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"eye movements", "visual search"

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28098521/semantic-and-syntactic-associations-during-word-search-modulate-the-relationship-between-attention-and-subsequent-memory
#1
Wei Zhou, Fei Mo, Yunhong Zhang, Jinhong Ding
Two experiments were conducted to investigate how linguistic information influences attention allocation in visual search and memory for words. In Experiment 1, participants searched for the synonym of a cue word among five words. The distractors included one antonym and three unrelated words. In Experiment 2, participants were asked to judge whether the five words presented on the screen comprise a valid sentence. The relationships among words were sentential, semantically related or unrelated. A memory recognition task followed...
January 2017: Journal of General Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087402/accuracy-is-in-the-eyes-of-the-pathologist-the-visual-interpretive-process-and-diagnostic-accuracy-with-digital-whole-slide-images
#2
Tad T Brunyé, Ezgi Mercan, Donald L Weaver, Joann G Elmore
Digital whole slide imaging is an increasingly common medium in pathology, with application to education, telemedicine, and rendering second opinions. It has also made it possible to use eye tracking devices to explore the dynamic visual inspection and interpretation of histopathological features of tissue while pathologists review cases. Using whole slide images, the present study examined how a pathologist's diagnosis is influenced by fixed case-level factors, their prior clinical experience, and their patterns of visual inspection...
January 10, 2017: Journal of Biomedical Informatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28044017/cat-and-mouse-search-the-influence-of-scene-and-object-analysis-on-eye-movements-when-targets-change-locations-during-search
#3
Anne P Hillstrom, Joice D Segabinazi, Hayward J Godwin, Simon P Liversedge, Valerie Benson
We explored the influence of early scene analysis and visible object characteristics on eye movements when searching for objects in photographs of scenes. On each trial, participants were shown sequentially either a scene preview or a uniform grey screen (250 ms), a visual mask, the name of the target and the scene, now including the target at a likely location. During the participant's first saccade during search, the target location was changed to: (i) a different likely location, (ii) an unlikely but possible location or (iii) a very implausible location...
February 19, 2017: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28027382/training-eye-movements-for-visual-search-in-individuals-with-macular-degeneration
#4
Christian P Janssen, Preeti Verghese
We report a method to train individuals with central field loss due to macular degeneration to improve the efficiency of visual search. Our method requires participants to make a same/different judgment on two simple silhouettes. One silhouette is presented in an area that falls within the binocular scotoma while they are fixating the center of the screen with their preferred retinal locus (PRL); the other silhouette is presented diametrically opposite within the intact visual field. Over the course of 480 trials (approximately 6 hr), we gradually reduced the amount of time that participants have to make a saccade and judge the similarity of stimuli...
December 1, 2016: Journal of Vision
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28000252/dealing-with-ocular-artifacts-on-lateralized-erps-in-studies-of-visual-spatial-attention-and-memory-ica-correction-versus-epoch-rejection
#5
Brandi Lee Drisdelle, Sébrina Aubin, Pierre Jolicoeur
The objective of the present study was to assess the robustness and reliability of independent component analysis (ICA) as a method for ocular artifact correction in electrophysiological studies of visual-spatial attention and memory. The N2pc and sustained posterior contralateral negativity (SPCN), electrophysiological markers of visual-spatial attention and memory, respectively, are lateralized posterior ERPs typically observed following the presentation of lateral stimuli (targets and distractors) along with instructions to maintain fixation on the center of the visual search for the entire trial...
January 2017: Psychophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27981521/the-influence-of-action-video-game-playing-on-eye-movement-behaviour-during-visual-search-in-abstract-in-game-and-natural-scenes
#6
Elham Azizi, Larry A Abel, Matthew J Stainer
Action game playing has been associated with several improvements in visual attention tasks. However, it is not clear how such changes might influence the way we overtly select information from our visual world (i.e. eye movements). We examined whether action-video-game training changed eye movement behaviour in a series of visual search tasks including conjunctive search (relatively abstracted from natural behaviour), game-related search, and more naturalistic scene search. Forty nongamers were trained in either an action first-person shooter game or a card game (control) for 10 hours...
December 15, 2016: Attention, Perception & Psychophysics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27973992/character-complexity-effects-in-chinese-reading-and-visual-search-a-comparison-and-theoretical-implications
#7
Lili Yu, Qiaoming Zhang, Caspian Priest, Erik D Reichle, Heather Sheridan
Three eye-movement experiments were conducted to examine how the complexity of characters in Chinese words (i.e., number of strokes per character) influences their processing and eye-movement behavior. In Experiment 1, English speakers with no significant knowledge of Chinese searched for specific low-, medium-, and high-complexity target characters in a multi-page narrative containing characters of varying complexity (3-16 strokes). Fixation durations and skipping rates were influenced by the visual complexity of both the target characters and the characters being searched, with the latter findings replicating previous reports (e...
December 15, 2016: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology: QJEP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27933016/task-irrelevant-expectation-violations-in-sequential-manual-actions-evidence-for-a-check-after-surprise-mode-of-visual-attention-and-eye-hand-decoupling
#8
Rebecca M Foerster
When performing sequential manual actions (e.g., cooking), visual information is prioritized according to the task determining where and when to attend, look, and act. In well-practiced sequential actions, long-term memory (LTM)-based expectations specify which action targets might be found where and when. We have previously demonstrated (Foerster and Schneider, 2015b) that violations of such expectations that are task-relevant (e.g., target location change) cause a regression from a memory-based mode of attentional selection to visual search...
2016: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27923149/the-effect-of-cerebral-asymmetries-and-eye-scanning-on-pseudoneglect-for-a-visual-search-task
#9
Michael E R Nicholls, Amelia Hobson, Joanne Petty, Owen Churches, Nicole A Thomas
Pseudoneglect is the tendency for the general population to over-attend to the left. While pseudoneglect is classically demonstrated using line bisection, it also occurs for visual search. The current study explored the influence of eye movements and functional cerebral asymmetry on asymmetries for visual search. In Experiment 1, 24 participants carried out a conjunction search for a target within a rectangular array. A leftward advantage for detecting targets was observed when the eyes were free to move, but not when they were restricted by short exposure durations...
February 2017: Brain and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27922659/eye-movement-analysis-and-cognitive-assessment-the-use-of-comparative-visual-search-tasks-in-a-non-immersive-vr-application
#10
Pedro J Rosa, Pedro Gamito, Jorge Oliveira, Diogo Morais, Matthew Pavlovic, Olivia Smyth, Inês Maia, Tiago Gomes
BACKGROUND: An adequate behavioral response depends on attentional and mnesic processes. When these basic cognitive functions are impaired, the use of non-immersive Virtual Reality Applications (VRAs) can be a reliable technique for assessing the level of impairment. However, most non-immersive VRAs use indirect measures to make inferences about visual attention and mnesic processes (e.g., time to task completion, error rate). OBJECTIVES: To examine whether the eye movement analysis through eye tracking (ET) can be a reliable method to probe more effectively where and how attention is deployed and how it is linked with visual working memory during comparative visual search tasks (CVSTs) in non-immersive VRAs...
December 6, 2016: Methods of Information in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27875158/an-evaluation-of-visual-search-support-in-maps
#11
Rudolf Netzel, Marcel Hlawatsch, Michael Burch, Sanjeev Balakrishnan, Hansjorg Schmauder, Daniel Weiskopf
Visual search can be time-consuming, especially if the scene contains a large number of possibly relevant objects. An instance of this problem is present when using geographic or schematic maps with many different elements representing cities, streets, sights, and the like. Unless the map is well-known to the reader, the full map or at least large parts of it must be scanned to find the elements of interest. In this paper, we present a controlled eye-tracking study (30 participants) to compare four variants of map annotation with labels: within-image annotations, grid reference annotation, directional annotation, and miniature annotation...
January 2017: IEEE Transactions on Visualization and Computer Graphics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27869764/drivers-visual-search-patterns-during-overtaking-maneuvers-on-freeway
#12
Wenhui Zhang, Jing Dai, Yulong Pei, Penghui Li, Ying Yan, Xinqiang Chen
Drivers gather traffic information primarily by means of their vision. Especially during complicated maneuvers, such as overtaking, they need to perceive a variety of characteristics including the lateral and longitudinal distances with other vehicles, the speed of others vehicles, lane occupancy, and so on, to avoid crashes. The primary object of this study is to examine the appropriate visual search patterns during overtaking maneuvers on freeways. We designed a series of driving simulating experiments in which the type and speed of the leading vehicle were considered as two influential factors...
November 19, 2016: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27795743/typical-visual-search-performance-and-atypical-gaze-behaviors-in-response-to-faces-in-williams-syndrome
#13
Masahiro Hirai, Yukako Muramatsu, Seiji Mizuno, Naoko Kurahashi, Hirokazu Kurahashi, Miho Nakamura
BACKGROUND: Evidence indicates that individuals with Williams syndrome (WS) exhibit atypical attentional characteristics when viewing faces. However, the dynamics of visual attention captured by faces remain unclear, especially when explicit attentional forces are present. To clarify this, we introduced a visual search paradigm and assessed how the relative strength of visual attention captured by a face and explicit attentional control changes as search progresses. METHODS: Participants (WS and controls) searched for a target (butterfly) within an array of distractors, which sometimes contained an upright face...
2016: Journal of Neurodevelopmental Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27736887/age-related-differences-in-vehicle-control-and-eye-movement-patterns-at-intersections-older-and-middle-aged-drivers
#14
Yusuke Yamani, William J Horrey, Yulan Liang, Donald L Fisher
Older drivers are at increased risk of intersection crashes. Previous work found that older drivers execute less frequent glances for detecting potential threats at intersections than middle-aged drivers. Yet, earlier work has also shown that an active training program doubled the frequency of these glances among older drivers, suggesting that these effects are not necessarily due to age-related functional declines. In light of findings, the current study sought to explore the ability of older drivers to coordinate their head and eye movements while simultaneously steering the vehicle as well as their glance behavior at intersections...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27733596/a-novel-computational-model-to-probe-visual-search-deficits-during-motor-performance
#15
Tarkeshwar Singh, Julius Fridriksson, Christopher M Perry, Sarah C Tryon, Angela Ross, Stacy Fritz, Troy M Herter
: Successful execution of many motor skills relies on well-organized visual search (voluntary eye movements that actively scan the environment for task-relevant information). Although impairments of visual search that result from brain injuries are linked to diminished motor performance, the neural processes that guide visual search within this context remain largely unknown. The first objective of this study was to examine how visual search in healthy adults and stroke survivors is used to guide hand movements during the Trail Making Test (TMT), a neuropsychological task that is a strong predictor of visuomotor and cognitive deficits...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27716824/changes-in-drivers-visual-performance-during-the-collision-avoidance-process-as-a-function-of-different-field-of-views-at-intersections
#16
Xuedong Yan, Xinran Zhang, Yuting Zhang, Xiaomeng Li, Zhuo Yang
The intersection field of view (IFOV) indicates an extent that the visual information can be observed by drivers. It has been found that further enhancing IFOV can significantly improve emergent collision avoidance performance at intersections, such as faster brake reaction time, smaller deceleration rate, and lower traffic crash involvement risk. However, it is not known how IFOV affects drivers' eye movements, visual attention and the relationship between visual searching and traffic safety. In this study, a driving simulation experiment was conducted to uncover the changes in drivers' visual performance during the collision avoidance process as a function of different field of views at an intersection by using an eye tracking system...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27703974/use-of-neuroeyecoach%C3%A2-to-improve-eye-movement-efficacy-in-patients-with-homonymous-visual-field-loss
#17
Arash Sahraie, Nicola Smania, Josef Zihl
Visual field deficits are common in patients with damaged retinogeniculostriate pathways. The patient's eye movements are often affected leading to inefficient visual search. Systematic eye movement training also called compensatory therapy is needed to allow patients to develop effective coping strategies. There is a lack of evidence-based, clinical gold-standard registered medical device accessible to patients at home or in clinical settings and NeuroEyeCoach (NEC) is developed to address this need. In three experiments, we report on performance of patients on NEC compared to the data obtained previously on the earlier versions of the search task (n = 32); we assessed whether the self-administered computerised tasks can be used to monitor the progress (n = 24) and compared the findings in a subgroup of patients to a healthy control group...
2016: BioMed Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27690168/differential-effects-of-visual-uncertainty-and-contextual-guidance-on-perceptual-decisions-evidence-from-eye-and-mouse-tracking-in-visual-search
#18
Boris Quétard, Jean Charles Quinton, Martial Mermillod, Laura Barca, Giovanni Pezzulo, Michèle Colomb, Marie Izaute
Visual search can be seen as a decision-making process that aims to assess whether a target is present or absent from a scene. In this perspective, eye movements collect evidence related to target detection and verification to guide the decision. We investigated whether, in real-world scenes, target detection and verification are differentially recruited in the decision-making process in the presence of prior information (expectations about target location) and perceptual uncertainty (noise). We used a mouse-tracking methodology with which mouse trajectories unveil components of decision-making and eye-tracking measures reflect target detection and verification...
September 1, 2016: Journal of Vision
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27668308/you-think-you-know-where-you-looked-you-better-look-again
#19
Melissa L-H Võ, Avigael M Aizenman, Jeremy M Wolfe
People are surprisingly bad at knowing where they have looked in a scene. We tested participants' ability to recall their own eye movements in 2 experiments using natural or artificial scenes. In each experiment, participants performed a change-detection (Exp.1) or search (Exp.2) task. On 25% of trials, after 3 seconds of viewing the scene, participants were asked to indicate where they thought they had just fixated. They responded by making mouse clicks on 12 locations in the unchanged scene. After 135 trials, observers saw 10 new scenes and were asked to put 12 clicks where they thought someone else would have looked...
October 2016: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Human Perception and Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27595318/people-are-unable-to-recognize-or-report-on-their-own-eye-movements
#20
Alasdair D F Clarke, Aoife Mahon, Alex Irvine, Amelia R Hunt
Eye movements bring new information into our visual system. The selection of each fixation is the result of a complex interplay of image features, task goals, and biases in motor control and perception. To what extent are we aware of the selection of saccades and their consequences? Here we use a converging methods approach to answer this question in three diverse experiments. In Experiment 1, participants were directed to find a target in a scene by a verbal description of it. We then presented the path the eyes took together with those of another participant...
October 13, 2016: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology: QJEP
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