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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28508116/comparing-visual-search-and-eye-movements-in-bilinguals-and-monolinguals
#1
Ileana Ratiu, Michael C Hout, Stephen C Walenchok, Tamiko Azuma, Stephen D Goldinger
Recent research has suggested that bilinguals show advantages over monolinguals in visual search tasks, although these findings have been derived from global behavioral measures of accuracy and response times. In the present study we sought to explore the bilingual advantage by using more sensitive eyetracking techniques across three visual search experiments. These spatially and temporally fine-grained measures allowed us to carefully investigate any nuanced attentional differences between bilinguals and monolinguals...
May 15, 2017: Attention, Perception & Psychophysics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424915/optimal-eye-movement-strategies-a-comparison-of-neurosurgeons-gaze-patterns-when-using-a-surgical-microscope
#2
Shahram Eivazi, Ahmad Hafez, Wolfgang Fuhl, Hoorieh Afkari, Enkelejda Kasneci, Martin Lehecka, Roman Bednarik
BACKGROUND: Previous studies have consistently demonstrated gaze behaviour differences related to expertise during various surgical procedures. In micro-neurosurgery, however, there is a lack of evidence of empirically demonstrated individual differences associated with visual attention. It is unknown exactly how neurosurgeons see a stereoscopic magnified view in the context of micro-neurosurgery and what this implies for medical training. METHOD: We report on an investigation of the eye movement patterns in micro-neurosurgery using a state-of-the-art eye tracker...
June 2017: Acta Neurochirurgica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28383964/adding-depth-to-overlapping-displays-can-improve-visual-search-performance
#3
Hayward J Godwin, Tamaryn Menneer, Simon P Liversedge, Kyle R Cave, Nick S Holliman, Nick Donnelly
Standard models of visual search have focused upon asking participants to search for a single target in displays where the objects do not overlap one another, and where the objects are presented on a single depth plane. This stands in contrast to many everyday visual searches wherein variations in overlap and depth are the norm, rather than the exception. Here, we addressed whether presenting overlapping objects on different depths planes to one another can improve search performance. Across 4 different experiments using different stimulus types (opaque polygons, transparent polygons, opaque real-world objects, and transparent X-ray images), we found that depth was primarily beneficial when the displays were transparent, and this benefit arose in terms of an increase in response accuracy...
April 6, 2017: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Human Perception and Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28375688/oculomotor-capture-is-influenced-by-expected-reward-value-but-maybe-not-predictiveness
#4
Mike E Le Pelley, Daniel Pearson, Alexis Porter, Hannah Yee, David Luque
A large body of research has shown that learning about relationships between neutral stimuli and events of significance-rewards or punishments-influences the extent to which people attend to those stimuli in future. However, different accounts of this influence differ in terms of the critical variable that is proposed to determine learned changes in attention. We describe two experiments using eye-tracking with a rewarded visual search procedure to investigate whether attentional capture is influenced by the predictiveness of stimuli (i...
April 4, 2017: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology: QJEP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28371467/time-limits-in-testing-an-analysis-of-eye-movements-and-visual-attention-in-spatial-problem-solving
#5
Victoria A Roach, Graham M Fraser, James H Kryklywy, Derek G V Mitchell, Timothy D Wilson
Individuals with an aptitude for interpreting spatial information (high mental rotation ability: HMRA) typically master anatomy with more ease, and more quickly, than those with low mental rotation ability (LMRA). This article explores how visual attention differs with time limits on spatial reasoning tests. Participants were assorted to two groups based on their mental rotation ability scores and their eye movements were collected during these tests. Analysis of salience during testing revealed similarities between MRA groups in untimed conditions but significant differences between the groups in the timed one...
March 30, 2017: Anatomical Sciences Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28368160/dual-target-cost-in-visual-search-for-multiple-unfamiliar-faces
#6
Natalie Mestry, Tamaryn Menneer, Kyle R Cave, Hayward J Godwin, Nick Donnelly
The efficiency of visual search for one (single-target) and either of two (dual-target) unfamiliar faces was explored to understand the manifestations of capacity and guidance limitations in face search. The visual similarity of distractor faces to target faces was manipulated using morphing (Experiments 1 and 2) and multidimensional scaling (Experiment 3). A dual-target cost was found in all experiments, evidenced by slower and less accurate search in dual- than single-target conditions. The dual-target cost was unequal across the targets, with performance being maintained on one target and reduced on the other, which we label "preferred" and "non-preferred" respectively...
April 3, 2017: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Human Perception and Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28358960/searching-for-objects-in-everyday-scenes-measuring-performance-in-people-with-dry-age-related-macular-degeneration
#7
Deanna J Taylor, Nicholas D Smith, David P Crabb
Purpose: Treatment success in clinical trials for AMD would ideally be aligned to measurable performance in visual tasks rather than imperceptible changes on clinical charts. We test the hypothesis that patients with dry AMD perform worse than visually healthy peers on computer-based surrogates of "real-world" visual search tasks. Methods: A prospective case-control study was conducted in which patients with dry AMD performed a computer-based "real-world" visual search task...
March 1, 2017: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28355625/predicting-rhesus-monkey-eye-movements-during-natural-image-search
#8
Mark A Segraves, Emory Kuo, Sara Caddigan, Emily A Berthiaume, Konrad P Kording
There are three prominent factors that can predict human visual-search behavior in natural scenes: the distinctiveness of a location (salience), similarity to the target (relevance), and features of the environment that predict where the object might be (context). We do not currently know how well these factors are able to predict macaque visual search, which matters because it is arguably the most popular model for asking how the brain controls eye movements. Here we trained monkeys to perform the pedestrian search task previously used for human subjects...
March 1, 2017: Journal of Vision
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28293433/eye-tracking-as-a-tool-to-evaluate-functional-ability-in-everyday-tasks-in-glaucoma
#9
REVIEW
Enkelejda Kasneci, Alex A Black, Joanne M Wood
To date, few studies have investigated the eye movement patterns of individuals with glaucoma while they undertake everyday tasks in real-world settings. While some of these studies have reported possible compensatory gaze patterns in those with glaucoma who demonstrated good task performance despite their visual field loss, little is known about the complex interaction between field loss and visual scanning strategies and the impact on task performance and, consequently, on quality of life. We review existing approaches that have quantified the effect of glaucomatous visual field defects on the ability to undertake everyday activities through the use of eye movement analysis...
2017: Journal of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28287759/beyond-scene-gist-objects-guide-search-more-than-scene-background
#10
Kathryn Koehler, Miguel P Eckstein
Although the facilitation of visual search by contextual information is well established, there is little understanding of the independent contributions of different types of contextual cues in scenes. Here we manipulated 3 types of contextual information: object co-occurrence, multiple object configurations, and background category. We isolated the benefits of each contextual cue to target detectability, its impact on decision bias, confidence, and the guidance of eye movements. We find that object-based information guides eye movements and facilitates perceptual judgments more than scene background...
March 13, 2017: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Human Perception and Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28270868/preserved-search-asymmetry-in-the-detection-of-fearful-faces-among-neutral-faces-in-individuals-with-williams-syndrome-revealed-by-measurement-of-both-manual-responses-and-eye-tracking
#11
Masahiro Hirai, Yukako Muramatsu, Seiji Mizuno, Naoko Kurahashi, Hirokazu Kurahashi, Miho Nakamura
BACKGROUND: Individuals with Williams syndrome (WS) exhibit an atypical social phenotype termed hypersociability. One theory accounting for hypersociability presumes an atypical function of the amygdala, which processes fear-related information. However, evidence is lacking regarding the detection mechanisms of fearful faces for individuals with WS. Here, we introduce a visual search paradigm to elucidate the mechanisms for detecting fearful faces by evaluating the search asymmetry; the reaction time when both the target and distractors were swapped was asymmetrical...
2017: Journal of Neurodevelopmental Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28265652/chess-players-eye-movements-reveal-rapid-recognition-of-complex-visual-patterns-evidence-from-a-chess-related-visual-search-task
#12
Heather Sheridan, Eyal M Reingold
To explore the perceptual component of chess expertise, we monitored the eye movements of expert and novice chess players during a chess-related visual search task that tested anecdotal reports that a key differentiator of chess skill is the ability to visualize the complex moves of the knight piece. Specifically, chess players viewed an array of four minimized chessboards, and they rapidly searched for the target board that allowed a knight piece to reach a target square in three moves. On each trial, there was only one target board (i...
March 1, 2017: Journal of Vision
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28245502/temporal-and-peripheral-extraction-of-contextual-cues-from-scenes-during-visual-search
#13
Kathryn Koehler, Miguel P Eckstein
Scene context is known to facilitate object recognition and guide visual search, but little work has focused on isolating image-based cues and evaluating their contributions to eye movement guidance and search performance. Here, we explore three types of contextual cues (a co-occurring object, the configuration of other objects, and the superordinate category of background elements) and assess their joint contributions to search performance in the framework of cue-combination and the temporal unfolding of their extraction...
February 1, 2017: Journal of Vision
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28202816/human-visual-search-behaviour-is-far-from-ideal
#14
Anna Nowakowska, Alasdair D F Clarke, Amelia R Hunt
Evolutionary pressures have made foraging behaviours highly efficient in many species. Eye movements during search present a useful instance of foraging behaviour in humans. We tested the efficiency of eye movements during search using homogeneous and heterogeneous arrays of line segments. The search target is visible in the periphery on the homogeneous array, but requires central vision to be detected on the heterogeneous array. For a compound search array that is heterogeneous on one side and homogeneous on the other, eye movements should be directed only to the heterogeneous side...
February 22, 2017: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28124293/influence-of-simple-action-on-subsequent-manual-and-ocular-responses
#15
Fei Wang, Ji Sun, Pei Sun, Blaire J Weidler, Richard A Abrams
Recent investigations into how action affects perception have revealed an interesting "action effect"-that is, simply acting upon an object enhances its processing in subsequent tasks. The previous studies, however, relied only on manual responses, allowing an alternative stimulus-response binding account of the effect. The current study examined whether the action effect occurs in the presence of changes in response modalities. In Experiment 1, participants completed a modified action effect paradigm, in which they first produced an arbitrary manual response to a shape and then performed a visual search task in which the previous shape was either a valid or invalid cue-responding with a manual or saccadic response...
January 25, 2017: Attention, Perception & Psychophysics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28098521/semantic-and-syntactic-associations-during-word-search-modulate-the-relationship-between-attention-and-subsequent-memory
#16
Wei Zhou, Fei Mo, Yunhong Zhang, Jinhong Ding
Two experiments were conducted to investigate how linguistic information influences attention allocation in visual search and memory for words. In Experiment 1, participants searched for the synonym of a cue word among five words. The distractors included one antonym and three unrelated words. In Experiment 2, participants were asked to judge whether the five words presented on the screen comprise a valid sentence. The relationships among words were sentential, semantically related or unrelated. A memory recognition task followed...
January 2017: Journal of General Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087402/accuracy-is-in-the-eyes-of-the-pathologist-the-visual-interpretive-process-and-diagnostic-accuracy-with-digital-whole-slide-images
#17
Tad T Brunyé, Ezgi Mercan, Donald L Weaver, Joann G Elmore
Digital whole slide imaging is an increasingly common medium in pathology, with application to education, telemedicine, and rendering second opinions. It has also made it possible to use eye tracking devices to explore the dynamic visual inspection and interpretation of histopathological features of tissue while pathologists review cases. Using whole slide images, the present study examined how a pathologist's diagnosis is influenced by fixed case-level factors, their prior clinical experience, and their patterns of visual inspection...
February 2017: Journal of Biomedical Informatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28044017/cat-and-mouse-search-the-influence-of-scene-and-object-analysis-on-eye-movements-when-targets-change-locations-during-search
#18
Anne P Hillstrom, Joice D Segabinazi, Hayward J Godwin, Simon P Liversedge, Valerie Benson
We explored the influence of early scene analysis and visible object characteristics on eye movements when searching for objects in photographs of scenes. On each trial, participants were shown sequentially either a scene preview or a uniform grey screen (250 ms), a visual mask, the name of the target and the scene, now including the target at a likely location. During the participant's first saccade during search, the target location was changed to: (i) a different likely location, (ii) an unlikely but possible location or (iii) a very implausible location...
February 19, 2017: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28027382/training-eye-movements-for-visual-search-in-individuals-with-macular-degeneration
#19
Christian P Janssen, Preeti Verghese
We report a method to train individuals with central field loss due to macular degeneration to improve the efficiency of visual search. Our method requires participants to make a same/different judgment on two simple silhouettes. One silhouette is presented in an area that falls within the binocular scotoma while they are fixating the center of the screen with their preferred retinal locus (PRL); the other silhouette is presented diametrically opposite within the intact visual field. Over the course of 480 trials (approximately 6 hr), we gradually reduced the amount of time that participants have to make a saccade and judge the similarity of stimuli...
December 1, 2016: Journal of Vision
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28000252/dealing-with-ocular-artifacts-on-lateralized-erps-in-studies-of-visual-spatial-attention-and-memory-ica-correction-versus-epoch-rejection
#20
Brandi Lee Drisdelle, Sébrina Aubin, Pierre Jolicoeur
The objective of the present study was to assess the robustness and reliability of independent component analysis (ICA) as a method for ocular artifact correction in electrophysiological studies of visual-spatial attention and memory. The N2pc and sustained posterior contralateral negativity (SPCN), electrophysiological markers of visual-spatial attention and memory, respectively, are lateralized posterior ERPs typically observed following the presentation of lateral stimuli (targets and distractors) along with instructions to maintain fixation on the center of the visual search for the entire trial...
January 2017: Psychophysiology
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