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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29738354/sex-differences-in-a-chronometric-mental-rotation-test-with-cube-figures-a-behavioral-electroencephalography-and-eye-tracking-pilot-study
#1
Clara Scheer, Felipe Mattioni Maturana, Petra Jansen
In chronometric mental rotation tasks, sex differences are widely discussed. Most studies find men to be more skilled in mental rotation than women, which can be explained by the holistic strategy that they use to rotate stimuli. Women are believed to apply a piecemeal strategy. So far, there have been no studies investigating this phenomenon using eye-tacking methods in combination with electroencephalography (EEG) analysis: the present study compared behavioral responses, EEG activity, and eye movements of 15 men and 15 women while solving a three-dimensional chronometric mental rotation test...
May 7, 2018: Neuroreport
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29715333/visual-search-accelerates-during-adolescence
#2
Rudolf Burggraaf, Jos N van der Geest, Maarten A Frens, Ignace T C Hooge
We studied changes in visual-search performance and behavior during adolescence. Search performance was analyzed in terms of reaction time and response accuracy. Search behavior was analyzed in terms of the objects fixated and the duration of these fixations. A large group of adolescents (N = 140; age: 12-19 years; 47% female, 53% male) participated in a visual-search experiment in which their eye movements were recorded with an eye tracker. The experiment consisted of 144 trials (50% with a target present), and participants had to decide whether a target was present...
May 1, 2018: Journal of Vision
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29710307/visual-search-deficits-in-amblyopia
#3
Inna Tsirlin, Linda Colpa, Herbert C Goltz, Agnes M F Wong
Amblyopia is a neurodevelopmental disorder defined as a reduction in visual acuity that cannot be corrected by optical means. It has been associated with low-level deficits. However, research has demonstrated a link between amblyopia and visual attention deficits in counting, tracking, and identifying objects. Visual search is a useful tool for assessing visual attention but has not been well studied in amblyopia. Here, we assessed the extent of visual search deficits in amblyopia using feature and conjunction search tasks...
April 1, 2018: Journal of Vision
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29655967/visual-search-for-verbal-material-in-patients-with-obsessive-compulsive-disorder
#4
Fabiano Botta, Nicolas Vibert, Ghina Harika-Germaneau, Mickaël Frasca, François Rigalleau, Eric Fakra, Christine Ros, Jean-François Rouet, Florian Ferreri, Nematollah Jaafari
This study aimed at investigating attentional mechanisms in obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) by analysing how visual search processes are modulated by normal and obsession-related distracting information in OCD patients and whether these modulations differ from those observed in healthy people. OCD patients were asked to search for a target word within distractor words that could be orthographically similar to the target, semantically related to the target, semantically related to the most typical obsessions/compulsions observed in OCD patients, or unrelated to the target...
March 23, 2018: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29617383/biometric-recognition-via-texture-features-of-eye-movement-trajectories-in-a-visual-searching-task
#5
Chunyong Li, Jiguo Xue, Cheng Quan, Jingwei Yue, Chenggang Zhang
Biometric recognition technology based on eye-movement dynamics has been in development for more than ten years. Different visual tasks, feature extraction and feature recognition methods are proposed to improve the performance of eye movement biometric system. However, the correct identification and verification rates, especially in long-term experiments, as well as the effects of visual tasks and eye trackers' temporal and spatial resolution are still the foremost considerations in eye movement biometrics...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29571955/eye-movement-parameters-and-cognitive-functions-in-parkinson-s-disease-patients-without-dementia
#6
Oscar Wh Wong, Anne Yy Chan, Adrian Wong, Claire Ky Lau, Jonas Hm Yeung, Vincent Ct Mok, Linda Cw Lam, Sandra Chan
BACKGROUND: Cognitive deficits and eye movement abnormalities have been demonstrated to be detectable early clinical manifestations of Parkinson's disease. Understanding the relationship between these phenotypes may yield insight into the underlying anatomical pathways, assisting in the search for simple non-invasive markers of early neurodegeneration. OBJECTIVE: To explore the correlations between eye movement parameters with multi-domain cognitive functions in patients suffering from Parkinson's disease without dementia...
March 15, 2018: Parkinsonism & related Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29538218/neurorehabilitation-of-saccadic-ocular-movement-in-a-patient-with-a-homonymous-hemianopia-postgeniculate-caused-by-an-arteriovenous-malformation-a-case-report
#7
Mirna Pineda-Ortíz, Gustavo Pacheco-López, Moisés Rubio-Osornio, Carmen Rubio, Juan Valadez-Rodríguez
RATIONALE: Visual therapy, which includes a restorative and compensatory approach, seems to be a viable treatment option for homonymous defects of the visual field in patients with postgeniculate injury of the visual pathway, due to occipital arteriovenous malformation (AVM). Until now, the Mexican population suffering from homonymous hemianopia did not have health services that provided any type of visual therapy for their condition. PATIENT CONCERNS: A 31-year-old patient, who underwent a surgical procedure for resection of the AVM, was referred with posterior low vision on the left side...
March 2018: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29484579/predicting-eye-movement-characteristics-across-multiple-tasks-from-working-memory-and-executive-control
#8
Steven G Luke, Emily S Darowski, Shawn D Gale
Individual differences in working memory (WM) and executive control are stable, related to cognitive task performance, and clinically predictive. Between-participant differences in eye movements are also highly reliable (Carter & Luke, Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance, 2018; Henderson & Luke, Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance, 40(4), 1390-1400, 2014). However, little is known about how higher order individual differences in cognition are related to these eye-movement characteristics...
February 26, 2018: Memory & Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29469619/visual-search-in-unilateral-spatial-neglect-the-effects-of-distractors-on-a-dynamic-visual-search-task
#9
Rebeca Lauren Emerson, Alberto García-Molina, Jaume López Carballo, Juan García Fernández, Celeste Aparicio-López, Junquera Novo, Rocío Sánchez-Carrión, Antonia Enseñat-Cantallops, Jordi Peña-Casanova
The objective of this study was to examine visual scanning performance in patients with Unilateral Spatial Neglect (USN) in a visual search task. Thirty-one right hemisphere stroke patients with USN were recruited. They performed a dynamic visual search task with two conditions, with and without distractors, while eye movements were monitored with an eye-tracker. The main goal of the task was to select target stimuli that appeared from the top of the screen and moved vertically downward. Target detection and visual scanning percentage were assessed over two hemispaces (right, left) on two conditions (distractor, no distractor)...
February 22, 2018: Applied Neuropsychology. Adult
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29357279/practice-related-changes-in-eye-movement-strategy-in-healthy-adults-with-simulated-hemianopia
#10
Anna Nowakowska, Alasdair D F Clarke, Arash Sahraie, Amelia R Hunt
The impact of visual field deficits such as hemianopia can be mitigated by eye movements that position the visual image within the intact visual field. Effective eye movement strategies are not observed in all patients, however, and it is not known whether persistent deficits are due to injury or to pre-existing individual differences. Here we examined whether repeated exposure to a search task with rewards for good performance would lead to better eye movement strategies in healthy individuals. Participants were exposed to simulated hemianopia during a search task in five testing sessions over five consecutive days and received monetary payment for improvements in search times...
January 31, 2018: Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29275899/analysis-of-the-treatment-plan-evaluation-process-in-radiotherapy-through-eye-tracking
#11
A Kyroudi, K Petersson, M Ozsahin, J Bourhis, F Bochud, R Moeckli
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Treatment plan evaluation is a clinical decision-making problem that involves visual search and analysis in a contextually rich environment, including delineated structures and isodose lines superposed on CT data. It is a two-step process that includes visual analysis and clinical reasoning. In this work, we used eye tracking methods to gain more knowledge about the treatment plan evaluation process in radiation therapy. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Dose distributions on a single transverse slice of ten prostate cancer treatment plans were presented to eight decision makers...
December 21, 2017: Zeitschrift Für Medizinische Physik
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29250569/influence-of-radiology-expertise-on-the-perception-of-nonmedical-images
#12
Brendan Kelly, Louise A Rainford, Mark F McEntee, Eoin C Kavanagh
Identifying if participants with differing diagnostic accuracy and visual search behavior during radiologic tasks also differ in nonradiologic tasks is investigated. Four clinician groups with different radiologic experience were used: a reference expert group of five consultant radiologists, four radiology registrars, five senior house officers, and six interns. Each of the four clinician groups is known to have significantly different performance in the identification of pneumothoraces in chest x-ray. Each of the 20 participants was shown 6 nonradiologic images (3 maps and 3 sets of geometric shapes) and was asked to perform search tasks...
July 2018: Journal of Medical Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29214208/eye-movement-feedback-fails-to-improve-visual-search-performance
#13
Chad Peltier, Mark W Becker
Many real-world searches (e.g., radiology and baggage screening) have rare targets. When targets are rare, observers perform rapid, incomplete searches, leading to higher miss rates. To improve search for rare (10% prevalence) targets, we provided eye movement feedback (EMF) to observers during their searches. Although the nature of the EMF varied across experiments, each method informed observers about the regions of the display that had not yet been inspected. We hypothesized that feedback would help guide attention to unsearched areas and increase the proportion of the display searched before making a target-absent response, thereby increasing accuracy...
2017: Cognitive Research: Principles and Implications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29214205/simple-eye-movement-feedback-during-visual-search-is-not-helpful
#14
Trafton Drew, Lauren H Williams
Searching for targets in the visual world, or visual search, is something we all do every day. We frequently make 'false-negative' errors, wherein we erroneously conclude a target was absent when one was, in fact, present. These sorts of errors can have tremendous costs, as when signs of cancers are missed in diagnostic radiology. Prior research has characterized the cause of many of these errors as being due to failure to completely search the area where targets may be present; indeed, roughly one-third of chest nodules missed in lung cancer screening are never fixated (Drew, Võ, Olwal, Jacobson, Seltzer and Wolfe, Journal of Vision 13:3, 2013)...
2017: Cognitive Research: Principles and Implications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29190328/the-computational-anatomy-of-visual-neglect
#15
Thomas Parr, Karl J Friston
Visual neglect is a debilitating neuropsychological phenomenon that has many clinical implications and-in cognitive neuroscience-offers an important lesion deficit model. In this article, we describe a computational model of visual neglect based upon active inference. Our objective is to establish a computational and neurophysiological process theory that can be used to disambiguate among the various causes of this important syndrome; namely, a computational neuropsychology of visual neglect. We introduce a Bayes optimal model based upon Markov decision processes that reproduces the visual searches induced by the line cancellation task (used to characterize visual neglect at the bedside)...
February 1, 2018: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29176675/strategic-inhibition-of-distractors-with-visual-working-memory-contents-after-involuntary-attention-capture
#16
Jiachen Lu, Lili Tian, Jiafeng Zhang, Jing Wang, Chaoxiong Ye, Qiang Liu
Previous research has suggested that visual working memory (VWM) contents had a guiding effect on selective attention, and once participants realized that the distractors shared the same information with VWM contents in the search task, they would strategically inhibit the potential distractors with VWM contents. However, previous behavioral studies could not reveal the way how distractors with VWM contents are inhibited strategically. By employing the eye-tracking technique and a dual-task paradigm, we manipulated the probability of memory items occurring as distractors to explore this issue...
November 24, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29049595/to-search-or-to-like-mapping-fixations-to-differentiate-two-forms-of-incidental-scene-memory
#17
Kyoung Whan Choe, Omid Kardan, Hiroki P Kotabe, John M Henderson, Marc G Berman
We employed eye-tracking to investigate how performing different tasks on scenes (e.g., intentionally memorizing them, searching for an object, evaluating aesthetic preference) can affect eye movements during encoding and subsequent scene memory. We found that scene memorability decreased after visual search (one incidental encoding task) compared to intentional memorization, and that preference evaluation (another incidental encoding task) produced better memory, similar to the incidental memory boost previously observed for words and faces...
October 1, 2017: Journal of Vision
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29035075/whatever-you-do-don-t-look-at-the-evaluating-guidance-by-an-exclusionary-attentional-template
#18
Valerie M Beck, Steven J Luck, Andrew Hollingworth
People can use a target template consisting of one or more features to guide attention and gaze to matching objects in a search array. But can we also use feature information to guide attention away from known irrelevant items? Some studies found a benefit from foreknowledge of a distractor feature, whereas others found a cost. Importantly, previous work has largely relied on end-of-trial manual responses; it is unclear how feature-guided avoidance might unfold as candidate objects are inspected. In the current experiments, participants were cued with a distractor feature to avoid, then performed a visual search task while eye movements were recorded...
October 16, 2017: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Human Perception and Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29023550/effects-of-acute-alcohol-ingestion-on-eye-movements-and-cognition-a-double-blind-placebo-controlled-study
#19
Jéssica Bruna Santana Silva, Eva Dias Cristino, Natalia Leandro de Almeida, Paloma Cavalcante Bezerra de Medeiros, Natanael Antonio Dos Santos
Alcohol is one of the most consumed psychoactive substances in the world, and the negative impact related to alcohol use has become a worldwide public health issue. Alcohol is able to affect diffusely several areas of the Central Nervous System, which could impair visual functions, including eye movements, and cognitive processes. The objective of the present study was to investigate the effects of moderate alcohol intake in eyes movements, as an indicator of cognitive processing underlying the visual search in a the Maze task...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28994302/observing-eye-movements-and-the-influence-of-cognition-during-a-symbol-search-task-a-comparison-across-three-age-groups
#20
Maxine Perrin, Manon Robillard, Annie Roy-Charland
This study examined eye movements during a visual search task as well as cognitive abilities within three age groups. The aim was to explore scanning patterns across symbol grids and to better understand the impact of symbol location in AAC displays on speed and accuracy of symbol selection. For the study, 60 students were asked to locate a series of symbols on 16 cell grids. The EyeLink 1000 was used to measure eye movements, accuracy, and response time. Accuracy was high across all cells. Participants had faster response times, longer fixations, and more frequent fixations on symbols located in the middle of the grid...
December 2017: Augmentative and Alternative Communication: AAC
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