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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28531919/bupleurum-chinense-extract-ameliorates-an-ova-induced-murine-allergic-asthma-through-the-reduction-of-the-th2-and-th17-cytokines-production-by-inactivation-of-nf%C3%AE%C2%BAb-pathway
#1
Thi Tho Bui, Chun Hua Piao, Chang Ho Song, Hee Soon Shin, Ok Hee Chai
Bupleurum chinense belongs to the Bupleurum spp. family that has been used in traditional herbal medicine for over thousand years. It has been reported to have anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidant, hepato-protective, antipyretic, analgesic, anti-fibrotic and immunomodulatory effect. However, the effect of B. Chinense on allergic asthma remains unclear. This study investigated the immunomodulatory effects of B. Chinense extracts (BCE) on airway inflammation in asthmatic mice model. In the ovalbumin (OVA)-induced allergic asthma model, we evaluated the number of total cells, differential inflammatory cells and the production of proinflammatory cytokines in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) and lung homogenate as well as histological structure...
May 16, 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28530849/allergic-bronchopulmonary-aspergillosis-in-cystic-fibrosis-mr-imaging-of-airway-mucus-contrasts-as-a-tool-for-diagnosis
#2
Gaël Dournes, Patrick Berger, John Refait, Julie Macey, Stephanie Bui, Laurence Delhaes, Michel Montaudon, Olivier Corneloup, Jean-François Chateil, Roger Marthan, Michaël Fayon, François Laurent
Purpose To assess the diagnostic accuracy of mucus contrast characterization by using magnetic resonance (MR) imaging to discriminate allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis (ABPA) in cystic fibrosis (CF). Materials and Methods The study was approved by the local Ethics Committee, and all patients or their parents gave written informed consent. One hundred ten consecutive patients with CF were screened between January 2014 and July 2015. All patients underwent a non-contrast material-enhanced MR protocol that included routine T1-weighted and T2-weighted sequences...
May 22, 2017: Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28529457/deguelin-attenuates-allergic-airway-inflammation-via-inhibition-of-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-pathway-in-mice
#3
Zhang Bao, Pei Zhang, Yinan Yao, Guohua Lu, Zhongkai Tong, Bing Yan, Lingfang Tu, Guangdie Yang, Jianying Zhou
Asthma is a chronic respiratory disease characterized by airway inflammation and remodeling, resulting in a substantial economic burden on both patients and society. Deguelin, a constituent of the Leguminosae family, exhibits anti-proliferative and anti-inflammatory activities in cancer mice models via inhibiting phosphatidylinositol 3-kinases and the NF-κB pathway. We demonstrated that deguelin effectively reduced OVA-induced inflammatory cell recruitment, decreased lung tissue inflammation and mucus production, suppressed airway hyperresponsiveness, and inhibited serum immunoglobulin and Th2 cytokine levels in a dose-dependent manner in asthmatic mice...
2017: International Journal of Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28518116/the-wincf-model-an-inexpensive-and-tractable-microcosm-of-a-mucus-plugged-bronchiole-to-study-the-microbiology-of-lung-infections
#4
William J Comstock, Edwin Huh, Reiley Weekes, Connor Watson, Tianyang Xu, Pieter C Dorrestein, Robert A Quinn
Many chronic airway diseases result in mucus plugging of the airways. Lungs of an individual with cystic fibrosis are an exemplary case where their mucus-plugged bronchioles create a favorable habitat for microbial colonization. Various pathogens thrive in this environment interacting with each other and driving many of the symptoms associated with CF disease. Like any microbial community, the chemical conditions of their habitat have a significant impact on the community structure and dynamics. For example, different microorganisms thrive in differing levels of oxygen or other solute concentrations...
May 8, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28511651/high-resolution-mucociliary-transport-measurement-in-live-excised-large-animal-trachea-using-synchrotron-x-ray-imaging
#5
Martin Donnelley, Kaye S Morgan, Maged Awadalla, Nigel R Farrow, Chris Hall, David W Parsons
BACKGROUND: The Australian Synchrotron Imaging and Medical Beamline (IMBL) was designed as the world's widest synchrotron X-ray beam, enabling both clinical imaging and therapeutic applications for humans as well as the imaging of large animal models. Our group is developing methods for imaging the airways of newly developed CF animal models that display human-like lung disease, such as the CF pig, and we expect that the IMBL can be utilised to image airways in animals of this size. METHODS: This study utilised samples of excised tracheal tissue to assess the feasibility, logistics and protocols required for airway imaging in large animal models such as pigs and sheep at the IMBL...
May 16, 2017: Respiratory Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28510479/increased-expression-of-p22phox-mediates-airway-hyperresponsiveness-in-an-experimental-model-of-asthma
#6
Chandran Nagaraj, Hans Michael Haitchi, Akos Heinemann, Peter Howarth, Andrea Olschewski, Leigh M Marsh
AIM: Chronic airway diseases such as asthma are associated with increased production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and oxidative stress. Endogenous NADPH oxidases are a major source of superoxide in lung, but their underlying role in asthma pathology is poorly understood. We sought to characterize the involvement of NADPH oxidase in allergic asthma by studying the role of CYBA (p22phox) in human asthma and murine house dust mite (HDM)-induced allergic airway inflammation. RESULTS: Increased expression and localisation of p22-PHOX was observed in biopsies of asthmatic patients...
May 16, 2017: Antioxidants & Redox Signaling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28502165/grape-seed-proanthocyanidin-inhibits-mucin-synthesis-and-viral-replication-by-suppression-of-ap-1-and-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-via-p38-mapks-jnk-signaling-pathways-in-respiratory-syncytial-virus-infected-a549-cells
#7
Jin-Woo Lee, Young Il Kim, Chang-Nim Im, Sung Wan Kim, Su Jin Kim, Seoyeon Min, Yong Hoon Joo, Sung-Vin Yim, Namhyun Chung
Airway epithelial cells are often infected by respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), one of the most common causes of asthma, bronchiolitis, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), and pneumonia. During the infection process, excessive mucins aggravate airway inflammation. However, the mechanism underlying RSV-induced airway hyperresponsiveness and inflammation is poorly understood. Furthermore, no reliable vaccines or drugs for antiviral therapy are available. In this study, the effect of the natural compound grape seed proanthocyanidin (GSP) on RSV-infected human airway epithelial cells A549 was evaluated...
May 15, 2017: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28499793/ciprofloxacin-loaded-lipid-core-nanocapsules-as-mucus-penetrating-drug-delivery-system-intended-for-the-treatment-of-bacterial-infections-in-cystic-fibrosis
#8
Afra Torge, Stefanie Wagner, Paula S Chaves, Edilene G Oliveira, Silvia S Guterres, Adriana R Pohlmann, Alexander Titz, Marc Schneider, Ruy C R Beck
Treatment of bacterial airway infections is essential for cystic fibrosis therapy. However, effectiveness of antibacterial treatment is limited as bacteria inside the mucus are protected from antibiotics and immune response. To overcome this biological barrier, ciprofloxacin was loaded into lipid-core nanocapsules (LNC) for high mucus permeability, sustained release, and antibacterial activity. Ciprofloxacin-loaded LNC with a mean size of 180nm showed a by 50% increased drug permeation through mucus. In antibacterial growth assays, the drug in the LNC had similar minimum inhibitory concentrations as the free drug in P...
May 9, 2017: International Journal of Pharmaceutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28499215/numerical-study-on-the-air-conditioning-characteristics-of-the-human-nasal-cavity
#9
Da-Woon Kim, Seung-Kyu Chung, Yang Na
The air-conditioning characteristics of the human nasal cavity were investigated using computational fluid dynamics. The wall layer was modeled as a heat conducting layer consisting of water with constant thickness placed on top of epithelial cells. By assuming constant tissue temperature, prescribed to be 36 (°)C, which is close to the alveolar condition, the proposed wall model yielded a spatially varying surface temperature distribution that is in reasonable agreement with the measurement studies in the literature...
April 30, 2017: Computers in Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28493079/tlr2-regulates-allergic-airway-inflammation-and-autophagy-through-pi3k-akt-signaling-pathway
#10
Xuqin Jiang, Lei Fang, Huimei Wu, Xiaodong Mei, Fang He, Peishan Ding, Rongyu Liu
Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are innate pattern recognition receptors that play a critical role in allergic inflammation, yet their contribution to autophagy in asthma remains poorly defined. Here, we investigate the role of Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2) in phosphoinositide 3-kinases/protein kinase B (PI3K/Akt) pathway-mediated autophagy in ovalbumin-induced airway inflammation in mice. Wild-type (WT) and TLR2-knockout (TLR2(-/-)) C57BL/6 mice were ovalbumin-sensitized and ovalbumin-challenged. In ovalbumin-challenged WT mice, enhanced expression of TLR2 in lung tissue, remarkable inflammatory cell infiltrates, goblet cell hyperplasia, and increased mucus production were observed...
May 10, 2017: Inflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28484598/the-evidence-on-tiotropium-bromide-in-asthma-from-the-rationale-to-the-bedside
#11
REVIEW
Dejan Radovanovic, Pierachille Santus, Francesco Blasi, Marco Mantero
Severe and poorly controlled asthma still accounts for a great portion of the patients affected. Disease control and future risk management have been identified by international guidelines as the main goals in patients with asthma. The need for new treatment approaches has led to reconsider anticholinergic drugs as an option for asthma treatment. Tiotropium is the first anticholinergic drug that has been approved for children and adults with poorly controlled asthma and is currently considered as an option for steps 4 and 5 of the Global Initiative for Asthma...
2017: Multidisciplinary Respiratory Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28481660/spx-101-is-a-novel-enac-targeted-therapeutic-for-cystic-fibrosis-that-restores-mucus-transport
#12
David W Scott, Matthew P Walker, Juliana Sesma, Bryant Wu, Timothy J Stuhlmiller, Juan R Sabater, William M Abraham, Timothy M Crowder, Dale J Christensen, Robert Tarran
RATIONALE: Cystic Fibrosis lung disease (CF) is caused by the loss of function of the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) combined with hyperactivation of the epithelial sodium channel (ENaC). In the lung, ENaC is responsible for movement of sodium which creates an osmotic gradient that pulls fluid out of the airway. Hyperactivation of ENaC contributes to reduced airway hydration causing mucus dehydration, decreased mucociliary clearance, and chronic bacterial infections...
May 8, 2017: American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28476309/bombesin-receptor-activated-protein-regulates-neutrophil-elastase-induced-mucin-5ac-hypersecretion-in-human-bronchial-epithelial-cells
#13
Qing Xu, Ling-Xiu Chen, Dan-Hua Ran, Wen-Yue Xie, Xiang-Dong Zhou
Bombesin receptor-activated protein (BRAP) is highly expressed in human bronchial epithelial cells. Recent studies have shown that BRAP reduces oxidative stress, inhibits airway inflammation and suppresses nuclear factor kappaB (NF-κB) activity. Mucus overproduction is an important feature in patients with chronic inflammatory airway diseases. Neutrophil elastase (NE) is a potent inducer of mucin5AC (MUC5AC), which is considered the predominant mucin secreted by human airway epithelial cells. Here, we hypothesize that BRAP may regulate NE-induced MUC5AC hypersecretion in a bronchial epithelial cell line (HBE16)...
May 2, 2017: Experimental Cell Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28474108/the-immunotherapeutic-role-of-bacterial-lysates-in-a-mouse-model-of-asthma
#14
Chentao Liu, Rong Huang, Rujie Yao, Aimei Yang
INTRODUCTION: Asthma is the most common chronic lower respiratory disease in childhood throughout the world. Recurrent respiratory tract infections in young children, especially viral infections, are the major cause of acute asthmatic exacerbations and contribute to development of asthma. Bacterial extracts have been used to improve the immune defenses of the respiratory tract. However, seldom studies have examined the effect of bacterial lysates on childhood asthma. In this study, we examined whether bacterial lysates (OM-85) will improve symptoms of asthmatic mice via modulation of the immune response...
May 4, 2017: Lung
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28471492/oscillating-devices-for-airway-clearance-in-people-with-cystic-fibrosis
#15
REVIEW
Lisa Morrison, Stephanie Innes
BACKGROUND: Chest physiotherapy is widely prescribed to assist the clearance of airway secretions in people with cystic fibrosis. Oscillating devices generate intra- or extra-thoracic oscillations orally or external to the chest wall. Internally they create variable resistances within the airways, generating controlled oscillating positive pressure which mobilises mucus. Extra-thoracic oscillations are generated by forces outside the respiratory system, e.g. high frequency chest wall oscillation...
May 4, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28470140/temporal-structure-function-variation-in-cultured-differentiated-human-nasal-epithelium-associated-with-acute-single-exposure-to-tobacco-smoke-or-e-cigarette-vapor
#16
Johnny L Carson, Laura Zhou, Luisa Brighton, Katherine H Mills, Haibo Zhou, Ilona Jaspers, Milan Hazucha
OBJECTIVE: Mucociliary clearance sustains a baseline functionality and an "on demand" capability to upregulate clearance upon irritant exposure involving mucus hypersecretion and accelerated ciliary beat frequency (CBF) modulated by nitric oxide (NO). This study characterized these elements as well as cellular and exogenous NO concentrations subsequent to a single exposure to tobacco smoke (TS) or e-cigarette vapor (EV) on cultured human airway epithelium. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Air-liquid interface (ALI) airway epithelial cultures per nonsmoking human subjects were subjected to single TS or EV exposures...
February 2017: Inhalation Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28460526/cationic-camkii-inhibiting-nanoparticles-prevent-allergic-asthma
#17
Angie S Morris, Sara C Sebag, John D Paschke, Amaraporn Wongrakpanich, Kareem Ebeid, Mark E Anderson, Isabella M Grumbach, Aliasger K Salem
Asthma is a common lung disease affecting over 300 million people worldwide and is associated with increased reactive oxygen species (ROS), eosinophilic airway inflammation, bronchoconstriction and mucus production. Targeting of novel therapeutic agents to the lungs of patients with asthma may improve efficacy of treatments and minimize side effects. We previously demonstrated that Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase (CaMKII) is expressed and activated in the bronchial epithelium of asthmatic patients...
May 1, 2017: Molecular Pharmaceutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28450970/aberrant-dna-methylation-and-expression-of-spdef-and-foxa2-in-airway-epithelium-of-patients-with-copd
#18
J Song, I H Heijink, L E M Kistemaker, M Reinders-Luinge, W Kooistra, J A Noordhoek, R Gosens, C A Brandsma, W Timens, P S Hiemstra, M G Rots, M N Hylkema
BACKGROUND: Goblet cell metaplasia, a common feature of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), is associated with mucus hypersecretion which contributes to the morbidity and mortality among patients. Transcription factors SAM-pointed domain-containing Ets-like factor (SPDEF) and forkhead box protein A2 (FOXA2) regulate goblet cell differentiation. This study aimed to (1) investigate DNA methylation and expression of SPDEF and FOXA2 during goblet cell differentiation and (2) compare this in airway epithelial cells from patients with COPD and controls during mucociliary differentiation...
2017: Clinical Epigenetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28448981/safety-and-efficacy-of-a-fully-covered-self-expandable-metallic-stent-in-benign-airway-stenosis
#19
Marc Fortin, Yves Lacasse, Xavier Elharrar, Rachid Tazi-Mezalek, Sophie Laroumagne, Julien Guinde, Philippe Astoul, Hervé Dutau
BACKGROUND: The use of self-expandable metallic stents (SEMS) in benign airway disease was the object of a boxed warning from the United States Food and Drug Administration in 2005 due to the risk of stent-related complications and difficulties associated with their removal. Third-generation fully covered SEMS have been commercialized since this warning and theoretically should not present the same difficulties associated with removal as they cannot become embedded in the airway mucosa...
2017: Respiration; International Review of Thoracic Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28444395/effects-of-n-acetyl-l-cysteine-on-the-membrane-vesicle-release-and-growth-of-respiratory-pathogens
#20
Charlotte Volgers, Birke J Benedikter, Gert E Grauls, Pauline H M Hellebrand, Paul H M Savelkoul, Frank R M Stassen
Bacterial infections contribute to the disease progression of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease by stimulating mucus production in the airways. This increased mucus production and other symptoms are often alleviated when patients are treated with mucolytics such as N-acetyl-L-cysteine (NAC). Moreover, NAC has been suggested to inhibit bacterial growth. Bacteria can release membrane vesicles (MVs) in response to stress, and recent studies report a role for these proinflammatory MVs in the pathogenesis of airways disease...
May 1, 2017: FEMS Microbiology Letters
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