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"eye movements", "visual search"

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29049595/to-search-or-to-like-mapping-fixations-to-differentiate-two-forms-of-incidental-scene-memory
#1
Kyoung Whan Choe, Omid Kardan, Hiroki P Kotabe, John M Henderson, Marc G Berman
We employed eye-tracking to investigate how performing different tasks on scenes (e.g., intentionally memorizing them, searching for an object, evaluating aesthetic preference) can affect eye movements during encoding and subsequent scene memory. We found that scene memorability decreased after visual search (one incidental encoding task) compared to intentional memorization, and that preference evaluation (another incidental encoding task) produced better memory, similar to the incidental memory boost previously observed for words and faces...
October 1, 2017: Journal of Vision
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29035075/whatever-you-do-don-t-look-at-the-evaluating-guidance-by-an-exclusionary-attentional-template
#2
Valerie M Beck, Steven J Luck, Andrew Hollingworth
People can use a target template consisting of one or more features to guide attention and gaze to matching objects in a search array. But can we also use feature information to guide attention away from known irrelevant items? Some studies found a benefit from foreknowledge of a distractor feature, whereas others found a cost. Importantly, previous work has largely relied on end-of-trial manual responses; it is unclear how feature-guided avoidance might unfold as candidate objects are inspected. In the current experiments, participants were cued with a distractor feature to avoid, then performed a visual search task while eye movements were recorded...
October 16, 2017: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Human Perception and Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29023550/effects-of-acute-alcohol-ingestion-on-eye-movements-and-cognition-a-double-blind-placebo-controlled-study
#3
Jéssica Bruna Santana Silva, Eva Dias Cristino, Natalia Leandro de Almeida, Paloma Cavalcante Bezerra de Medeiros, Natanael Antonio Dos Santos
Alcohol is one of the most consumed psychoactive substances in the world, and the negative impact related to alcohol use has become a worldwide public health issue. Alcohol is able to affect diffusely several areas of the Central Nervous System, which could impair visual functions, including eye movements, and cognitive processes. The objective of the present study was to investigate the effects of moderate alcohol intake in eyes movements, as an indicator of cognitive processing underlying the visual search in a the Maze task...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28994302/observing-eye-movements-and-the-influence-of-cognition-during-a-symbol-search-task-a-comparison-across-three-age-groups
#4
Maxine Perrin, Manon Robillard, Annie Roy-Charland
This study examined eye movements during a visual search task as well as cognitive abilities within three age groups. The aim was to explore scanning patterns across symbol grids and to better understand the impact of symbol location in AAC displays on speed and accuracy of symbol selection. For the study, 60 students were asked to locate a series of symbols on 16 cell grids. The EyeLink 1000 was used to measure eye movements, accuracy, and response time. Accuracy was high across all cells. Participants had faster response times, longer fixations, and more frequent fixations on symbols located in the middle of the grid...
December 2017: Augmentative and Alternative Communication: AAC
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28991906/object-detection-through-search-with-a-foveated-visual-system
#5
Emre Akbas, Miguel P Eckstein
Humans and many other species sense visual information with varying spatial resolution across the visual field (foveated vision) and deploy eye movements to actively sample regions of interests in scenes. The advantage of such varying resolution architecture is a reduced computational, hence metabolic cost. But what are the performance costs of such processing strategy relative to a scheme that processes the visual field at high spatial resolution? Here we first focus on visual search and combine object detectors from computer vision with a recent model of peripheral pooling regions found at the V1 layer of the human visual system...
October 2017: PLoS Computational Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28946046/cultural-differences-in-attention-eye-movement-evidence-from-a-comparative-visual-search-task
#6
Albandri Alotaibi, Geoffrey Underwood, Alastair D Smith
Individual differences in visual attention have been linked to thinking style: analytic thinking (common in individualistic cultures) is thought to promote attention to detail and focus on the most important part of a scene, whereas holistic thinking (common in collectivist cultures) promotes attention to the global structure of a scene and the relationship between its parts. However, this theory is primarily based on relatively simple judgement tasks. We compared groups from Great Britain (an individualist culture) and Saudi Arabia (a collectivist culture) on a more complex comparative visual search task, using simple natural scenes...
October 2017: Consciousness and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28892812/one-visual-search-many-memory-searches-an-eye-tracking-investigation-of-hybrid-search
#7
Trafton Drew, Sage E P Boettcher, Jeremy M Wolfe
Suppose you go to the supermarket with a shopping list of 10 items held in memory. Your shopping expedition can be seen as a combination of visual search and memory search. This is known as "hybrid search." There is a growing interest in understanding how hybrid search tasks are accomplished. We used eye tracking to examine how manipulating the number of possible targets (the memory set size [MSS]) changes how observers (Os) search. We found that dwell time on each distractor increased with MSS, suggesting a memory search was being executed each time a new distractor was fixated...
September 1, 2017: Journal of Vision
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28782679/task-modulates-functional-connectivity-networks-in-free-viewing-behavior
#8
Hossein Seidkhani, Andrey R Nikolaev, Radha Nila Meghanathan, Hamid Pezeshk, Ali Masoudi-Nejad, Cees van Leeuwen
In free visual exploration, eye-movement is immediately followed by dynamic reconfiguration of brain functional connectivity. We studied the task-dependency of this process in a combined visual search-change detection experiment. Participants viewed two (nearly) same displays in succession. First time they had to find and remember multiple targets among distractors, so the ongoing task involved memory encoding. Second time they had to determine if a target had changed in orientation, so the ongoing task involved memory retrieval...
August 3, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28746814/probabilistic-computations-for-attention-eye-movements-and-search
#9
Miguel P Eckstein
The term visual attention immediately evokes the idea of limited resources, serial processing, or a zoom metaphor. But evidence has slowly accumulated that computations that take into account probabilistic relationships among visual forms and the target contribute to optimizing decisions in biological and artificial organisms, even without considering these limited-capacity processes in covert attention or even foveation. The benefits from such computations can be formalized within the framework of an ideal Bayesian observer and can be related to the classic theory of sensory cue combination in vision science and context-driven approaches to object detection in computer vision...
September 15, 2017: Annual Review of Vision Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28659850/increased-complexities-in-visual-search-behavior-in-skilled-players-for-a-self-paced-aiming-task
#10
Jingyi S Chia, Stephen F Burns, Laura A Barrett, Jia Y Chow
The badminton serve is an important shot for winning a rally in a match. It combines good technique with the ability to accurately integrate visual information from the shuttle, racket, opponent, and intended landing point. Despite its importance and repercussive nature, to date no study has looked at the visual search behaviors during badminton service in the singles discipline. Unlike anticipatory tasks (e.g., shot returns), the serve presents an opportunity to explore the role of visual search behaviors in movement control for self-paced tasks...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28638974/categorical-templates-are-more-useful-when-features-are-consistent-evidence-from-eye-movements-during-search-for-societally-important-vehicles
#11
Michael C Hout, Arryn Robbins, Hayward J Godwin, Gemma Fitzsimmons, Collin Scarince
Unlike in laboratory visual search tasks-wherein participants are typically presented with a pictorial representation of the item they are asked to seek out-in real-world searches, the observer rarely has veridical knowledge of the visual features that define their target. During categorical search, observers look for any instance of a categorically defined target (e.g., helping a family member look for their mobile phone). In these circumstances, people may not have information about noncritical features (e...
June 21, 2017: Attention, Perception & Psychophysics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637052/subtle-eye-movement-metrics-reveal-task-relevant-representations-prior-to-visual-search
#12
Anouk M van Loon, Katya Olmos-Solis, Christian N L Olivers
Visual search is thought to be guided by an active visual working memory (VWM) representation of the task-relevant features, referred to as the search template. In three experiments using a probe technique, we investigated which eye movement metrics reveal which search template is activated prior to the search, and distinguish it from future relevant or no longer relevant VWM content. Participants memorized a target color for a subsequent search task, while being instructed to keep central fixation. Before the search display appeared, we briefly presented two task-irrelevant colored probe stimuli to the left and right from fixation, one of which could match the current target template...
June 1, 2017: Journal of Vision
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28623108/acting-seeing-and-conscious-awareness
#13
R E Passingham, H C Lau
We argue that there is a relation between the judgements that 'I did it' and 'I saw it'. Both are statements are about the individual, not just the world. We show that the dorsal prefrontal cortex is activated both when human subjects judge that they are the agents of their actions and when they judge that they are confident that they have seen a masked visual stimulus. Macaque monkeys have also been taught to report whether they have or have not seen visual stimuli and cells can be found in the dorsal prefrontal cortex that distinguish between 'seen' and 'not seen'...
June 13, 2017: Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28612679/influence-of-social-presence-on-eye-movements-in-visual-search-tasks
#14
Na Liu, Ruifeng Yu
This study employed an eye-tracking technique to investigate the influence of social presence on eye movements in visual search tasks. A total of 20 male subjects performed visual search tasks in a 2 (target presence: present vs. absent) × 2 (task complexity: complex vs. simple) × 2 (social presence: alone vs. a human audience) within-subject experiment. Results indicated that the presence of an audience could evoke a social facilitation effect on response time in visual search tasks. Compared with working alone, the participants made fewer and shorter fixations, larger saccades and shorter scan path in simple search tasks and more and longer fixations, smaller saccades and longer scan path in complex search tasks when working with an audience...
June 22, 2017: Ergonomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28541187/enhancement-of-group-perception-via-a-collaborative-brain-computer-interface
#15
RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL
Davide Valeriani, Riccardo Poli, Caterina Cinel
OBJECTIVE: We aimed at improving group performance in a challenging visual search task via a hybrid collaborative brain-computer interface (cBCI). METHODS: Ten participants individually undertook a visual search task where a display was presented for 250 ms, and they had to decide whether a target was present or not. Local temporal correlation common spatial pattern (LTCCSP) was used to extract neural features from response- and stimulus-locked EEG epochs. The resulting feature vectors were extended by including response times and features extracted from eye movements...
June 2017: IEEE Transactions on Bio-medical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28508116/comparing-visual-search-and-eye-movements-in-bilinguals-and-monolinguals
#16
Ileana Ratiu, Michael C Hout, Stephen C Walenchok, Tamiko Azuma, Stephen D Goldinger
Recent research has suggested that bilinguals show advantages over monolinguals in visual search tasks, although these findings have been derived from global behavioral measures of accuracy and response times. In the present study we sought to explore the bilingual advantage by using more sensitive eyetracking techniques across three visual search experiments. These spatially and temporally fine-grained measures allowed us to carefully investigate any nuanced attentional differences between bilinguals and monolinguals...
August 2017: Attention, Perception & Psychophysics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424915/optimal-eye-movement-strategies-a-comparison-of-neurosurgeons-gaze-patterns-when-using-a-surgical-microscope
#17
Shahram Eivazi, Ahmad Hafez, Wolfgang Fuhl, Hoorieh Afkari, Enkelejda Kasneci, Martin Lehecka, Roman Bednarik
BACKGROUND: Previous studies have consistently demonstrated gaze behaviour differences related to expertise during various surgical procedures. In micro-neurosurgery, however, there is a lack of evidence of empirically demonstrated individual differences associated with visual attention. It is unknown exactly how neurosurgeons see a stereoscopic magnified view in the context of micro-neurosurgery and what this implies for medical training. METHOD: We report on an investigation of the eye movement patterns in micro-neurosurgery using a state-of-the-art eye tracker...
June 2017: Acta Neurochirurgica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28383964/adding-depth-to-overlapping-displays-can-improve-visual-search-performance
#18
Hayward J Godwin, Tamaryn Menneer, Simon P Liversedge, Kyle R Cave, Nick S Holliman, Nick Donnelly
Standard models of visual search have focused upon asking participants to search for a single target in displays where the objects do not overlap one another, and where the objects are presented on a single depth plane. This stands in contrast to many everyday visual searches wherein variations in overlap and depth are the norm, rather than the exception. Here, we addressed whether presenting overlapping objects on different depths planes to one another can improve search performance. Across 4 different experiments using different stimulus types (opaque polygons, transparent polygons, opaque real-world objects, and transparent X-ray images), we found that depth was primarily beneficial when the displays were transparent, and this benefit arose in terms of an increase in response accuracy...
April 6, 2017: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Human Perception and Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28375688/oculomotor-capture-is-influenced-by-expected-reward-value-but-maybe-not-predictiveness
#19
Mike E Le Pelley, Daniel Pearson, Alexis Porter, Hannah Yee, David Luque
A large body of research has shown that learning about relationships between neutral stimuli and events of significance-rewards or punishments-influences the extent to which people attend to those stimuli in future. However, different accounts of this influence differ in terms of the critical variable that is proposed to determine learned changes in attention. We describe two experiments using eye-tracking with a rewarded visual search procedure to investigate whether attentional capture is influenced by the predictiveness of stimuli (i...
April 4, 2017: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology: QJEP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28371467/time-limits-in-testing-an-analysis-of-eye-movements-and-visual-attention-in-spatial-problem-solving
#20
Victoria A Roach, Graham M Fraser, James H Kryklywy, Derek G V Mitchell, Timothy D Wilson
Individuals with an aptitude for interpreting spatial information (high mental rotation ability: HMRA) typically master anatomy with more ease, and more quickly, than those with low mental rotation ability (LMRA). This article explores how visual attention differs with time limits on spatial reasoning tests. Participants were assorted to two groups based on their mental rotation ability scores and their eye movements were collected during these tests. Analysis of salience during testing revealed similarities between MRA groups in untimed conditions but significant differences between the groups in the timed one...
November 2017: Anatomical Sciences Education
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