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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28532397/a-systematic-review-of-factors-that-shape-implementation-of-mass-drug-administration-for-lymphatic-filariasis-in-sub-saharan-africa
#1
Adam Silumbwe, Joseph Mumba Zulu, Hikabasa Halwindi, Choolwe Jacobs, Jessy Zgambo, Rosalia Dambe, Mumbi Chola, Gershom Chongwe, Charles Michelo
BACKGROUND: Understanding factors surrounding the implementation process of mass drug administration for lymphatic filariasis (MDA for LF) elimination programmes is critical for successful implementation of similar interventions. The sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) region records the second highest prevalence of the disease and subsequently several countries have initiated and implemented MDA for LF. Systematic reviews have largely focused on factors that affect coverage and compliance, with less attention on the implementation of MDA for LF activities...
May 22, 2017: BMC Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28531265/utility-of-nonhuman-primates-in-substance-use-disorders-research
#2
Matthew L Banks, Paul W Czoty, Sidney S Negus
Substance use disorders (i.e., drug addiction) constitute a global and insidious public health issue. Preclinical biomedical research has been invaluable in elucidating the environmental, biological, and pharmacological determinants of drug abuse and in the process of developing innovative pharmacological and behavioral treatment strategies. For more than 70 years, nonhuman primates have been utilized as research subjects in biomedical research related to drug addiction. There are already several excellent published reviews highlighting species differences in both pharmacodynamics and pharmacokinetics between rodents and nonhuman primates in preclinical substance abuse research...
May 20, 2017: ILAR Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28530330/-the-sherlock-system-clinical-and-logistic-pharmaceutical-services
#3
Roni Leibowitz, Shahar Aflalo, Ornit Cohen, Ahuva Lustig
BACKGROUND: The drug inventory in the hospital consumes a large part of the hospital's budget. Classic drug management is based on weekly visits of the pharmacist in the departments, writing an order and dispensing it. This method is wasteful in terms of sending a bulk of drugs that will not necessarily be utilized, and it is also inefficient in terms of human resources. The unit-dose method, which is more advanced, is based on filling out individual prescriptions for each of the inpatients in the department...
August 2016: Harefuah
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28530279/bifunctional-antimicrobial-conjugates-and-hybrid-antimicrobials
#4
REVIEW
P Klahn, M Brönstrup
Covering: up to the end of 2016Novel antimicrobial drugs are continuously needed to counteract bacterial resistance development. An innovative molecular design strategy for novel antibiotic drugs is based on the hybridization of an antibiotic with a second functional entity. Such conjugates can be grouped into two major categories. In the first category (antimicrobial hybrids), both functional elements of the hybrid exert antimicrobial activity. Due to the dual targeting, resistance development can be significantly impaired, the pharmacokinetic properties can be superior compared to combination therapies with the single antibiotics, and the antibacterial potency is often enhanced in a synergistic manner...
May 22, 2017: Natural Product Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28529947/immune-checkpoint-blockade-for-hematologic-malignancies-a-review
#5
REVIEW
Matthew J Pianko, Yuzhou Liu, Srishti Bagchi, Alexander M Lesokhin
Immune checkpoint blockade has revolutionized the treatment of cancer, with impressive responses seen in a broad variety of tumor types. Blockade of immune checkpoints and immune signaling antibodies has shown promise in multiple types of hematologic malignancies (HMs), with dramatic single agent responses for pembrolizumab and nivolumab in Hodgkin lymphoma (HL). In this review, we outline the current state of immune checkpoint blockade drug development in HMs, and discuss mechanisms of activity and resistance, and highlight potential targets in the immune tumor microenvironment (TME)...
2017: Stem Cell Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28529215/innovative-program-delivery-and-determinants-of-frequent-visitation-to-a-mobile-medical-clinic-in-an-urban-setting
#6
Britton A Gibson, Jamie P Morano, Mary R Walton, Ruthanne Marcus, Alexei Zelenev, R Douglas Bruce, Frederick L Altice
The Community Health Care Van (CHCV) is a mobile medical clinic (MMC) that has served vulnerable populations in New Haven, Connecticut since 1993. This study explores utilization patterns to understand if certain populations frequently rely upon non-traditional health care within a representative MMC. Patient characteristics, services used, and visitation frequency were described and compared for 8,415 unique clients making 29,728 visits. Negative binomial regression was used to model the impact of specific indicators on visitation...
2017: Journal of Health Care for the Poor and Underserved
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526869/blocking-of-carnitine-palmitoyl-transferase-1-potently-reduces-stress-induced-depression-in-rat-highlighting-a-pivotal-role-of-lipid-metabolism
#7
Anne Skøttrup Mørkholt, Ove Wiborg, Jette G K Nieland, Søren Nielsen, John Dirk Nieland
Major depressive disorder is a complex and common mental disease, for which the pathology has not been elucidated. The purpose of this study is to provide knowledge about the importance of mitochondrial dysfunction, dysregulated lipid metabolism and inflammation. Mitochondrial carnitine palmitoyl transferase 1a (CPT1a) is a key molecule involved in lipid metabolism and mutations in CPT1a causing reduced function is hypothesized to have a protective role in the development of depression. Moreover, CPT1a is found to be upregulated in suicide patients with history of depression...
May 19, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526447/toxicity-screening-of-a-novel-poly-methylmethacrylate-eudragit-nanocarrier-on-l929-fibroblasts
#8
Diogo Graça, Henriqueta Louro, Joana Santos, Kamila Dias, Lídia Gonçalves, António Almeida, Maria João Silva, Ana Bettencourt
Toxicity screening of a novel poly(methylmethacrylate)-Eudragit nanocarrier on L929 fibroblasts Translation of innovative drug delivery nanosystems into the market involves an early toxicity screening in the development phase. Previously, we showed that inclusion of the polymer (Eudragit, EUD) into poly(methylmethacrylate) (PMMA) nanoparticles (NP) resulted in a novel nanocarrier (PMMA-EUD) with an improved biomedical performance. The safety of this novel nanoparticulate system (PMMA-EUDNPs) was assessed in this work and compared to that of the original PMMANPs by using an integrated approach, comprising in vitro toxicity assessment and NPs physicochemical characterization in water and cell medium...
May 16, 2017: Toxicology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526278/biotherapeutics-in-chronic-rhinosinusitis-with-and-without-nasal-polyps
#9
Claus Bachert, Philippe Gevaert, Peter Hellings
In western countries, 85% of chronic rhinosinusitis with nasal polyp disease reveals a type 2 inflammatory pattern with expression of IL-4, -5, and -13 as well as increased concentrations of IgE, whereas chronic rhinosinusitis without nasal polyps merely expresses these biomarkers. The degree of type 2 inflammation furthermore is associated with disease severity, asthma comorbidity, and recurrence of disease after surgery. Therefore, these biomarkers also form the targets for innovative therapeutic approaches such as monoclonal antibodies directed against IgE, IL-5, and IL-4 receptor alpha, blocking the activity of IL-4 and -13...
May 16, 2017: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology in Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526154/an-analysis-of-new-approaches-and-drug-formulations-for-treatment-of-chronic-low-back-pain
#10
REVIEW
Karishma Patel Bhangare, Alan D Kaye, Nebojsa Nick Knezevic, Kenneth D Candido, Richard D Urman
The prevalence of chronic low back pain (CLBP) is increasing. Treatment is effective in less than 50% of patients after 1 year. This review investigates new treatments for CLBP. An extensive literature review focuses on new treatments for CLBP. Their safety and efficacy were evaluated and are described in detail in this review. The investigation identified new treatments for CLBP including chemonucleolysis, platelet-rich plasma injections, artemin, tanezumab, and stem cells. Further research and innovation are needed to implement these methods into practice and assess clinical significance...
June 2017: Anesthesiology Clinics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28524668/emerging-trends-in-micro-and-nanoscale-technologies-in-medicine-from-basic-discoveries-to-translation
#11
Mario M Alvarez, Joanna Aizenberg, Mostafa Analoui, Anne M Andrews, Gili Bisker, Edward S Boyden, Roger D Kamm, Jeffrey M Karp, David J Mooney, Rahmi Oklu, Dan Peer, Michelle Stolzoff, Michael S Strano, Grissel Trujillo-de Santiago, Thomas J Webster, Paul S Weiss, Ali Khademhosseini
We discuss the state of the art and innovative micro- and nanoscale technologies that are finding niches and opening up new opportunities in medicine, particularly in diagnostic and therapeutic applications. We take the design of point-of-care applications and the capture of circulating tumor cells as illustrative examples of the integration of micro- and nanotechnologies into solutions of diagnostic challenges. We describe several novel nanotechnologies that enable imaging cellular structures and molecular events...
May 19, 2017: ACS Nano
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28521829/supervised-injection-facilities-in-canada-past-present-and-future
#12
REVIEW
Thomas Kerr, Sanjana Mitra, Mary Clare Kennedy, Ryan McNeil
Canada has long contended with harms arising from injection drug use. In response to epidemics of HIV infection and overdose in Vancouver in the mid-1990s, a range of actors advocated for the creation of supervised injection facilities (SIFs), and after several unsanctioned SIFs operated briefly and closed, Canada's first sanctioned SIF opened in 2003. However, while a large body of evidence highlights the successes of this SIF in reducing the health and social harms associated with injection drug use, extraordinary efforts were needed to preserve it, and continued activism by local people who inject drugs (PWID) and healthcare providers was needed to promote further innovation and address gaps in SIF service delivery...
May 18, 2017: Harm Reduction Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28521373/paediatric-medicines-regulatory-and-scientific-issues
#13
Chrysa Daousani, Vangelis D Karalis
In the past, dosage regimens authorized for adults were extrapolated to children relying mainly on empirical dosage adjustments. However, children are not small adults, but a distinct and heterogeneous group in terms of physiology, disease occurrence, pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics and also psychological, cognitive, and behavioral aspects. Even though it would be helpful to know the physiological changes and the special drug treatment needs in children, this task could not be performed due to ethical reasons...
May 18, 2017: Drug Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28516914/adenylate-kinase-hcinap-determines-self-renewal-of-colorectal-cancer-stem-cells-by-facilitating-ldha-phosphorylation
#14
Yapeng Ji, Chuanzhen Yang, Zefang Tang, Yongfeng Yang, Yonglu Tian, Hongwei Yao, Xi Zhu, Zeming Zhang, Jiafu Ji, Xiaofeng Zheng
Targeting the specific metabolic phenotypes of colorectal cancer stem cells (CRCSCs) is an innovative therapeutic strategy for colorectal cancer (CRC) patients with poor prognosis and relapse. However, the context-dependent metabolic traits of CRCSCs remain poorly elucidated. Here we report that adenylate kinase hCINAP is overexpressed in CRC tissues. Depletion of hCINAP inhibits invasion, self-renewal, tumorigenesis and chemoresistance of CRCSCs with a loss of mesenchymal signature. Mechanistically, hCINAP binds to the C-terminal domain of LDHA, the key regulator of glycolysis, and depends on its adenylate kinase activity to promote LDHA phosphorylation at tyrosine 10, resulting in the hyperactive Warburg effect and the lower cellular ROS level and conferring metabolic advantage to CRCSC invasion...
May 18, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28511143/dna-assisted-upconversion-nanoplatform-for-imaging-guided-synergistic-therapy-and-laser-switchable-drug-detoxification
#15
Luoyuan Li, Panlong Hao, Peng Wei, Limin Fu, Xicheng Ai, Jianping Zhang, Jing Zhou
The side effects of chemotherapy bring significant physical and psychological suffering to patients. To solve this urgent medical problem, Yb(3+) and Er(3+) co-doped NaLuF4 upconversion nanoparticles (UCNPs) were constructed for upconversion luminescence (UCL)-labeled diagnosis under 980 nm laser irradiation. The UCNPs were then modified layer by layer with polypyrrole and a special programming DNA segment as photothermal conversion agents and controllable drug carriers, respectively. The nanoplatform was successfully used for imaging-guided synergistic therapy (photothermal therapy and chemotherapy) at a safe power density (300 mW cm(-2)), and DNA-assisted detoxification at lower temperature in cancer cells when the laser off...
May 5, 2017: Biomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28510518/biosimilar-makers-hope-court-starts-6-month-wait-sooner
#16
Ed Silverman
The dispute centers on dueling interpretations of the Biologics Price Competition and Innovation Act, which says a company seeking to sell a biosimilar must give the maker of the brand-name biologic at least a 180-day notice before selling its drug.
March 2017: Managed Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28510271/application-of-combination-high-throughput-phenotypic-screening-and-target-identification-methods-for-the-discovery-of-natural-product-based-combination-drugs
#17
REVIEW
Monica Isgut, Mukkavilli Rao, Chunhua Yang, Vangala Subrahmanyam, Padmashree C G Rida, Ritu Aneja
Modern drug discovery efforts have had mediocre success rates with increasing developmental costs, and this has encouraged pharmaceutical scientists to seek innovative approaches. Recently with the rise of the fields of systems biology and metabolomics, network pharmacology (NP) has begun to emerge as a new paradigm in drug discovery, with a focus on multiple targets and drug combinations for treating disease. Studies on the benefits of drug combinations lay the groundwork for a renewed focus on natural products in drug discovery...
May 16, 2017: Medicinal Research Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28508875/early-phase-clinical-trials-of-anticancer-agents-in-children-and-adolescents-an-itcc-perspective
#18
REVIEW
Lucas Moreno, Andrew D J Pearson, Xavier Paoletti, Irene Jimenez, Birgit Geoerger, Pamela R Kearns, C Michel Zwaan, Francois Doz, Andre Baruchel, Josef Vormoor, Michela Casanova, Stefan M Pfister, Bruce Morland, Gilles Vassal
In the past decade, the landscape of drug development in oncology has evolved dramatically; however, this paradigm shift remains to be adopted in early phase clinical trial designs for studies of molecularly targeted agents and immunotherapeutic agents in paediatric malignancies. In drug development, prioritization of drugs on the basis of knowledge of tumour biology, molecular 'drivers' of disease and a drug's mechanism of action, and therapeutic unmet needs are key elements; these aspects are relevant to early phase paediatric trials, in which molecular profiling is strongly encouraged...
May 16, 2017: Nature Reviews. Clinical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28507786/application-of-hyperosmotic-nanoemulsions-in-wound-healing-partial-thickness-injury-model-in-swine
#19
Sean Connell, Jianming Li, Abigail Durkes, Lynetta Freeman
Objective: In this work, we introduce a novel hyperosmotic nanoemulsion (HNE) topical agent for use in wound healing. These topical emulsion complexes combine a lipophilic thymol nanoemulsion with a hyperosmotic saccharide matrix. This combination has been previously shown to possess synergistic antimicrobial activity against a host of common and drug-resistant pathogens in vitro. Approach: In this study, we present additional data to assess the safety and efficacy of these emulsions in a partial thickness injury model in swine...
May 1, 2017: Advances in Wound Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28507785/a-retrospective-chart-review-of-chronic-wound-patients-treated-with-topical-oxygen-therapy
#20
Karen Copeland, Angie R Purvis
Objective: Topical oxygen devices are Food and Drug Administration (FDA) cleared for the following indications for use of various etiologies: skin ulcerations due to diabetes, venous stasis, postsurgical infections and gangrenous lesions, decubitus ulcers; amputations/infected stumps; skin grafts; burns; and frostbite. The goal of this study was to understand the impact of topical oxygen therapy (TOT) on patient outcomes, including amputation and healing rates. Approach: This retrospective chart review included records collected between January 1, 2007, and July 18, 2016, from male and female patients ranging in age from 4 years to 105 years...
May 1, 2017: Advances in Wound Care
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