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Innate lymphoid cells (ILCs) and atopic dermatitis

Hamed Mohammadi, Nadia Sharafkandi, Maryam Hemmatzadeh, Gholamreza Azizi, Mohammad Karimi, Farhad Jadidi-Niaragh, Behzad Baradaran, Zohreh Babaloo
Innate lymphoid cells (ILCs) are kind of innate immune cells which can be divided into three main subsets according to their cytokine release profile, transcription factors, and surface markers. ILCs affect the initial stages of immunity in response to microbes and participate in immunity, inflammation, and tissue repair. ILCs modulate immunity through resistance to the pathogens and regulation of autoimmune inflammation and metabolic homeostasis. Therefore dysregulation of ILCs may lead to chronic pathologies such as allergies (i...
June 2018: Journal of Cellular Physiology
Mikaël Ebbo, Adeline Crinier, Frédéric Vély, Eric Vivier
Recent years have seen a marked increase in our understanding of innate lymphoid cells (ILCs). ILCs can be classified into different groups based on their similarity to T cell subsets in terms of their expression of key transcription factors and cytokine production. Various immunological functions of ILCs have been described, and increasing numbers of studies have implicated these cells in inflammatory disorders. Here, we detail the roles of ILCs in inflammatory diseases; we cover type 2 inflammatory diseases (such as asthma, chronic rhinosinusitis and atopic dermatitis), as well as inflammatory bowel diseases, psoriasis and other systemic or organ-specific inflammatory and autoimmune diseases...
November 2017: Nature Reviews. Immunology
Shunya Mashiko, Heena Mehta, Robert Bissonnette, Marika Sarfati
BACKGROUND: Pathogenesis of atopic dermatitis (AD) involves interaction between type 2 cells that include basophils, mast cells, innate lymphoid type 2 cells (ILC2), and Th2 cells. Levels of IL-4 and IL-13 are elevated in AD patients. OBJECTIVE: Here, we investigated the distribution of type 2 cells and the source of IL-4 and IL-13 in skin and blood of AD relative to psoriasis. METHODS: Lesional skin biopsies and blood were collected from patients...
November 2017: Journal of Dermatological Science
Medya M Shikhagaie, Kristine Germar, Suzanne M Bal, Xavier Romero Ros, Hergen Spits
Innate lymphoid cells (ILCs) are important in the regulation of barrier homeostasis. These cells do not express T cell receptors but share many functional similarities with T helper cells and cytotoxic CD8(+) T lymphocytes. ILCs are divided into three groups, namely group 1 ILCs, group 2 ILCs and group 3 ILCs, based on the transcription factors they depend on for their development and function, and the cytokines they produce. Emerging data indicate that ILCs not only have protective functions but can also have detrimental effects when dysregulated, leading to chronic inflammation and autoimmune diseases, including asthma, inflammatory bowel disease, graft-versus-host disease, psoriasis, rheumatoid arthritis and atopic dermatitis...
March 2017: Nature Reviews. Rheumatology
Marie-Charlotte Brüggen, Wolfgang M Bauer, Bärbel Reininger, Eduard Clim, Catalin Captarencu, Georg E Steiner, Patrick M Brunner, Barbara Meier, Lars E French, Georg Stingl
Although innate lymphoid cells (ILCs) have recently been identified also in skin, their role in this organ remains poorly understood. In this study, we aimed at developing a technique to assess ILCs in situ and to determine their topographical distribution in human skin. We collected lesional skin biopsies from patients with atopic dermatitis and psoriasis (both n = 13) and normal human skin from healthy controls. After establishing immunofluorescence ILC in situ stainings, we developed an analysis approach (gating combined with manual validation) to reliably identify ILCs...
December 2016: Journal of Investigative Dermatology
Maryam Salimi, Luzheng Xue, Helen Jolin, Clare Hardman, David J Cousins, Andrew N J McKenzie, Graham S Ogg
Group 2 innate lymphoid cells (ILC2) are important in effector functions for eliciting allergic inflammation, parasite defense, epithelial repair, and lipid homeostasis. ILC2 lack rearranged Ag-specific receptors, and although many soluble factors such as cytokines and lipid mediators can influence ILC2, direct interaction of these cells with the microenvironment and other cells has been less explored. Natural cytotoxicity receptors are expressed by subsets of group 1 ILC and group 3 ILC and thought to be important for their effector function, but they have not been shown to be expressed by ILC2...
January 1, 2016: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
Anne-Sophie Bergot, Nastasia Monnet, Son Le Tran, Deepak Mittal, Jane Al-Kouba, Raymond J Steptoe, Michele A Grimbaldeston, Ian H Frazer, James W Wells
Atopic dermatitis is a common pruritic and inflammatory skin disorder with unknown etiology. Most commonly occurring during early childhood, atopic dermatitis is associated with eczematous lesions and lichenification, in which the epidermis becomes hypertrophied resulting in thickening of the skin. In this study, we report an atopic dermatitis-like pathophysiology results in a murine model following the expression of the high-risk human papillomavirus (HPV) 16 oncoprotein E7 in keratinocytes under the keratin 14 promoter...
July 2015: Immunology and Cell Biology
Brian S Kim
Innate lymphoid cells (ILCs) are part of a heterogeneous family of innate immune cells with newly identified roles in mediating immunity, tissue homeostasis, and pathologic inflammation. Here, we review recent studies delineating the roles of ILCs in the pathogenesis of multiple inflammatory skin disorders and their unique effector functions. Finally, we address how these studies have informed our understanding of the regulation of ILCs and the therapeutic potential of targeting these cells in the context of skin inflammation...
March 2015: Journal of Investigative Dermatology
Christoph S N Klose, Andreas Diefenbach
The mucosal epithelium is in direct contact with symbiotic and pathogenic microorganisms. Therefore, the mucosal surface is the principal portal of entry for invading pathogens and immune cells accumulated in the intestine to prevent infections. In addition to these conventional immune system functions, it has become clear that immune cells during steady-state continuously integrate microbial and nutrient-derived signals from the environment to support organ homeostasis. A major role in both processes is played by a recently discovered group of lymphocytes referred to as innate lymphoid cells (ILCs) Innate lymphoid cells (ILCs) that are specifically enriched at mucosal surfaces but are rather rare in secondary lymphoid organs...
2014: Current Topics in Microbiology and Immunology
J Mjösberg, L Eidsmo
Innate lymphoid cells (ILC) is the collective term for a group of related innate lymphocytes, including NK cells and the more recently appreciated non-NK ILC (ILC1, ILC2 and ILC3). ILC all depend on the common γ-chain of the IL-2 receptor and the transcription factor Id2. Furthermore, ILC lack rearranged antigen-receptors such as those expressed by T and B cells. Recent data indicate that non-NK ILC contribute to a wide range of homeostatic and pathophysiological processes primarily by virtue of cytokine production...
August 2014: Clinical and Experimental Allergy: Journal of the British Society for Allergy and Clinical Immunology
Federica Villanova, Barry Flutter, Isabella Tosi, Katarzyna Grys, Hemawtee Sreeneebus, Gayathri K Perera, Anna Chapman, Catherine H Smith, Paola Di Meglio, Frank O Nestle
Innate lymphoid cells (ILCs) are increasingly appreciated as key regulators of tissue immunity. However, their role in human tissue homeostasis and disease remains to be fully elucidated. Here we characterize the ILCs in human skin from healthy individuals and from the inflammatory skin disease psoriasis. We show that a substantial proportion of IL-17A and IL-22 producing cells in the skin and blood of normal individuals and psoriasis patients are CD3-negative innate lymphocytes. Deep immunophenotyping of human ILC subsets showed a statistically significant increase in the frequency of circulating NKp44+ ILC3 in the blood of psoriasis patients compared with healthy individuals or atopic dermatitis patients...
April 2014: Journal of Investigative Dermatology
Brian S Kim, Mark C Siracusa, Steven A Saenz, Mario Noti, Laurel A Monticelli, Gregory F Sonnenberg, Matthew R Hepworth, Abby S Van Voorhees, Michael R Comeau, David Artis
Innate lymphoid cells (ILCs) are a recently identified family of heterogeneous immune cells that can be divided into three groups based on their differential developmental requirements and expression of effector cytokines. Among these, group 2 ILCs produce the type 2 cytokines interleukin-5 (IL-5) and IL-13 and promote type 2 inflammation in the lung and intestine. However, whether group 2 ILCs reside in the skin and contribute to skin inflammation has not been characterized. We identify a population of skin-resident group 2 ILCs present in healthy human skin that are enriched in lesional human skin from atopic dermatitis (AD) patients...
January 30, 2013: Science Translational Medicine
Chang Ook Park, Seongmin Noh, Shan Jin, Na Ra Lee, Yun Sun Lee, Hemin Lee, Jungsoo Lee, Kwang Hoon Lee
Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a highly pruritic, chronic relapsing inflammatory skin disease characterized by innate and adaptive immune reactions. In AD, innate immune mechanisms such as pattern recognition receptors and antimicrobial peptides have been investigated in detail, but recently, epidermis-derived cytokines, namely thymic stromal lymphopoietin (TSLP), IL-25 and IL-33, were shown to participate in innate immune reactions independently of adaptive immunity. In addition to conventional innate cells, such as mast cells, basophils and eosinophils, Th2 cytokine-producing invariant natural killer T (iNKT) cells, innate lymphoid cells (ILCs) and Th17/Th22 cytokine-producing innate cells - iNKT cells and natural killer (NK)-like cells - can participate in innate immune modulation in AD...
January 2013: Experimental Dermatology
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