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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28332107/mechanisms-driving-gender-differences-in-asthma
#1
REVIEW
Hubaida Fuseini, Dawn C Newcomb
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Many phenotypes of asthma exist, ranging from mild asthma with onset during childhood to severe asthma with later onset, making asthma a broad disease with different pathologies. A gender disparity exists in asthma prevalence. As adults, women have an increased asthma prevalence compared to men. Further, women are more likely to have severe asthma and a later onset of asthma compared to men. Here, we review clinical and animal studies that have defined the role of sex hormones in airway inflammation, smooth muscle contraction, mucus production, and airway mechanics associated with asthma pathogenesis...
March 2017: Current Allergy and Asthma Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28327162/biological-effects-of-carbon-black-nanoparticles-are-changed-by-surface-coating-with-polycyclic-aromatic-hydrocarbons
#2
Karina Lindner, Michael Ströbele, Sandra Schlick, Sina Webering, André Jenckel, Johannes Kopf, Olga Danov, Katherina Sewald, Christian Buj, Otto Creutzenberg, Thomas Tillmann, Gerhard Pohlmann, Heinrich Ernst, Christina Ziemann, Gereon Hüttmann, Holger Heine, Henning Bockhorn, Tanja Hansen, Peter König, Heinz Fehrenbach
BACKGROUND: Carbon black nanoparticles (CBNP) are mainly composed of carbon, with a small amount of other elements (including hydrogen and oxygen). The toxicity of CBNP has been attributed to their large surface area, and through adsorbing intrinsically toxic substances, such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH). It is not clear whether a PAH surface coating changes the toxicological properties of CBNP by influencing their physicochemical properties, through the specific toxicity of the surface-bound PAH, or by a combination of both...
March 21, 2017: Particle and Fibre Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323735/covered-balloon-expanding-stents-in-airway-stenosis
#3
Adnan Majid, Fayez Kheir, Jey Chung, Daniel Alape, Bryan Husta, Scott Oh, Erik Folch
BACKGROUND: The balloon-expanding stents are widely available but rarely described for use within the tracheobronchial tree. This report describes our experience with these stents in airway stenosis particularly as a lobar salvage therapy. METHODS: This was a retrospective review of all records in which the balloon-expanding stents were used at a tertiary medical center. Ages, sex, location of stenosis, etiology of stenosis, stent size, duration of stent placement and associated interventions for airway stenosis were recorded...
April 2017: Journal of Bronchology & Interventional Pulmonology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28322599/dissolvit-an-in-vitro-method-for-simulating-the-dissolution-and-absorption-of-inhaled-dry-powder-drugs-in-the-lungs
#4
Per Gerde, Maria Malmlöf, Lina Havsborn, Carl-Olof Sjöberg, Pär Ewing, Stefan Eirefelt, Katarina Ekelund
The main purpose of this work was to develop an in vitro method for simulating the dissolution and absorption of inhaled dry powder drugs that also mimics systemic pharmacokinetic data. A second purpose was to evaluate this method. DissolvIt(®) was developed as a simulation of the air-blood barrier of the upper airways, constituting: "airborne" particles deposited on a glass cover slip, a mucus simulant, a polycarbonate (basal) membrane, and a pumped albumin buffer simulating the pulmonary blood flow. The PreciseInhale(®) exposure system was used to aerosolize and deposit test formulations onto cover slips...
February 2017: Assay and Drug Development Technologies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28299285/a-genetic-screen-reveals-novel-targets-to-render-pseudomonas-aeruginosa-sensitive-to-lysozyme-and-cell-wall-targeting-antibiotics
#5
Kang-Mu Lee, Keehoon Lee, Junhyeok Go, In Ho Park, Jeon-Soo Shin, Jae Young Choi, Hyun Jik Kim, Sang Sun Yoon
Pseudomonas aeruginosa is capable of establishing airway infections. Human airway mucus contains a large amount of lysozyme, which hydrolyzes bacterial cell walls. P. aeruginosa, however, is known to be resistant to lysozyme. Here, we performed a genetic screen using a mutant library of PAO1, a prototype P. aeruginosa strain, and identified two mutants (ΔbamB and ΔfabY) that exhibited decrease in survival after lysozyme treatment. The bamB and fabY genes encode an outer membrane assembly protein and a fatty acid synthesis enzyme, respectively...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28282577/therapeutic-efficacy-of-a-co-blockade-of-il-13-and-il-25-on-airway-inflammation-and-remodeling-in-a-mouse-model-of-asthma
#6
Fang-Qi Zhang, Xin-Peng Han, Fang Zhang, Xuan Ma, Dong Xiang, Xue-Min Yang, Hai-Feng Ou-Yang, Zhikui Li
Repeated airway inflammation and unremitting remodeling provoke irreversible pulmonary dysfunction and resistance to current drugs in patients with chronic bronchial asthma. Interleukin (IL)-13 and IL-25 play an important role in airway inflammation and remodeling in asthma. We aimed to investigate whether co-inhibiting IL-13 and IL-25 can effectively down-regulate allergen-induced airway inflammation and remodeling in mice. Mice with asthma induced by chronic exposure to ovalbumin (OVA) were given soluble IL-13 receptor α2 (sIL-13R) or soluble IL-25 receptor (sIL-25R) protein alone and in combination to neutralize the bioactivity of IL-13 and IL-25, and relevant airway inflammation and remodeling experiments were performed...
March 7, 2017: International Immunopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28277892/development-of-optimized-inhalable-gemcitabine-loaded-gelatin-nanocarriers-for-lung-cancer
#7
Susanne R Youngren-Ortiz, David B Hill, Peter R Hoffmann, Kenneth R Morris, Edward G Barrett, M Gregory Forest, Mahavir B Chougule
BACKGROUND: Aerosol delivery of chemotherapeutic nanocarriers represents a promising alternative for lung cancer therapy. This study optimized gemcitabine (Gem)-loaded gelatin nanocarriers (GNCs) cross-linked with genipin (Gem-GNCs) to evaluate their potential for nebulized lung cancer treatment. METHODS: Gem-GNCs were prepared by two-step desolvation and optimized through Taguchi design and characterized for physicochemical properties. Particle size and morphology were confirmed by scanning and transmission electron microscopy...
March 9, 2017: Journal of Aerosol Medicine and Pulmonary Drug Delivery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28275141/cutting-edge-targeting-epithelial-ormdl3-increases-rather-than-reduces-airway-responsiveness-and-is-associated-with-increased-sphingosine-1-phosphate
#8
Marina Miller, Arvin B Tam, James L Mueller, Peter Rosenthal, Andrew Beppu, Ruth Gordillo, Matthew D McGeough, Christine Vuong, Taylor A Doherty, Hal M Hoffman, Maho Niwa, David H Broide
In this study, we used cre-lox techniques to generate mice selectively deficient in ORMDL3 in airway epithelium (Ormdl3(Δ2-3/Δ2-3)/CC10) to simulate an inhaled therapy that effectively inhibited ORMDL3 expression in the airway. In contrast to the anticipated reduction in airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR), OVA allergen-challenged Ormdl3(Δ2-3/Δ2-3)/CC10 mice had a significant increase in AHR compared with wild-type mice. Levels of airway inflammation, mucus, fibrosis, and airway smooth muscle were no different in Ormdl3(Δ2-3/Δ2-3)/CC10 and wild-type mice...
March 8, 2017: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28263381/obesity-promotes-prolonged-ovalbumin-induced-airway-inflammation-modulating-th1-th2-and-th17-immune-responses-in-balb-c-mice
#9
F M C Silva, E E Oliveira, A C C Gouveia, A S S Brugiolo, C C Alves, J O A Correa, J Gameiro, J Mattes, H C Teixeira, A P Ferreira
Clinical and epidemiological studies indicate that obesity affects the development and phenotype of asthma by inducing inflammatory mechanisms in addition to eosinophilic inflammation. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of obesity on allergic airway inflammation and T helper 2 (Th2) immune responses using an experimental model of asthma in BALB/c mice. Mice fed a high-fat diet (HFD) for 10 weeks were sensitized and challenged with ovalbumin (OVA), and analysis were performed at 24 and 48 hours after the last OVA challenge...
March 6, 2017: Clinical and Experimental Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28254026/the-fate-of-inhaled-antibiotics-after-deposition-in-cystic-fibrosis-how-to-get-drug-to-the-bug
#10
REVIEW
Aukje C Bos, Kimberly M Passé, Johan W Mouton, Hettie M Janssens, Harm A W M Tiddens
BACKGROUND: Chronic airway infections in patients with cystic fibrosis (CF) are most often treated with inhaled antibiotics of which deposition patterns have been extensively studied. However, the journey of aerosol particles does not end after deposition within the bronchial tree. OBJECTIVES: To review how local conditions affect the clinical efficacy of antibiotic aerosol particles after deposition in the airways of patients with CF. METHODS: Electronic databases were searched from inception to September 2015...
January 2017: Journal of Cystic Fibrosis: Official Journal of the European Cystic Fibrosis Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28247814/sputum-collection-and-analysis-what-the-nurse-needs-to-know
#11
Rebecca Myatt
Rationale and key points Sputum is the term used to describe mucus that has been expectorated. It consists of secretions and other matter that has been coughed up from the lungs and large airways. This article informs nurses about how and why sputum collection and analysis are undertaken. » Sputum is always considered abnormal, because healthy people swallow bronchial secretions. » Sputum analysis is important, because it enables diagnosis of conditions such as pneumonia, tuberculosis, lung abscess and lung cancer...
March 1, 2017: Nursing Standard
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28238295/use-of-intranasal-corticosteroids-in-adenotonsillar-hypertrophy
#12
E U Sakarya, N Bayar Muluk, E G Sakalar, M Senturk, M Aricigil, S A Bafaqeeh, C Cingi
OBJECTIVES: This review examined the efficacy of intranasal corticosteroids for improving adenotonsillar hypertrophy. METHOD: The related literature was searched using PubMed and Proquest Central databases. RESULTS: Adenotonsillar hypertrophy causes mouth breathing, nasal congestion, hyponasal speech, snoring, obstructive sleep apnoea, chronic sinusitis and recurrent otitis media. Adenoidal hypertrophy results in the obstruction of nasal passages and Eustachian tubes, and blocks the clearance of nasal mucus...
February 27, 2017: Journal of Laryngology and Otology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28235993/a-novel-two-step-sequential-bioaccessibility-test-for-potentially-toxic-elements-in-inhaled-particulate-matter-transported-into-the-gastrointestinal-tract-by-mucociliary-clearance
#13
Jawad Ali Hussein Alpofead, Christine M Davidson, David Littlejohn
A novel two-step sequential extraction has been developed to assess the bioaccessibility of As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb and Zn in airborne particulate matter following inhalation and transport into the human gastrointestinal tract by mucociliary clearance. A new artificial mucus fluid (AMF) was used to determine the bioaccessible potentially toxic element (PTE) fraction in the upper airways, in sequence with the simplified bioaccessibility extraction test (SBET) or the stomach phase of the unified bioaccessibility method (gastric fluid only) (UBMG)...
February 24, 2017: Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28231307/differential-regulation-of-c5a-receptor-1-in-innate-immune-cells-during-the-allergic-asthma-effector-phase
#14
Fanny Ender, Anna V Wiese, Inken Schmudde, Jing Sun, Tillman Vollbrandt, Peter König, Yves Laumonnier, Jörg Köhl
C5a drives airway constriction and inflammation during the effector phase of allergic asthma, mainly through the activation of C5a receptor 1 (C5aR1). Yet, C5aR1 expression on myeloid and lymphoid cells during the allergic effector phase is ill-defined. Recently, we generated and characterized a floxed green fluorescent protein (GFP)-C5aR1 knock-in mouse. Here, we used this reporter strain to monitor C5aR1 expression in airway, pulmonary and lymph node cells during the effector phase of OVA-driven allergic asthma...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28225024/rheb1-deletion-in-myeloid-cells-aggravates-ova-induced-allergic-inflammation-in-mice
#15
Kai Li, Yue Zhang, Kang Yan Liang, Song Xu, Xue Juan Zhou, Kang Tan, Jun Lin, Xiao Chun Bai, Cui Lan Yang
The small GTPase ras homolog enriched in brain (Rheb) is a downstream target of tuberous sclerosis complex 1/2 (TSC1/2) and an upstream activator of the mechanistic target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1), the emerging essential modulator of M1/M2 balance in macrophages. However, the role and regulatory mechanisms of Rheb in macrophage polarization and allergic asthma are not known. In the present study, we utilized a mouse model with myeloid cell-specific deletion of the Rheb1 gene and an ovalbumin (OVA)-induced allergic asthma model to investigate the role of Rheb1 in allergic asthma and macrophage polarization...
February 22, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28224996/intelectin-contributes-to-allergen-induced-il-25-il-33-and-tslp-expression-and-type-2-response-in-asthma-and-atopic-dermatitis
#16
L Yi, D Cheng, K Zhang, X Huo, Y Mo, H Shi, H Di, Y Zou, H Zhang, J Zhao, Y Xu, D J Erle, G Zhen
The epithelial and epidermal innate cytokines IL-25, IL-33, and thymic stromal lymphopoietin (TSLP) have pivotal roles in the initiation of allergic inflammation in asthma and atopic dermatitis (AD). However, the mechanism by which the expression of these innate cytokines is regulated remains unclear. Intelectin (ITLN) is expressed in airway epithelial cells and promotes allergic airway inflammation. We hypothesized that ITLN is required for allergen-induced IL-25, IL-33, and TSLP expression. In two asthma models, Itln knockdown reduced allergen-induced increases in Il-25, Il-33, and Tslp and development of type 2 response, eosinophilic inflammation, mucus overproduction, and airway hyperresponsiveness...
February 22, 2017: Mucosal Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28223466/short-term-effect-of-autogenic-drainage-on-ventilation-inhomogeneity-in-adult-subjects-with-stable-non-cystic-fibrosis-bronchiectasis
#17
William Poncin, Grégory Reychler, Noémie Leeuwerck, Nathalie Bauwens, Anne-Sophie Aubriot, Candice Nader, Giuseppe Liistro, Sophie Gohy
BACKGROUND: Lung clearance index (LCI), a measure of ventilation inhomogeneity derived from a multiple-breath washout test, is a promising tool for assessing airway function in patients with non-cystic fibrosis bronchiectasis. However, it is unknown whether ventilation inhomogeneity could improve after successful elimination of excessive secretions within bronchiectasis. The objective of this work was to assess the short-term effects of lung secretion clearance using the autogenic drainage technique on standard lung function tests and LCI in subjects with non-cystic fibrosis bronchiectasis...
February 21, 2017: Respiratory Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28223396/personalising-airway-clearance-in-chronic-lung-disease
#18
REVIEW
Maggie McIlwaine, Judy Bradley, J Stuart Elborn, Fidelma Moran
This review describes a framework for providing a personalised approach to selecting the most appropriate airway clearance technique (ACT) for each patient. It is based on a synthesis of the physiological evidence that supports the modulation of ventilation and expiratory airflow as a means of assisting airway clearance. Possession of a strong understanding of the physiological basis for ACTs will enable clinicians to decide which ACT best aligns with the individual patient's pathology in diseases with anatomical bronchiectasis and mucus hypersecretion...
January 2017: European Respiratory Review: An Official Journal of the European Respiratory Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28216876/wheatgrass-extract-ameliorates-hypoxia-induced-mucin-gene-expression-in-a549-cells
#19
Ju Hwan Sim, Moon-Hee Choi, Hyun-Jae Shin, Ji-Eun Lee
BACKGROUND: Wheatgrass is known to have antioxidant, antiaging, and anti-inflammatory effect. However, its protective effect against hypoxia is not yet evaluated. OBJECTIVE: In this study, we evaluated the protective and anti-inflammatory effect of wheatgrass against the hypoxia in airway epithelial cells. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A549 human lung adenocarcinoma cells were incubated in a hypoxic condition (CO2 5%/O2 1%) for 24 hr in the presence of different concentration of wheatgrass 50, 75, 100, and 150 μg/mL, and the magnitude of each immunologic response produced by the A549 cells was compared...
January 2017: Pharmacognosy Magazine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28207927/attenuated-airway-hyperresponsiveness-and-mucus-secretion-in-hdm-exposed-igf1r-deficient-mice
#20
S Piñeiro-Hermida, J A Gregory, I P López, R Torrens, C Ruíz-Martínez, M Adner, J G Pichel
BACKGROUND: Asthma is a common chronic lung disease characterized by airflow obstruction, airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR) and inflammation. IGFs have been reported to play a role in asthma but little is known about how the Insulin-like Growth Factor 1 Receptor (IGF1R) affects asthma pathobiology. METHODS: Female Igf1r-deficient and control mice were intranasally challenged with house dust mite (HDM) extract or PBS five days per week for four weeks. Lung function measurements, and bronchioalveolar lavage fluid (BALF), serum and lungs were collected on day 28 for further cellular, histological and molecular analysis...
February 16, 2017: Allergy
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