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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29324680/phylogenetic-analysis-and-characterization-of-a-sporadic-isolate-of-equine-influenza-a-h3n8-from-an-unvaccinated-horse-in-2015
#1
Chithra C Sreenivasan, Sunayana S Jandhyala, Sisi Luo, Ben M Hause, Milton Thomas, David E B Knudsen, Pamela Leslie-Steen, Travis Clement, Stephanie E Reedy, Thomas M Chambers, Jane Christopher-Hennings, Eric Nelson, Dan Wang, Radhey S Kaushik, Feng Li
Equine influenza, caused by the H3N8 subtype, is a highly contagious respiratory disease affecting equid populations worldwide and has led to serious epidemics and transboundary pandemics. This study describes the phylogenetic characterization and replication kinetics of recently-isolated H3N8 virus from a nasal swab obtained from a sporadic case of natural infection in an unvaccinated horse from Montana, USA. The nasal swab tested positive for equine influenza by Real-Time Quantitative Reverse Transcription Polymerase Chain Reaction (RT-PCR)...
January 11, 2018: Viruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29323189/il-13-in-lps-induced-inflammation-causes-bcl-2-expression-to-sustain-hyperplastic-mucous-cells
#2
Hitendra S Chand, Jennifer F Harris, Yohannes Tesfaigzi
Exposure to lipopolysaccharides (LPS) causes extensive neutrophilic inflammation in the airways followed by mucous cell hyperplasia (MCH) that is sustained by the anti-apoptotic protein, Bcl-2. To identify inflammatory factor(s) that are responsible for Bcl-2 expression, we established an organ culture system consisting of airway epithelial tissue from the rat nasal midseptum. The highest Muc5AC and Bcl-2 expression was observed when organ cultures were treated with brochoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid harvested from rats 10 h post LPS instillation...
January 11, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29317727/enhanced-nasal-drug-delivery-efficiency-by-increasing-mechanical-loading-using-hypergravity
#3
Dongjoo Kim, Young Hyo Kim, Soonjo Kwon
Nasal route drug administration for local and systemic delivery of many therapeutics has received attention because the nasal cavity is highly vascularized and provides a large surface area for drug absorption. However, nasal mucosa exhibits limited permeability to polar molecules. In this study, we developed a novel method for improving absorption efficiency of polar drugs by applying hypergravity. RPMI 2650 cells and primary human nasal epithelial cells were exposed three times to a 20 min hypergravitational condition (10 × g) with a 20 min rest period after each exposure...
January 9, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29316784/clusterin-induces-muc5ac-expression-via-activation-of-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-in-human-airway-epithelial-cells
#4
Chang Hoon Bae, Hyung Gyun Na, Yoon Seok Choi, Si-Youn Song, Yong-Dae Kim
Objectives: Clusterin (CLU) is known as apolipoprotein J, and has three isoforms with different biological functions. CLU is associated with various diseases such as Alzheimer disease, atherosclerosis, and some malignancies. Recent studies report an association of CLU with inflammation and immune response in inflammatory airway diseases. However, the effect of CLU on mucin secretion of airway epithelial cells has not yet been understood. Therefore, the effect and brief signaling pathway of CLU on MUC5AC (as a major secreted mucin) expression were investigated in human airway epithelial cells...
January 11, 2018: Clinical and Experimental Otorhinolaryngology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29311494/immunohistochemical-study-on-the-distribution-of-%C3%AE-defensin-1-and-%C3%AE-defensin-2-throughout-the-respiratory-tract-of-healthy-rats
#5
Natsumi Masuda, Youhei Mantani, Hideto Yuasa, Chiaki Yoshitomi, Masaya Arai, Miho Nishida, Wang-Mei Qi, Junichi Kawano, Toshifumi Yokoyama, Nobuhiko Hoshi, Hiroshi Kitagawa
The distributions of β-defensin 1 and 2 in secretory host defense system throughout respiratory tract of healthy rats were immunohistochemically investigated. In the nasal epithelium, a large number of non-ciliated and non-microvillous cells (NCs) were immunopositive for both β-defensin 1 and 2, whereas a small number of goblet cells (GCs) were immunopositive only for β-defensin 1. Beta-defensin 2-immunopositive GCs were few. In the nasal glands, a small number of acinar cells and a large number of ductal epithelial cells were immunopositive for both β-defensins...
January 1, 2018: Journal of Veterinary Medical Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29302839/in-vitro-exposure-of-nasal-epithelial-cells-to-atmospheric-dust
#6
David Elad, Uri Zaretsky, Sharon Avraham, Ruthie Gotlieb, Michael Wolf, Itzhak Katra, Shlomo Sarig, Eli Zaady
Dust storms are common phenomena in many parts of the world, and significantly increase the level of atmospheric particulate matter (PM). The soil-derived dust is a mixture of organic and inorganic particles and even remnants of pesticides from agricultural areas nearby. The risk of human exposure to atmospheric dust is well documented, but very little is known on the impact of inhaled PM on the biological lining of the nasal cavity, which is the natural filter between the external environment and the respiratory tract...
January 4, 2018: Biomechanics and Modeling in Mechanobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29298718/s737f-is-a-new-cftr-mutation-typical-of-patients-originally-from-the-tuscany-region-in-italy
#7
Vito Terlizzi, Antonella Miriam Di Lullo, Marika Comegna, Claudia Centrone, Elisabetta Pelo, Giuseppe Castaldo, Valeria Raia, Cesare Braggion
BACKGROUND: An increasing number of patients have been described as having a number of Cystic Fibrosis Transmembrane conductance Regulator (CFTR) variants for which it lacks a clear genotype-phenotype correlation. We assesses the clinical features of patients bearing the S737F (p.Ser737Phe) CFTR missense variant and evaluated the residual function of CFTR protein on nasal epithelial cells (NEC). METHODS: A retrospective database was performed from individuals homozygous or compound heterozygous for the S737F variant followed in the Cystic Fibrosis (CF) Centre of Florence...
January 3, 2018: Italian Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29295861/splunc1-is-an-allosteric-modulator-of-the-epithelial-sodium-channel
#8
Christine Seulki Kim, Saira Ahmad, Tongde Wu, William G Walton, Matthew R Redinbo, Robert Tarran
Cystic fibrosis (CF) is a common genetic disease with significantly increased mortality. CF airways exhibit ion transport abnormalities, including hyperactivity of the epithelial Na+ channel (ENaC). Short-palate lung and nasal epithelial clone 1 (SPLUNC1) is a multifunctional innate defense protein that is secreted into the airway lumen. We have previously demonstrated that SPLUNC1 binds to and inhibits ENaC to maintain fluid homeostasis in airway epithelia and that this process fails in CF airways. Despite this, how SPLUNC1 actually regulates ENaC is unknown...
January 2, 2018: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29288502/type-iii-interferons-are-critical-host-factors-that-determine-susceptibility-to-influenza-a-viral-infection-in-allergic-nasal-mucosa
#9
Yung Jin Jeon, Jae Hyun Lim, Sujin An, Ara Jo, Doo Hee Han, Tae-Bin Won, Dong-Young Kim, Chae-Seo Rhee, Hyun Jik Kim
BACKGROUND: Allergic respiratory conditions have been associated with increased susceptibility to viral infection due to impaired interferon (IFN)-related immune responses but the mechanisms for reinforcement of mucosal immunity against viral infection in allergic diseases are largely unknown. OBJECTIVES: To determine whether IFN induction would be impaired in allergic nasal mucosa and to identify if higher loads of influenza A virus (IAV) in allergic nasal mucosa could be controlled with IFN treatment...
December 30, 2017: Clinical and Experimental Allergy: Journal of the British Society for Allergy and Clinical Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29285053/establishment-of-a-mouse-model-of-lipopolysaccharide-induced-neutrophilic-nasal-polyps
#10
Shuibin Wang, Hanwu Zhang, Zulian Xi, Jingjing Huang, Jun Nie, Bin Zhou, Yuqin Deng, Zezhang Tao
Research has identified that gram-negative bacteria have an important role in refractory nasal polyps. In the present study, lipopolysaccharide (LPS) was used to establish a mouse model with neutrophilic nasal polyps in order to explore the effect and mechanism of LPS on the formation of neutrophilic nasal polyps in mice. A total of 5 or 10 µg of LPS was dropped into the nasal cavities of C57BL/6J mice in order to establish animal models with neutrophilic nasal polyps. Histological staining, toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4), cluster of differentiation 68 for macrophages and myeloperoxidase for neutrophil immunohistochemistry were used to observe histopathological changes in the nasal mucosa...
December 2017: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29282053/characterization-of-pediatric-cystic-fibrosis-airway-epithelial-cell-cultures-at-the-air-liquid-interface-obtained-by-non-invasive-nasal-cytology-brush-sampling
#11
Aline Schögler, Fabian Blank, Melanie Brügger, Seraina Beyeler, Stefan A Tschanz, Nicolas Regamey, Carmen Casaulta, Thomas Geiser, Marco P Alves
BACKGROUND: In vitro systems of primary cystic fibrosis (CF) airway epithelial cells are an important tool to study molecular and functional features of the native respiratory epithelium. However, undifferentiated CF airway cell cultures grown under submerged conditions do not appropriately represent the physiological situation. A more advanced CF cell culture system based on airway epithelial cells grown at the air-liquid interface (ALI) recapitulates most of the in vivo-like properties but requires the use of invasive sampling methods...
December 28, 2017: Respiratory Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29281100/antiviral-response-in-the-nasopharynx-identifies-patients-with-respiratory-virus-infection
#12
Marie L Landry, Ellen F Foxman
Background: Despite the high burden of respiratory infection and the importance of early and accurate diagnosis, there is no simple diagnostic test to rule in viral infection as a cause of respiratory symptoms. Methods: We performed RNASeq on human nasal epithelial cells following stimulation of the intracellular viral recognition receptor RIG-I. Next, we evaluated whether measuring identified host mRNAs and proteins from patient nasopharyngeal swabs could predict the presence of a respiratory virus in the sample...
December 21, 2017: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29274415/the-activation-and-function-of-il-36%C3%AE-in-neutrophilic-inflammation-in-chronic-rhinosinusitis
#13
Hai Wang, Zhi-Yong Li, Wen-Xiu Jiang, Bo Liao, Guan-Ting Zhai, Nan Wang, Zhen Zhen, Jian-Wen Ruan, Xiao-Bo Long, Heng Wang, Wei-Hong Liu, Geng-Tian Liang, Wei-Min Xu, Atsushi Kato, Zheng Liu
BACKGROUND: Although increased accumulation of neutrophils has been noted in chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS), the function and regulation of neutrophils in CRS are largely unknown. IL-36 family cytokines may play an important role in neutrophilic inflammation. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the expression and function of IL-36 cytokines in CRS. METHODS: Quantitative RT-PCR, immunohistochemistry, immunofluorescence, and ELISA were used to investigate the expression of IL-36 cytokines and IL-36 receptor (IL-36R) in sinonasal mucosa...
December 20, 2017: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29274410/cd151-a-novel-host-factor-of-nuclear-export-signaling-in-influenza-virus-infection
#14
Yongkang Qiao, Yan Yan, Kai Sen Tan, Sheryl Sl Tan, Ju Ee Seet, Thiruma Valavan Arumugam, Vincent Tk Chow, De Yun Wang, Thai Tran
BACKGROUND: Despite advances in our understanding of the mechanisms of influenza A virus (IAV) infection, the crucial virus-host interactions during the viral replication cycle still remain incomplete. Tetraspanin CD151 is highly expressed in the human respiratory tract, but its pathological role in IAV infection is unknown. OBJECTIVES: To characterize the functional role and mechanisms of action of CD151 in IAV infection of the upper and lower respiratory tracts with H1N1 and H3N2 strains...
December 20, 2017: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29260123/photoreceptor-disruption-and-vision-loss-associated-with-central-serous-retinopathy
#15
Lynn W Sun, Joseph Carroll, Brandon J Lujan
Purpose: To present ophthalmic imaging findings in the case of a 40-year-old male with sustained visual loss after a single episode of acute central serous retinopathy (CSR). Observations: A male subject presented with visual acuity decline to 20/50 OS and was diagnosed with acute CSR. The initial pigment epithelial detachment and subretinal fluid resolved within 6 weeks, but visual acuity remained impaired. Using directional optical coherence tomography (D-OCT) and confocal and split-detector adaptive optics scanning light ophthalmoscopy (AOSLO), we imaged pathologic alterations in the photoreceptor mosaic of the affected eye...
December 2017: American Journal of Ophthalmology Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29238190/development-of-coated-liposomes-loaded-with-ghrelin-for-nose-to-brain-delivery-for-the-treatment-of-cachexia
#16
Laurent Salade, Nathalie Wauthoz, Magali Deleu, Marjorie Vermeersch, Carine De Vriese, Karim Amighi, Jonathan Goole
The aim of the present study was to develop a ghrelin-containing formulation based on liposomes coated with chitosan intended for nose-brain delivery for the treatment of cachexia. Among the three types of liposomes developed, anionic liposomes provided the best results in terms of encapsulation efficiency (56%) and enzymatic protection against trypsin (20.6% vs 0% for ghrelin alone) and carboxylesterase (81.6% vs 17.2% for ghrelin alone). Ghrelin presented both electrostatic and hydrophobic interactions with the anionic lipid bilayer, as demonstrated by isothermal titration calorimetry...
2017: International Journal of Nanomedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29237344/epithelial-myoepithelial-carcinoma-of-the-nasal-cavity-clinical-histopathological-and-immunohistochemical-distinction-of-a-case-report
#17
Sally Nguyen, Marjorie Perron, Sylvie Nadeau, Alexandre Nakao Odashiro, Marie-Noëlle Corriveau
BACKGROUND: Epithelial myoepithelial carcinomas (EMCs) are rare low-grade salivary gland tumors. Here, we report the case of a 75-year-old man presenting with an oncocytic variant of EMC of the nasal cavity, initially diagnosed as an oncocytoma. METHODS: Our patient underwent functional sinus surgery in 2012. On pathology, an oncocytic neoplasm was found in the right nasal cavity, characterized by fragments of uniform bland oncocytic cells with bilayered arrangement of nuclei...
December 1, 2017: International Journal of Surgical Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29236544/gene-therapy-for-cystic-fibrosis-improved-delivery-techniques-and-conditioning-with-lysophosphatidylcholine-enhance-lentiviral-gene-transfer-in-mouse-lung-airways
#18
Patricia Cmielewski, Nigel Farrow, Sharnna Devereux, David Parsons, Martin Donnelley
Purpose/Aim: Cystic fibrosis (CF) is the most common, fatal recessive genetic disease among the Caucasian population. Gene therapy has the potential to treat CF long term, however physiological barriers can prevent VSV-G pseudotyped lentiviral (LV) vectors from efficiently accessing the relevant receptors on the basolateral membrane of airway epithelial cells. The aims of this experiment were to use our new dose delivery techniques to determine whether conditioning the mouse lung conducting airways with lysophosphatidylcholine (LPC) improves the level of airway gene expression...
November 2017: Experimental Lung Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29235125/nasal-epithelial-barrier-disruption-by-particulate-matter-%C3%A2-2-5-%C3%AE-m-via-tight-junction-protein-degradation
#19
Renwu Zhao, Zhiqiang Guo, Ruxin Zhang, Congrui Deng, Jian Xu, Weiyang Dong, Zhicong Hong, Hongzhi Yu, Huiru Situ, Chunhui Liu, Guoshun Zhuang
Upper airway diseases including sinonasal disorders may be caused by exposure to fine particulate matter (≤2.5 μm; PM2.5), as proven by epidemiological studies. PM2.5 is a complex entity whose chemical constituents and physicochemical properties are not confined to a single, independent "particle" but which in this study means a distinctive environmental "toxin." The mechanism whereby PM2.5 induces nasal epithelial barrier dysfunction leading to sinonasal pathology remains unknown. In the present study, human nasal epithelial cells were exposed to non-cytotoxic doses of PM2...
December 13, 2017: Journal of Applied Toxicology: JAT
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29233471/resolvin-d1-regulates-epithelial-ion-transport-and-inflammation-in-cystic-fibrosis-airways
#20
Fiona C Ringholz, Gerard Higgins, Aurélie Hatton, Ali Sassi, Ahmad Moukachar, Coral Fustero-Torre, Monika Hollenhorst, Isabelle Sermet-Gaudelus, Brian J Harvey, Paul McNally, Valerie Urbach
BACKGROUND: Cystic Fibrosis (CF) lung disease is characterised by dysregulated ion transport that promotes chronic bacterial infection and inflammation. The impact of the specialised pro-resolution mediator resolvin D1 (RvD1) on airway surface liquid (ASL) dynamics and innate defence had not yet been investigated in CF airways. METHODS: Ex vivo studies were performed on primary cultures of alveolar macrophages and bronchial epithelial cells from children with CF and in human bronchial epithelial cell lines; in vivo studies were performed in homozygous F508del-CFTR mice treated with vehicle control or RvD1 (1-100nM)...
December 7, 2017: Journal of Cystic Fibrosis: Official Journal of the European Cystic Fibrosis Society
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