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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29275899/analysis-of-the-treatment-plan-evaluation-process-in-radiotherapy-through-eye-tracking
#1
A Kyroudi, K Petersson, M Ozsahin, J Bourhis, F Bochud, R Moeckli
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Treatment plan evaluation is a clinical decision-making problem that involves visual search and analysis in a contextually rich environment, including delineated structures and isodose lines superposed on CT data. It is a two-step process that includes visual analysis and clinical reasoning. In this work, we used eye tracking methods to gain more knowledge about the treatment plan evaluation process in radiation therapy. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Dose distributions on a single transverse slice of ten prostate cancer treatment plans were presented to eight decision makers...
December 21, 2017: Zeitschrift Für Medizinische Physik
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29250569/influence-of-radiology-expertise-on-the-perception-of-nonmedical-images
#2
Brendan Kelly, Louise A Rainford, Mark F McEntee, Eoin C Kavanagh
Identifying if participants with differing diagnostic accuracy and visual search behavior during radiologic tasks also differ in nonradiologic tasks is investigated. Four clinician groups with different radiologic experience were used: a reference expert group of five consultant radiologists, four radiology registrars, five senior house officers, and six interns. Each of the four clinician groups is known to have significantly different performance in the identification of pneumothoraces in chest x-ray. Each of the 20 participants was shown 6 nonradiologic images (3 maps and 3 sets of geometric shapes) and was asked to perform search tasks...
July 2018: Journal of Medical Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29214208/eye-movement-feedback-fails-to-improve-visual-search-performance
#3
Chad Peltier, Mark W Becker
Many real-world searches (e.g., radiology and baggage screening) have rare targets. When targets are rare, observers perform rapid, incomplete searches, leading to higher miss rates. To improve search for rare (10% prevalence) targets, we provided eye movement feedback (EMF) to observers during their searches. Although the nature of the EMF varied across experiments, each method informed observers about the regions of the display that had not yet been inspected. We hypothesized that feedback would help guide attention to unsearched areas and increase the proportion of the display searched before making a target-absent response, thereby increasing accuracy...
2017: Cognitive Research: Principles and Implications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29214205/simple-eye-movement-feedback-during-visual-search-is-not-helpful
#4
Trafton Drew, Lauren H Williams
Searching for targets in the visual world, or visual search, is something we all do every day. We frequently make 'false-negative' errors, wherein we erroneously conclude a target was absent when one was, in fact, present. These sorts of errors can have tremendous costs, as when signs of cancers are missed in diagnostic radiology. Prior research has characterized the cause of many of these errors as being due to failure to completely search the area where targets may be present; indeed, roughly one-third of chest nodules missed in lung cancer screening are never fixated (Drew, Võ, Olwal, Jacobson, Seltzer and Wolfe, Journal of Vision 13:3, 2013)...
2017: Cognitive Research: Principles and Implications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29190328/the-computational-anatomy-of-visual-neglect
#5
Thomas Parr, Karl J Friston
Visual neglect is a debilitating neuropsychological phenomenon that has many clinical implications and-in cognitive neuroscience-offers an important lesion deficit model. In this article, we describe a computational model of visual neglect based upon active inference. Our objective is to establish a computational and neurophysiological process theory that can be used to disambiguate among the various causes of this important syndrome; namely, a computational neuropsychology of visual neglect. We introduce a Bayes optimal model based upon Markov decision processes that reproduces the visual searches induced by the line cancellation task (used to characterize visual neglect at the bedside)...
November 28, 2017: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29176675/strategic-inhibition-of-distractors-with-visual-working-memory-contents-after-involuntary-attention-capture
#6
Jiachen Lu, Lili Tian, Jiafeng Zhang, Jing Wang, Chaoxiong Ye, Qiang Liu
Previous research has suggested that visual working memory (VWM) contents had a guiding effect on selective attention, and once participants realized that the distractors shared the same information with VWM contents in the search task, they would strategically inhibit the potential distractors with VWM contents. However, previous behavioral studies could not reveal the way how distractors with VWM contents are inhibited strategically. By employing the eye-tracking technique and a dual-task paradigm, we manipulated the probability of memory items occurring as distractors to explore this issue...
November 24, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29049595/to-search-or-to-like-mapping-fixations-to-differentiate-two-forms-of-incidental-scene-memory
#7
Kyoung Whan Choe, Omid Kardan, Hiroki P Kotabe, John M Henderson, Marc G Berman
We employed eye-tracking to investigate how performing different tasks on scenes (e.g., intentionally memorizing them, searching for an object, evaluating aesthetic preference) can affect eye movements during encoding and subsequent scene memory. We found that scene memorability decreased after visual search (one incidental encoding task) compared to intentional memorization, and that preference evaluation (another incidental encoding task) produced better memory, similar to the incidental memory boost previously observed for words and faces...
October 1, 2017: Journal of Vision
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29035075/whatever-you-do-don-t-look-at-the-evaluating-guidance-by-an-exclusionary-attentional-template
#8
Valerie M Beck, Steven J Luck, Andrew Hollingworth
People can use a target template consisting of one or more features to guide attention and gaze to matching objects in a search array. But can we also use feature information to guide attention away from known irrelevant items? Some studies found a benefit from foreknowledge of a distractor feature, whereas others found a cost. Importantly, previous work has largely relied on end-of-trial manual responses; it is unclear how feature-guided avoidance might unfold as candidate objects are inspected. In the current experiments, participants were cued with a distractor feature to avoid, then performed a visual search task while eye movements were recorded...
October 16, 2017: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Human Perception and Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29023550/effects-of-acute-alcohol-ingestion-on-eye-movements-and-cognition-a-double-blind-placebo-controlled-study
#9
Jéssica Bruna Santana Silva, Eva Dias Cristino, Natalia Leandro de Almeida, Paloma Cavalcante Bezerra de Medeiros, Natanael Antonio Dos Santos
Alcohol is one of the most consumed psychoactive substances in the world, and the negative impact related to alcohol use has become a worldwide public health issue. Alcohol is able to affect diffusely several areas of the Central Nervous System, which could impair visual functions, including eye movements, and cognitive processes. The objective of the present study was to investigate the effects of moderate alcohol intake in eyes movements, as an indicator of cognitive processing underlying the visual search in a the Maze task...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28994302/observing-eye-movements-and-the-influence-of-cognition-during-a-symbol-search-task-a-comparison-across-three-age-groups
#10
Maxine Perrin, Manon Robillard, Annie Roy-Charland
This study examined eye movements during a visual search task as well as cognitive abilities within three age groups. The aim was to explore scanning patterns across symbol grids and to better understand the impact of symbol location in AAC displays on speed and accuracy of symbol selection. For the study, 60 students were asked to locate a series of symbols on 16 cell grids. The EyeLink 1000 was used to measure eye movements, accuracy, and response time. Accuracy was high across all cells. Participants had faster response times, longer fixations, and more frequent fixations on symbols located in the middle of the grid...
December 2017: Augmentative and Alternative Communication: AAC
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28991906/object-detection-through-search-with-a-foveated-visual-system
#11
Emre Akbas, Miguel P Eckstein
Humans and many other species sense visual information with varying spatial resolution across the visual field (foveated vision) and deploy eye movements to actively sample regions of interests in scenes. The advantage of such varying resolution architecture is a reduced computational, hence metabolic cost. But what are the performance costs of such processing strategy relative to a scheme that processes the visual field at high spatial resolution? Here we first focus on visual search and combine object detectors from computer vision with a recent model of peripheral pooling regions found at the V1 layer of the human visual system...
October 2017: PLoS Computational Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28946046/cultural-differences-in-attention-eye-movement-evidence-from-a-comparative-visual-search-task
#12
Albandri Alotaibi, Geoffrey Underwood, Alastair D Smith
Individual differences in visual attention have been linked to thinking style: analytic thinking (common in individualistic cultures) is thought to promote attention to detail and focus on the most important part of a scene, whereas holistic thinking (common in collectivist cultures) promotes attention to the global structure of a scene and the relationship between its parts. However, this theory is primarily based on relatively simple judgement tasks. We compared groups from Great Britain (an individualist culture) and Saudi Arabia (a collectivist culture) on a more complex comparative visual search task, using simple natural scenes...
October 2017: Consciousness and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28892812/one-visual-search-many-memory-searches-an-eye-tracking-investigation-of-hybrid-search
#13
Trafton Drew, Sage E P Boettcher, Jeremy M Wolfe
Suppose you go to the supermarket with a shopping list of 10 items held in memory. Your shopping expedition can be seen as a combination of visual search and memory search. This is known as "hybrid search." There is a growing interest in understanding how hybrid search tasks are accomplished. We used eye tracking to examine how manipulating the number of possible targets (the memory set size [MSS]) changes how observers (Os) search. We found that dwell time on each distractor increased with MSS, suggesting a memory search was being executed each time a new distractor was fixated...
September 1, 2017: Journal of Vision
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28782679/task-modulates-functional-connectivity-networks-in-free-viewing-behavior
#14
Hossein Seidkhani, Andrey R Nikolaev, Radha Nila Meghanathan, Hamid Pezeshk, Ali Masoudi-Nejad, Cees van Leeuwen
In free visual exploration, eye-movement is immediately followed by dynamic reconfiguration of brain functional connectivity. We studied the task-dependency of this process in a combined visual search-change detection experiment. Participants viewed two (nearly) same displays in succession. First time they had to find and remember multiple targets among distractors, so the ongoing task involved memory encoding. Second time they had to determine if a target had changed in orientation, so the ongoing task involved memory retrieval...
August 3, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28746814/probabilistic-computations-for-attention-eye-movements-and-search
#15
Miguel P Eckstein
The term visual attention immediately evokes the idea of limited resources, serial processing, or a zoom metaphor. But evidence has slowly accumulated that computations that take into account probabilistic relationships among visual forms and the target contribute to optimizing decisions in biological and artificial organisms, even without considering these limited-capacity processes in covert attention or even foveation. The benefits from such computations can be formalized within the framework of an ideal Bayesian observer and can be related to the classic theory of sensory cue combination in vision science and context-driven approaches to object detection in computer vision...
September 15, 2017: Annual Review of Vision Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28659850/increased-complexities-in-visual-search-behavior-in-skilled-players-for-a-self-paced-aiming-task
#16
Jingyi S Chia, Stephen F Burns, Laura A Barrett, Jia Y Chow
The badminton serve is an important shot for winning a rally in a match. It combines good technique with the ability to accurately integrate visual information from the shuttle, racket, opponent, and intended landing point. Despite its importance and repercussive nature, to date no study has looked at the visual search behaviors during badminton service in the singles discipline. Unlike anticipatory tasks (e.g., shot returns), the serve presents an opportunity to explore the role of visual search behaviors in movement control for self-paced tasks...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28638974/categorical-templates-are-more-useful-when-features-are-consistent-evidence-from-eye-movements-during-search-for-societally-important-vehicles
#17
Michael C Hout, Arryn Robbins, Hayward J Godwin, Gemma Fitzsimmons, Collin Scarince
Unlike in laboratory visual search tasks-wherein participants are typically presented with a pictorial representation of the item they are asked to seek out-in real-world searches, the observer rarely has veridical knowledge of the visual features that define their target. During categorical search, observers look for any instance of a categorically defined target (e.g., helping a family member look for their mobile phone). In these circumstances, people may not have information about noncritical features (e...
June 21, 2017: Attention, Perception & Psychophysics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637052/subtle-eye-movement-metrics-reveal-task-relevant-representations-prior-to-visual-search
#18
Anouk M van Loon, Katya Olmos-Solis, Christian N L Olivers
Visual search is thought to be guided by an active visual working memory (VWM) representation of the task-relevant features, referred to as the search template. In three experiments using a probe technique, we investigated which eye movement metrics reveal which search template is activated prior to the search, and distinguish it from future relevant or no longer relevant VWM content. Participants memorized a target color for a subsequent search task, while being instructed to keep central fixation. Before the search display appeared, we briefly presented two task-irrelevant colored probe stimuli to the left and right from fixation, one of which could match the current target template...
June 1, 2017: Journal of Vision
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28623108/acting-seeing-and-conscious-awareness
#19
R E Passingham, H C Lau
We argue that there is a relation between the judgements that 'I did it' and 'I saw it'. Both are statements are about the individual, not just the world. We show that the dorsal prefrontal cortex is activated both when human subjects judge that they are the agents of their actions and when they judge that they are confident that they have seen a masked visual stimulus. Macaque monkeys have also been taught to report whether they have or have not seen visual stimuli and cells can be found in the dorsal prefrontal cortex that distinguish between 'seen' and 'not seen'...
June 13, 2017: Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28612679/influence-of-social-presence-on-eye-movements-in-visual-search-tasks
#20
Na Liu, Ruifeng Yu
This study employed an eye-tracking technique to investigate the influence of social presence on eye movements in visual search tasks. A total of 20 male subjects performed visual search tasks in a 2 (target presence: present vs. absent) × 2 (task complexity: complex vs. simple) × 2 (social presence: alone vs. a human audience) within-subject experiment. Results indicated that the presence of an audience could evoke a social facilitation effect on response time in visual search tasks. Compared with working alone, the participants made fewer and shorter fixations, larger saccades and shorter scan path in simple search tasks and more and longer fixations, smaller saccades and longer scan path in complex search tasks when working with an audience...
June 22, 2017: Ergonomics
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