement by a relatively non-invasive method adapted from humans allows in vivo longitudinal measurements of CFTR-dependent ionic transport in the murine nasal mucosa. This test offers a useful tool to assess CFTR function in preclinical studies for novel therapeutics modulating CFTR activity. Here we extensively review work done to assess transepithelial transport in the murine respiratory epithelium in the basal state and after administration of CFTR modulators...
October 4, 2016: International Journal of Biochemistry & Cell Biology
Eugene V Golanov, James M Shiflett, Gavin W Britz
Diving response (DR) is a powerful integrative response targeted toward survival of the hypoxic/anoxic conditions. Being present in all animals and humans, it allows to survive adverse conditions like diving. Earlier, we discovered that forehead stimulation affords neuroprotective effect, decreasing infarction volume triggered by permanent occlusion of the middle cerebral artery in rats. We hypothesized that cold stimulation of the forehead induces DR in rats, which, in turn, exerts neuroprotection. We compared autonomic [AP, heart rate (HR), cerebral blood flow (CBF)] and EEG responses to the known DR-triggering stimulus, ammonia stimulation of the nasal mucosa, cold stimulation of the forehead, and cold stimulation of the glabrous skin of the tail base in anesthetized rats...
2016: Frontiers in Neurology
Motohiko Suzuki, Makoto Yokota, Yoshihisa Nakamura, Shinya Ozaki, Shingo Murakami
BACKGROUND: IL-35 was recently identified as an anti-inflammatory cytokine. We previously reported that recombinant fusion protein of murine IL-35 and human IgG1 Fc fragment (rIL-35) reduced Th2 cytokines (IL-4 and IL-5) in vitro. However, it is unclear whether IL-35 can attenuate nasal allergic responses and symptoms of allergic rhinitis in vivo. METHODS: To investigate the in vivo effect of IL-35 on allergic rhinitis in mice, mice were sensitized with ovalbumin (OVA)...
October 2, 2016: Allergology International: Official Journal of the Japanese Society of Allergology
M Acar, N Bayar Muluk, S Yigitaslan, B P Cengiz, P Shojaolsadati, H Karimkhani, S Ada, M Berkoz, C Cingi
OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to explore the effects of curcumin on experimental allergic rhinitis in rats. METHODS: Twenty-eight male Wistar albino rats were randomly divided into four groups: a control group; a group in which allergic rhinitis was induced and no treatment given; a group in which allergic rhinitis was induced followed by treatment with azelastine hydrochloride on days 21-28; and a group in which allergic rhinitis was induced followed by treatment with curcumin on days 21-28...
October 6, 2016: Journal of Laryngology and Otology
Vanessa S S Gonçalves, Ana A Matias, Joana Poejo, Ana T Serra, Catarina M M Duarte
During the development of intranasal drug delivery systems for local/systemic effect or brain targeting, it is necessary to assess its cytotoxicity and drug transport through nasal epithelium. In order to avoid animal experiments or the use of excised tissues, in vitro cell models, such as RPMI 2650 cells, are being preferred during recent years. Nevertheless, the deposition of solid formulations into nasal cell layers with further transepithelial transport rate of drugs has been poorly studied or reported...
October 1, 2016: International Journal of Pharmaceutics
Michael B Cheung, Viviana Sampayo-Escobar, Ryan Green, Martin L Moore, Subhra Mohapatra, Shyam S Mohapatra
Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) has been reported to infect human mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) but the consequences are poorly understood. MSCs are present in nearly every organ including the nasal mucosa and the lung and play a role in regulating immune responses and mediating tissue repair. We sought to determine whether RSV infection of MSCs enhances their immune regulatory functions and contributes to RSV-associated lung disease. RSV was shown to replicate in human MSCs by fluorescence microscopy, plaque assay, and expression of RSV transcripts...
2016: PloS One
Hiroki Koizumi, Shoji Ikezaki, Toyoaki Ohbuchi, Ba Hung Do, Nobusuke Hohchi, Rintaro Kawaguchi, Takuro Kitamura, Hideaki Suzuki
OBJECTIVE: The present study aimed at investigating ATP release in response to acetylcholine (Ach) and pharmacologically elucidating the intracellular signal transduction pathway of this reaction in an ex vivo experiment. METHODS: The inferior turbinate mucosa was collected from 21 patients with chronic hypertrophic rhinitis who underwent endoscopic turbinectomy. The mucosa was shaped into a filmy round piece, and incubated with chemical(s) in Hank's balanced salt solution for 10min...
September 27, 2016: Auris, Nasus, Larynx
Sercan Gode, Huseyin Biceroglu, Goksel Turhal, Umut Erdogan, Murat S Ates, Isa Kaya, Erkin Ozgiray, Rasit Midilli, Bulent Karci
Endoscopic endonasal approach has been successfully used for the management of pituitary tumors; however, the loss of septal mucosa especially around sphenoethmoidal recess and posterior nasal septum might be a disadvantage of this technique. The aim of this study is to describe a variation of the endonasal approach, "double nasoseptal flap" technique in endoscopic transsphenoidal pituitary surgery, and to evaluate its outcomes. The technique depends on fully harvested bigger nasoseptal flap on one side and smaller on the other...
September 28, 2016: European Archives of Oto-rhino-laryngology
Jochen A S Lamote, Sarah Glorieux, Hans J Nauwynck, Herman W Favoreel
: Passage of the basement membrane (BM), which forms a barrier between epithelium and underlying lamina propria, represents an important step in the early pathogenesis of different alphaherpesviruses. Rho-GTPase signaling plays an important role in transmigration of cells across the BM during physiological and pathological processes. We reported earlier that the US3 protein kinase of the alphaherpesvirus pseudorabies virus (PRV) interferes with Rho GTPase signaling and causes a reorganisation of the host cell cytoskeleton which, as a consequence, enhances viral cell-to-cell spread in epithelial cell cultures...
September 28, 2016: Journal of Virology
Wen-Ko Chou, Chang-Hsin Chen, Christine N Vuong, Daad Abi-Ghanem, Suryakant D Waghela, Waithaka Mwangi, Lisa R Bielke, Billy M Hargis, Luc R Berghman
Many pathogens enter the host through mucosal surfaces and spread rapidly via the circulation. The most effective way to prevent disease is to establish mucosal and systemic immunity against the pathogen. However, current vaccination programs in poultry industry require repeated administrations of live-attenuated virus or large amounts (10 to 100μg) of antigen together with adjuvant to induce specific secretory IgA immune responses at the mucosal effector sites. In the present study, we show that a single administration of 0...
October 2016: Research in Veterinary Science
Edyta Krzych-Fałta, Konrad Furmanczyk, Bolesław Samolinski, Barbara Piekarska, Piotr Samel-Kowalik, Agnieszka Lipiec, Filip Raciborski, Adam Sybilski
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to estimate the reference values for nasal inspiratory flow in the study population in Poland as part of the project on Epidemiology of Allergic Diseases in Poland (ECAP). MATERIALS AND METHOD: The study subjects were a group of 4,137 people: 1,136 children aged 6-7 years (561 girls and 575 boys), 1,123 adolescents aged 13-14 years (546 girls, 577 boys) and 1,878 adults (1,145 women, 733 men), residing in seven large Polish cities...
September 2016: Annals of Agricultural and Environmental Medicine: AAEM
Elizabeth E Cottrill, Bei Chen, Nithin D Adappa, James N Palmer, David W Kennedy, Robert J Lee, Noam A Cohen
BACKGROUND: Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) produced by the epithelium are important for innate immune defense. In 2001, a novel AMP dermcidin (DCD) was described with no homology to other AMPs and an expression pattern restricted to eccrine sweat glands. In contrast to other AMPs, DCD expression has not been shown to be induced under inflammatory conditions in the skin. After identifying DCD by mass spectrometry in a protein sample isolated from human nasal secretions, we sought to determine the role of DCD in innate defense of the sinonasal airway...
September 21, 2016: International Forum of Allergy & Rhinology
Hee-Yun Kim, Sun-Young Nam, Sung-Yeoun Hwang, Hyung-Min Kim, Hyun-Ja Jeong
KMP6 (Pyeongwee-San) is a Korean Medicine used to treat gastrointestinal disorders. Recently, we reported KMP6 had beneficial effects on allergic inflammatory diseases. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of atractylone (Atr), a constituent of KMP6, on allergic rhinitis (AR) and to identify the mechanism responsible for these effects. The anti-allergic inflammatory effects of Atr were evaluated on phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate and calcium ionophore A23187 (PMACI)-stimulated human mast cell line, HMC-1 cells and in an ovalbumin (OVA)-induced AR animal model using Western blotting, quantitative real-time PCR, ELISA, and immunohistochemistry methods...
October 2016: Molecular Immunology
H J Min, J-H Kim, J E Yoo, J-H Oh, K S Kim, J-H Yoon, C-H Kim
High-mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) mediates various functions according to the location. We tried to investigate the role of HMGB1 in upper airway under hypoxic conditions. We cultured primary normal human nasal epithelium (NHNE) cells under hypoxic conditions and evaluated the movement of HMGB1 by western blotting, immunofluorescence, and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Reactive oxygen species (ROS) level was evaluated to estimate the translocation mechanism of HMGB1. The role of secreted HMGB1 was evaluated by ELISA assay...
September 14, 2016: Mucosal Immunology
Petros V Vlastarakos, Thomas P Nikolopoulos
BACKGROUND: Phosphodiesterase-5 (PDE-5) inhibitors enhance penile erection and have gained popularity not only for erectile dysfunction, but also in recreational settings. Nevertheless, adverse effects have been associated with their use, with nasal bleeding among them. PDE-5 inhibitor action is materialized through the inhibition of the cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP) enzyme. cGMP is present at several sites of the human body in addition to the corpus cavernosum, leading to the adverse effects associated with its nonselective inhibition...
September 10, 2016: Journal of Emergency Medicine
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