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"eye movements", "visual search"

Yusuke Yamani, William J Horrey, Yulan Liang, Donald L Fisher
Older drivers are at increased risk of intersection crashes. Previous work found that older drivers execute less frequent glances for detecting potential threats at intersections than middle-aged drivers. Yet, earlier work has also shown that an active training program doubled the frequency of these glances among older drivers, suggesting that these effects are not necessarily due to age-related functional declines. In light of findings, the current study sought to explore the ability of older drivers to coordinate their head and eye movements while simultaneously steering the vehicle as well as their glance behavior at intersections...
2016: PloS One
Tarkeshwar Singh, Julius Fridriksson, Christopher Perry, Sarah C Tryon, Angela Ross, Stacy Fritz, Troy M Herter
Successful execution of many motor skills relies on well-organized visual search (voluntary eye movements that actively scan the environment for task-relevant information). Although impairments of visual search that result from brain injuries are linked to diminished motor performance, the neural processes that guide visual search within this context remain largely unknown. The first objective of this study was to examine how visual search in healthy adults and stroke survivors is used to guide hand movements during the Trail Making Test (TMT), a neuropsychological task that is a strong predictor of visuomotor and cognitive deficits...
October 12, 2016: Journal of Neurophysiology
Xuedong Yan, Xinran Zhang, Yuting Zhang, Xiaomeng Li, Zhuo Yang
The intersection field of view (IFOV) indicates an extent that the visual information can be observed by drivers. It has been found that further enhancing IFOV can significantly improve emergent collision avoidance performance at intersections, such as faster brake reaction time, smaller deceleration rate, and lower traffic crash involvement risk. However, it is not known how IFOV affects drivers' eye movements, visual attention and the relationship between visual searching and traffic safety. In this study, a driving simulation experiment was conducted to uncover the changes in drivers' visual performance during the collision avoidance process as a function of different field of views at an intersection by using an eye tracking system...
2016: PloS One
Arash Sahraie, Nicola Smania, Josef Zihl
Visual field deficits are common in patients with damaged retinogeniculostriate pathways. The patient's eye movements are often affected leading to inefficient visual search. Systematic eye movement training also called compensatory therapy is needed to allow patients to develop effective coping strategies. There is a lack of evidence-based, clinical gold-standard registered medical device accessible to patients at home or in clinical settings and NeuroEyeCoach (NEC) is developed to address this need. In three experiments, we report on performance of patients on NEC compared to the data obtained previously on the earlier versions of the search task (n = 32); we assessed whether the self-administered computerised tasks can be used to monitor the progress (n = 24) and compared the findings in a subgroup of patients to a healthy control group...
2016: BioMed Research International
Boris Quétard, Jean Charles Quinton, Martial Mermillod, Laura Barca, Giovanni Pezzulo, Michèle Colomb, Marie Izaute
Visual search can be seen as a decision-making process that aims to assess whether a target is present or absent from a scene. In this perspective, eye movements collect evidence related to target detection and verification to guide the decision. We investigated whether, in real-world scenes, target detection and verification are differentially recruited in the decision-making process in the presence of prior information (expectations about target location) and perceptual uncertainty (noise). We used a mouse-tracking methodology with which mouse trajectories unveil components of decision-making and eye-tracking measures reflect target detection and verification...
September 1, 2016: Journal of Vision
Melissa L-H Võ, Avigael M Aizenman, Jeremy M Wolfe
People are surprisingly bad at knowing where they have looked in a scene. We tested participants' ability to recall their own eye movements in 2 experiments using natural or artificial scenes. In each experiment, participants performed a change-detection (Exp.1) or search (Exp.2) task. On 25% of trials, after 3 seconds of viewing the scene, participants were asked to indicate where they thought they had just fixated. They responded by making mouse clicks on 12 locations in the unchanged scene. After 135 trials, observers saw 10 new scenes and were asked to put 12 clicks where they thought someone else would have looked...
October 2016: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Human Perception and Performance
Alasdair D F Clarke, Aoife Mahon, Alex Irvine, Amelia R Hunt
Eye movements bring new information into our visual system. The selection of each fixation is the result of a complex interplay of image features, task goals, and biases in motor control and perception. To what extent are we aware of the selection of saccades and their consequences? Here we use a converging methods approach to answer this question in three diverse experiments. In Experiment 1, participants were directed to find a target in a scene by a verbal description of it. We then presented the path the eyes took together with those of another participant...
October 13, 2016: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology: QJEP
Vanessa Vallejo, Dario Cazzoli, Luca Rampa, Giuseppe A Zito, Flurin Feuerstein, Nicole Gruber, René M Müri, Urs P Mosimann, Tobias Nef
Visual exploration is an omnipresent activity in everyday life, and might represent an important determinant of visual attention deficits in patients with Alzheimer's Disease (AD). The present study aimed at investigating visual search performance in AD patients, in particular target detection in the far periphery, in daily living scenes. Eighteen AD patients and 20 healthy controls participated in the study. They were asked to freely explore a hemispherical screen, covering ±90°, and to respond to targets presented at 10°, 30°, and 50° eccentricity, while their eye movements were recorded...
2016: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
Gernot Horstmann, Arvid Herwig, Stefanie I Becker
Some targets in visual search are more difficult to find than others. In particular, a target that is similar to the distractors is more difficult to find than a target that is dissimilar to the distractors. Efficiency differences between easy and difficult searches are manifest not only in target-present trials but also in target-absent trials. In fact, even physically identical displays are searched through with different efficiency depending on the searched-for target. Here, we monitored eye movements in search for a target similar to the distractors (difficult search) versus a target dissimilar to the distractors (easy search)...
2016: Frontiers in Psychology
Jordana S Wynn, Michael B Bone, Michelle C Dragan, Kari L Hoffman, Bradley R Buchsbaum, Jennifer D Ryan
Visual search efficiency improves with repetition of a search display, yet the mechanisms behind these processing gains remain unclear. According to Scanpath Theory, memory retrieval is mediated by repetition of the pattern of eye movements or "scanpath" elicited during stimulus encoding. Using this framework, we tested the prediction that scanpath recapitulation reflects relational memory guidance during repeated search events. Younger and older subjects were instructed to find changing targets within flickering naturalistic scenes...
January 2, 2016: Visual Cognition
Céline Paeye, Alexander C Schütz, Karl R Gegenfurtner
We use eye movements to gain information about our visual environment; this information can indirectly be used to affect the environment. Whereas eye movements are affected by explicit rewards such as points or money, it is not clear whether the information gained by finding a hidden target has a similar reward value. Here we tested whether finding a visual target can reinforce eye movements in visual search performed in a noise background, which conforms to natural scene statistics and contains a large number of possible target locations...
August 1, 2016: Journal of Vision
M Hirai, Y Muramatsu, S Mizuno, N Kurahashi, H Kurahashi, M Nakamura
BACKGROUND: Individuals with Williams syndrome (WS) exhibit atypical attentional characteristics when viewing faces. Although atypical configural processing of faces has been reported in WS, the relative strengths of configural and local feature information to capture visual attention in WS remains unclear. We previously demonstrated that attentional capture by target-unrelated upright faces differs depending on what response is measured. Whereas eye movements reflected subtle atypical attentional properties at the late stage of visual search, manual responses could not capture the atypical attentional profiles towards target-unrelated upright faces in individuals with WS...
October 2016: Journal of Intellectual Disability Research: JIDR
David Hoppe, Constantin A Rothkopf
During active behavior humans redirect their gaze several times every second within the visual environment. Where we look within static images is highly efficient, as quantified by computational models of human gaze shifts in visual search and face recognition tasks. However, when we shift gaze is mostly unknown despite its fundamental importance for survival in a dynamic world. It has been suggested that during naturalistic visuomotor behavior gaze deployment is coordinated with task-relevant events, often predictive of future events, and studies in sportsmen suggest that timing of eye movements is learned...
July 19, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
M Berk Mirza, Rick A Adams, Christoph D Mathys, Karl J Friston
This paper describes an active inference scheme for visual searches and the perceptual synthesis entailed by scene construction. Active inference assumes that perception and action minimize variational free energy, where actions are selected to minimize the free energy expected in the future. This assumption generalizes risk-sensitive control and expected utility theory to include epistemic value; namely, the value (or salience) of information inherent in resolving uncertainty about the causes of ambiguous cues or outcomes...
2016: Frontiers in Computational Neuroscience
Nicolas Milazzo, Damian Farrow, Jean F Fournier
This study investigated the effect of a 12-session, implicit perceptual-motor training program on decision-making skills and visual search behavior of highly skilled junior female karate fighters (M age = 15.7 years, SD = 1.2). Eighteen participants were required to make (physical or verbal) reaction decisions to various attacks within different fighting scenarios. Fighters' performance and eye movements were assessed before and after the intervention, and during acquisition through the use of video-based and on-mat decision-making tests...
August 2016: Perceptual and Motor Skills
Brendan S Kelly, Louise A Rainford, Sarah P Darcy, Eoin C Kavanagh, Rachel J Toomey
Purpose To investigate the development of chest radiograph interpretation skill through medical training by measuring both diagnostic accuracy and eye movements during visual search. Materials and Methods An institutional exemption from full ethical review was granted for the study. Five consultant radiologists were deemed the reference expert group, and four radiology registrars, five senior house officers (SHOs), and six interns formed four clinician groups. Participants were shown 30 chest radiographs, 14 of which had a pneumothorax, and were asked to give their level of confidence as to whether a pneumothorax was present...
July 2016: Radiology
Hayward J Godwin, Erik D Reichle, Tamaryn Menneer
An important question about eye-movement behavior is when the decision is made to terminate a fixation and program the following saccade. Different approaches have found converging evidence in favor of a mixed-control account, in which there is some overlap between processing information at fixation and planning the following saccade. We examined one interesting instance of mixed control in visual search: lag-2 revisits, during which observers fixate a stimulus, move to a different stimulus, and then revisit the first stimulus on the next fixation...
June 20, 2016: Cognitive Science
Roy S Hessels, Ignace T C Hooge, Chantal Kemner
Two questions were posed in the present study: (1) Do infants search for discrepant items in the absence of instructions? We outline where previous research has been inconclusive in answering this question. (2) In what manner do infants search, and what are the fixation and saccade characteristics in saccadic search? A thorough characterization of saccadic search in infancy is of great importance as a reference for future eye-movement studies in infancy. We presented 10-month-old infants with 24 visual search displays in two separate sessions within two weeks...
June 1, 2016: Journal of Vision
Chia-Ling Li, M Pilar Aivar, Dmitry M Kit, Matthew H Tong, Mary M Hayhoe
The role of memory in guiding attention allocation in daily behaviors is not well understood. In experiments with two-dimensional (2D) images, there is mixed evidence about the importance of memory. Because the stimulus context in laboratory experiments and daily behaviors differs extensively, we investigated the role of memory in visual search, in both two-dimensional (2D) and three-dimensional (3D) environments. A 3D immersive virtual apartment composed of two rooms was created, and a parallel 2D visual search experiment composed of snapshots from the 3D environment was developed...
June 1, 2016: Journal of Vision
Anthony J Ries, Jon Touryan, Barry Ahrens, Patrick Connolly
Recording synchronous data from EEG and eye-tracking provides a unique methodological approach for measuring the sensory and cognitive processes of overt visual search. Using this approach we obtained fixation related potentials (FRPs) during a guided visual search task specifically focusing on the lambda and P3 components. An outstanding question is whether the lambda and P3 FRP components are influenced by concurrent task demands. We addressed this question by obtaining simultaneous eye-movement and electroencephalographic (EEG) measures during a guided visual search task while parametrically modulating working memory load using an auditory N-back task...
2016: PloS One
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