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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28546154/synergistic-mucus-secretion-by-histamine-and-il-4-through-tmem16a-in-airway-epithelium
#1
Ju Wan Kang, Yong Hyuk Lee, Min Jeong Kang, Hyun Jae Lee, Ryung Oh, Hyun Jin Min, Wan Namkung, Jae Young Choi, Sang Nam Lee, Chang-Hoon Kim, Joo-Heon Yoon, Hyung-Ju Cho
Histamine is an important mediator of allergic reactions, and mucus hypersecretion is a major allergic symptom. However, the direct effect of histamine on mucus secretion from airway mucosal epithelia has not been clearly demonstrated. TMEM16A is a Ca2+-activated chloride channel, and it is closely related to fluid secretion in airway mucosal epithelia. We investigated whether histamine directly induces fluid secretion from epithelial cells or submucosal glands (SMG) and mechanisms related therewith in allergic airway diseases...
May 25, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Lung Cellular and Molecular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544530/denatonium-induced-sinonasal-bacterial-killing-may-play-a-role-in-chronic-rhinosinusitis-outcomes
#2
Ryan M Carey, Alan D Workman, Kyle M Hatten, Adam P Siebert, Steven G Brooks, Bei Chen, Nithin D Adappa, James N Palmer, David W Kennedy, Robert J Lee, Noam A Cohen
BACKGROUND: Sinonasal bitter taste receptors (T2Rs) contribute to upper airway innate immunity and correlate with chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS) clinical outcomes. A subset of T2Rs expressed on sinonasal solitary chemosensory cells (SCCs) are activated by denatonium, resulting in a calcium-mediated secretion of bactericidal antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) in neighboring ciliated epithelial cells. We hypothesized that there is patient variability in the amount of bacterial killing induced by different concentrations of denatonium and that the differences correlate with CRS clinical outcomes...
May 23, 2017: International Forum of Allergy & Rhinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28542812/modulating-nasal-mucosal-permeation-using-metabolic-saturation-and-enzyme-inhibition-techniques
#3
Varsha Dhamankar, Maureen D Donovan
OBJECTIVE: Presystemic elimination resulting from local enzymatic degradation can play a key role in limiting the bioavailability of intranasally administered drugs. The aim of this study was to evaluate the transfer of a metabolically susceptible drug across the nasal mucosa to illustrate the relative contributions of drug diffusivity and metabolic susceptibility on overall nasal mucosal permeation and to understand the effects of changes in enzymatic activity on the transfer across nasal epithelial and submucosal tissues...
May 23, 2017: Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28541554/activation-of-group-2-innate-lymphoid-cells-exacerbates-and-confers-corticosteroid-resistance-to-mouse-nasal-type-2-inflammation
#4
Taiyo Morikawa, Ayumi Fukuoka, Kazufumi Matsushita, Koubun Yasuda, Naruhito Iwasaki, Shoko Akasaki, Shigeharu Fujieda, Tomohiro Yoshimoto
Both Th2 cells and group 2 innate lymphoid cells (ILC2s) contribute to allergic diseases. However, their exact role and relationship in nasal allergic disorders is unclear. In this study, we investigated the cooperation of Th2 cells and ILC2s in a mouse model of nasal allergic disorder. To differentially activate Th2 cells and/or ILC2s in nasal mucosa, mice were intranasally administered ovalbumin (OVA) antigen, papain, an ILC2-activator, or both for 2 weeks. Epithelial thickness and number of eosinophils in the nasal mucosa were evaluated at 24 hours after the final challenge...
May 25, 2017: International Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28532159/the-route-of-inoculation-dictates-replication-patterns-of-infectious-laryngotracheitis-virus-iltv-pathogenic-strain-and-chicken-embryo-origin-ceo-vaccine
#5
Leticia Gabriela Beltrán, S M Williams, Guillermo Zavala, James S Guy, Maricarmen García
Infectious laryngotracheitis virus (ILTV) has a high affinity to replicate in the larynx and trachea causing severe lesions. Apart from the trachea, lack of knowledge exists on the ability of ILTV to replicate in other respiratory associated tissues. The objective of this study was to investigate how tissues that first encounter the virus dictate further sites of viral replication during the lytic stage of infection. Replication patterns of pathogenic strain 63140 and the chicken embryo origin (CEO) vaccine in conjunctiva, Harderian gland, nasal cavity and trachea were evaluated after ocular, oral, intranasal or intratracheal inoculation of specific pathogen free chickens...
May 22, 2017: Avian Pathology: Journal of the W.V.P.A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28522600/frontline-science-nasal-epithelial-gm-csf-contributes-to-tlr5-mediated-modulation-of-airway-dendritic-cells-and-subsequent-iga-response
#6
Yuan Cao, Ejuan Zhang, Jingyi Yang, Yi Yang, Jie Yu, Yang Xiao, Wei Li, Dihan Zhou, Yaoming Li, Bali Zhao, Hu Yan, Mengji Lu, Maohua Zhong, Huimin Yan
Flagellin, as a TLR5 agonist, is an established mucosal adjuvant for enhancing mucosal IgA responses by i.n. immunization. Nasal epithelial cells (NECs) are the first sentinel cells to be exposed to antigen and adjuvant in i.n. immunization, and it is suggested that they play an important role in the mucosal adjuvant activity of flagellin. However, the molecular mechanism leading to modulation and the response by flagellin-activated NECs remain unknown. We aimed to identify the soluble mediator(s) from flagellin-activated NECs that modulate the functions of airway dendritic cells (DCs) and enhance subsequent IgA response...
May 18, 2017: Journal of Leukocyte Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28512421/when-an-easy-thing-goes-wrong-foreign-body-induced-granuloma-associated-scleritis-following-pterygium-surgery
#7
Pedro Coelho, Carlos Menezes, Pedro Rodrigues, Rita Gonçalves, Tiago Maio, Jorge Moreira, Paula Tenedório
PURPOSE: To report a case of pterygium surgery with conjunctival autograft followed by focal necrotizing scleritis due to foreign body entrapment in the scleral bed. CASE REPORT/RESULTS: This is a case report of a 76-years-old male patient who underwent nasal pterygium surgery and developed focal necrotizing scleritis secondary to foreign body entrapment under conjunctival autograft. One month following surgery, slit-lamp examination demonstrated a progressive thinning of the surgical area with focal inflammatory signs...
January 2017: Case Reports in Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28499215/numerical-study-on-the-air-conditioning-characteristics-of-the-human-nasal-cavity
#8
Da-Woon Kim, Seung-Kyu Chung, Yang Na
The air-conditioning characteristics of the human nasal cavity were investigated using computational fluid dynamics. The wall layer was modeled as a heat conducting layer consisting of water with constant thickness placed on top of epithelial cells. By assuming constant tissue temperature, prescribed to be 36 (°)C, which is close to the alveolar condition, the proposed wall model yielded a spatially varying surface temperature distribution that is in reasonable agreement with the measurement studies in the literature...
April 30, 2017: Computers in Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28497916/emerging-endotypes-of-chronic-rhinosinusitis-and-its-application-to-precision-medicine
#9
REVIEW
Dae Woo Kim, Seong H Cho
Chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS) is a heterogeneous inflammatory disease with various underlying pathophysiologic mechanisms which translate to endotypes, in contrast to clinical phenotypes or histological subtypes. Defining endotypes can help clinicians predict disease prognosis, select subjects suitable for a specific therapy, and assess risks for comorbid conditions, including asthma. Therefore, with recent advancement of biologicals in CRS clinical trials, endotyping can be a breakthrough in treating recalcitrant CRS...
July 2017: Allergy, Asthma & Immunology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28493984/nasal-airway-epithelial-cell-il-6-and-fkbp51-gene-expression-and-steroid-sensitivity-in-asthmatic-children
#10
Michael Fayon, Aurelie Lacoste-Rodrigues, Pascal Barat, Jean-Christophe Helbling, Fabienne Nacka, Patrick Berger, Marie-Pierre Moisan, Jean-Benoit Corcuff
BACKGROUND: Many asthmatic patients exhibit uncontrolled asthma despite high-dose inhaled corticosteroids (ICS). Airway epithelial cells (AEC) have distinct activation profiles that can influence ICS response. OBJECTIVES: A pilot study to identify gene expression markers of AEC dysfunction and markers of corticosteroid sensitivity in asthmatic and non-asthmatic control children, for comparison with published reports in adults. METHODS: AEC were obtained by nasal brushings and primary submerged cultures, and incubated in control conditions or in the presence of 10 ng/ml TNFalpha, 10-8M dexamethasone, or both...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28492611/the-effect-of-topical-treatments-for-crs-on-the-sinonasal-epithelial-barrier
#11
M Ramezanpour, A Rayan, J L P Smith, S Vreugde
BACKGROUND: Several topical treatments are used in the management of Chronic Rhinosinusitis (CRS), some of which the safety and efficacy has yet to be determined. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of commonly used topical treatments on the sinonasal epithelial barrier. METHODS: Normal saline (0.9% Sodium Chloride), hypertonic saline (3% Sodium Chloride), FESS Sinu-Cleanse Hypertonic, FLO Sinus Care and Budesonide 1 mg/ 2 ml were applied to the apical side of air-liquid interface (ALI) cultures of primary human nasal epithelial cells (HNECs) from CRS patients (n=3) and non-CRS controls (n=3) for 24 hours...
May 10, 2017: Rhinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28485529/exosomes-mediate-interepithelial-transfer-of-functional-p-glycoprotein-in-chronic-rhinosinusitis-with-nasal-polyps
#12
Angela L Nocera, Marcel M Miyake, Philip Seifert, Xue Han, Benjamin S Bleier
OBJECTIVE: P-glycoprotein (P-gp) drives type-2 helper T-cell inflammation in chronic rhinosinusitis with nasal polyps (CRSwNP) through unknown posttranslational mechanisms of overexpression. A recent randomized clinical trial demonstrated that inhibition of P-gp was as effective as oral steroids and biologics in treating CRSwNP. Exosomes are 30- to 150-nm vesicles capable of intercellular membrane protein transfer. The aims of this study were 1) to determine whether CRSwNP mucus exosomes are enriched with P-gp, and 2) whether exosomal P-gp can be functionally transferred to autologous epithelial cells as a putative mechanism for the proinflammatory overexpression of P-gp in CRSwNP...
May 9, 2017: Laryngoscope
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28485333/tumors-and-tumor-like-conditions-of-the-nasal-cavity-paranasal-sinuses-and-nasopharynx-a-study-of-206-cases
#13
R N Satarkar, S Srikanth
INTRODUCTION: The nasal cavity, paranasal sinuses, and nasopharynx though in continuity form a complex system of upper respiratory tract; this region is endowed with a variety of elements such as epithelial, glandular, lymphoid, cartilage, and bone and is also exposed to a variety of infections, tumor-like and true neoplastic conditions. AIMS AND OBJECTIVES: To find out the frequency of various tumors and tumor-like conditions of the nasal cavity, paranasal sinuses, and nasopharynx...
October 2016: Indian Journal of Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28484539/sinonasal-teratocarcinosarcoma-involving-nasal-cavity-nasopharynx-and-all-paranasal-sinuses-with-bilateral-orbital-and-intracranial-extension-a-rare-case-report
#14
Dhruba Jyoti Kurmi, Radhey Shyam Mittal, Achal Sharma, Ashok Gandhi, Shashi Singhvi
Sinonasal teratocarcinosarcoma (SNTCS) is one of the rarest, aggressive malignant neoplasms of sinonasal tract, consisting of primitive neuroepithelial elements with various malignant epithelial and mesenchymal components. Previously described as teratoid carcinosarcoma, malignant teratoma, or blastoma, SNTCS constitutes less than 1% of all cancers and approximately 3% of all malignancies of head and neck region, which is mainly located in the nasal cavity and paranasal sinuses, although tumors occurring in other locations including the nasopharynx and oral cavity have been described...
April 2017: Asian Journal of Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28482041/the-surface-protein-sdrf-mediates-staphylococcus-epidermidis-adherence-to-keratin
#15
Sheetal Trivedi, Anne-Catrin Uhlemann, Philippe Herman-Bausier, Sean B Sullivan, Madeleine G Sowash, Elizabeth Flores, Sabrina Khan, Yves F Dufrêne, Franklin D Lowy
Background: Staphylococcus epidermidis, a major component of skin flora, is an opportunist, often causing prosthetic device infections. A family of structurally-related proteins mediates staphylococcal attachment to host tissues, contributing to the success of S. epidermidis as a pathogen. We examined the ability of the surface protein SdrF to adhere to keratin, a major molecule expressed on the skin surface. Methods: A heterologous Lactococcus lactis expression system was used to express SdrF and its ligand binding domains...
May 8, 2017: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28470140/temporal-structure-function-variation-in-cultured-differentiated-human-nasal-epithelium-associated-with-acute-single-exposure-to-tobacco-smoke-or-e-cigarette-vapor
#16
Johnny L Carson, Laura Zhou, Luisa Brighton, Katherine H Mills, Haibo Zhou, Ilona Jaspers, Milan Hazucha
OBJECTIVE: Mucociliary clearance sustains a baseline functionality and an "on demand" capability to upregulate clearance upon irritant exposure involving mucus hypersecretion and accelerated ciliary beat frequency (CBF) modulated by nitric oxide (NO). This study characterized these elements as well as cellular and exogenous NO concentrations subsequent to a single exposure to tobacco smoke (TS) or e-cigarette vapor (EV) on cultured human airway epithelium. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Air-liquid interface (ALI) airway epithelial cultures per nonsmoking human subjects were subjected to single TS or EV exposures...
February 2017: Inhalation Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28466357/the-effects-of-the-stem-cell-on-ciliary-regeneration-of-injured-rabbit-sinonasal-epithelium
#17
Ali Kavuzlu, Emel Çadallı Tatar, Tuğba Karagöz, Ferda Alpaslan Pınarlı, İlkan Tatar, Ömer Bayır, Mehmet Hakan Korkmaz
Defects in mucosal healing after sinonasal surgery cause infection, scar formation causing obstruction, relapse of the disease within a shorter period and revision surgery. The present study aimed to create a functional ciliated epithelium using a stem cell and stem cell sheet of adipose tissue origin and to show such regeneration ultra-structurally on experimentally injured rabbit nasal epithelium. This was an experimental animal study and basic research. A total of 18 white New Zealand rabbits were divided into three groups...
May 2, 2017: European Archives of Oto-rhino-laryngology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28457223/pepsina-as-a-marker-of-laryngopharyngeal-reflux-detected-in-chronic-rhinosinusitis-patients
#18
Jian-Jun Ren, Yu Zhao, Jing Wang, Xue Ren, Yang Xu, Wenlong Tang, Zhaoping He
Objectives We aimed to confirm the presence of pepsinA in the nasal secretions and tissues of chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS) patients and reveal the relationship between CRS and laryngopharyngeal reflux (LPR). Study Design Cross-sectional study. Setting The study was conducted at the Department of Oto-Rhino-Laryngology, West China Hospital, Sichuan University. Subjects and Methods A total of 32 CRS patients with or without nasal polyps (CRSwNP and CRSsNP, respectively) and 10 normal controls were enrolled in our study...
May 2017: Otolaryngology—Head and Neck Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28455748/ck2-is-a-key-regulator-of-slc4a2-mediated-cl-hco3-exchange-in-human-airway-epithelia
#19
Salam H Ibrahim, Mark J Turner, Vinciane Saint-Criq, James Garnett, Iram J Haq, Malcolm Brodlie, Chris Ward, Christian Borgo, Mauro Salvi, Andrea Venerando, Michael A Gray
Transepithelial bicarbonate secretion by human airway submucosal glands and surface epithelial cells is crucial to maintain the pH-sensitive innate defence mechanisms of the lung. cAMP agonists stimulate HCO3(-) secretion via coordinated increases in basolateral HCO3(-) influx and accumulation, as well as CFTR-dependent HCO3(-) efflux at the luminal membrane of airway epithelial cells. Here, we investigated the regulation of a basolateral located, DIDS-sensitive, Cl(-)/HCO3(-) exchanger, anion exchanger 2 (AE2; SLC4A2) which is postulated to act as an acid loader, and therefore potential regulator of HCO3(-) secretion, in human airway epithelial cells...
April 28, 2017: Pflügers Archiv: European Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28455133/development-and-application-of-a-quantitative-pcr-assay-to-study-equine-herpesvirus-5-invasion-and-replication-in-equine-tissues-in-vitro-and-in-vivo
#20
Lila M Zarski, Emily A High, Rahul K Nelli, Steven R Bolin, Kurt J Williams, Gisela Soboll Hussey
Equine herpesvirus 5 (EHV-5) infection is associated with pulmonary fibrosis in horses, but further studies on EHV-5 persistence in equine cells are needed to fully understand viral and host contributions to disease pathogenesis. Our aim was to develop a quantitative PCR (qPCR) assay to measure EHV-5 viral copy number in equine cell cultures, blood lymphocytes, and nasal swabs of horses. Furthermore, we used a recently developed equine primary respiratory cell culture system to study EHV-5 pathogenesis at the respiratory tract...
April 25, 2017: Journal of Virological Methods
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