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Hyperglycemia neonate

Katherine M Satrom, Kathleen Ennis, Brian M Sweis, Tatyana M Matveeva, Jun Chen, Leif Hanson, Akhil Maheshwari, Raghavendra Rao
BACKGROUND: Hyperglycemia is common in extremely low gestational age newborns (ELGAN) and is associated with increased mortality and morbidity, including abnormal neurodevelopment. Hippocampus-mediated cognitive deficits are common in this population, but the specific effects of hyperglycemia on the developing hippocampus are not known. METHODS: The objective of this study was to determine the acute and long-term effects of hyperglycemia on the developing hippocampus in neonatal rats using a streptozotocin (STZ)-induced model of hyperglycemia...
March 15, 2018: Journal of Neuroinflammation
Raghavendra Rao, Motaz Nashawaty, Saher Fatima, Kathleen Ennis, Ivan Tkac
Hyperglycemia (blood glucose concentration >150 mg/dL) is common in extremely low gestational age newborns (ELGANs; birth at <28 week gestation). Hyperglycemia increases the risk of brain injury in the neonatal period. The long-term effects are not well understood. In adult rats, hyperglycemia alters hippocampal energy metabolism. The effects of hyperglycemia on the developing hippocampus were studied in rat pups. In Experiment 1, recurrent hyperglycemia of graded severity (moderate hyperglycemia (moderate-HG), mean blood glucose 214...
March 13, 2018: NMR in Biomedicine
Asanka Jayawardane, Malitha Patabendige, Dulani Samaranayake, Medini Boteju, Shamalka Dahanayake, Ruvini Perera, Sumudu Jayasinghe, Dakshila Galappatti, C N Wijeyaratne
AIM: To study case mix, risk factors, adverse outcomes and associations of hyperglycemia in pregnancy in a cohort of Sri Lankans. METHODS: Prospective observational study, from April 2011-October 2015 at a tertiary care referral center, Colombo, Sri Lanka. Data from first trimester to delivery of HIP was analyzed. Three subgroups were defined: Diabetes in pregnancy (DIP), Hyperglycemia in early Pregnancy (HIEP) [<24 weeks] and Gestational diabetes (GDM) [>24 weeks]...
March 8, 2018: Diabetes Research and Clinical Practice
Olga Vajnerova, Petr Kafka, Tereza Kratzerova, Karel Chalupsky, Vaclav Hampl
INTRODUCTION: Diabetes is a well-known risk factor in pregnancy. Because maternal diabetes involves oxidative stress that is also induced by chronic hypoxia and can alter vascular function, we sought to determine the effects of chronic maternal hyperglycemia on the fetoplacental vasculature in rats and to compare it with the effects of chronic hypoxia. METHODS: Diabetes was induced in female rats by a streptozotocin injection at a neonatal age. When these animals reached adulthood, their hyperglycemia was confirmed and they were inseminated...
March 2018: Placenta
A-S Maryns, I Dehaene, G Page
Background: Our aim was to evaluate the treatment effect of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) according to the Hyperglycemia and Adverse Pregnancy Outcome group (HAPO) screening. Results: The prevalence of GDM, using HAPO 5 was 23.8%. Of these, 72.8% were treated. Comparison of outcomes between treated and untreated patients showed no differences. The prevalence of GDM according to HAPO 4 criteria was 16.9%. In the untreated group, there were more cases of (pre)eclampsia (P=0...
September 2017: Facts, Views & Vision in ObGyn
Paulino Barragán-Iglesias, Víctor Hugo Oidor-Chan, Emanuel Loeza-Alcocer, Jorge Baruch Pineda-Farias, Isabel Velazquez-Lagunas, Ana Belen Salinas-Abarca, Enrique Hong, Alicia Sánchez-Mendoza, Rodolfo Delgado-Lezama, Theodore J Price, Vinicio Granados-Soto
BACKGROUND: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the participation of satellite glial cells (SGC), microglia and astrocytes in a model of streptozotocin-induced diabetes initiated in neonatal rats (nSTZ) and to determine the pharmacological profile for pain relief. METHODS: nSTZ was used to induce experimental diabetes. Von Frey filaments were used to assess tactile allodynia. Drugs were given by systemic administration. Western blotting and immunohistochemistry were used to determine protein expression and cellular localization...
September 14, 2017: Pharmacological Reports: PR
Doris Lam, Zeinab Momeni, Michael Theaker, Santosh Jagadeeshan, Yasuhiko Yamamoto, Juan P Ianowski, Verónica A Campanucci
Diabetes mellitus is associated with sensory abnormalities, including exacerbated responses to painful (hyperalgesia) or non-painful (allodynia) stimuli. These abnormalities are symptoms of diabetic peripheral neuropathy (DPN), which is the most common complication that affects approximately 50% of diabetic patients. Yet, the underlying mechanisms linking hyperglycemia and symptoms of DPN remain poorly understood. The transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) channel plays a central role in such sensory abnormalities and shows elevated expression levels in animal models of diabetes...
2018: PloS One
Rebecca Sullivan, Rebecca McGirr, Shirley Hu, Alice Tan, Derek Wu, Carlie Charron, Tyler Lalonde, Edith Arany, Subrata Chakrabarti, Leonard Luyt, Savita Dhanvantari
Ghrelin and its receptor, the growth hormone secretagogue receptor 1a (GHSR1a), are present in cardiac tissue. Activation of GHSR1a by ghrelin promotes cardiomyocyte contractility and survival, and changes in myocardial GHSR1a and circulating ghrelin track with end-stage heart failure, leading to the hypothesis that GHSR1a is a biomarker for heart failure. We hypothesized that GHSR1a could also be a biomarker for diabetic cardiomyopathy (DCM). We used two models of streptozotocin (STZ)-induced DCM: group 1, adult mice treated with 35 mg/kg STZ for 3 days; and group 2, neonatal mice treated with 70 mg/kg STZ at days 2 and 5 after birth...
February 1, 2018: Journal of the Endocrine Society
Felipe Pollak C, Marcela Lagos L, José L Santos M, Helena Poggi, Abraham Urzúa C, Hana Rumié C
Maturity-Onset Diabetes of the Young (MODY) refers to a heterogeneous group of monogenic diabetes. Unlike other types of MODY characterized by genetic defects in transcription factors, MODY 2 is triggered by metabolic alterations caused by mutations of glucokinase (GCK), the first enzyme of the glycolytic pathway. We report a three-generation Chilean family with multiple cases affected with this disease. The index case is a patient who presented severe neonatal hyperglycemia (831 mg/dl, without ketosis) requiring continuous infusion of insulin, which was suspended after 48 hours with normalization of blood glucose...
September 2017: Revista Médica de Chile
Michelle Blanco Lemelman, Lisa Letourneau, Siri Atma W Greeley
Neonatal diabetes mellitus is likely to be due to an underlying monogenic defect when it occurs at less than 6 months of age. Early recognition and urgent genetic testing are important for predicting the clinical course and raising awareness of possible additional features. Early treatment of sulfonylurea-responsive types of neonatal diabetes may improve neurologic outcomes. It is important to distinguish neonatal diabetes mellitus from other causes of hyperglycemia in newborns. Other causes include infection, stress, inadequate pancreatic insulin production in preterm infants, among others...
March 2018: Clinics in Perinatology
Emilio Herrera, Henar Ortega-Senovilla
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Maternal lipid metabolism greatly changes during pregnancy and we review in this article how they influence fetal adiposity and growth under non-diabetic and gestational diabetic conditions. RECENT FINDINGS: In pregnant women without diabetes (control), maternal glycemia correlates with neonatal glycemia, neonatal body weight and fat mass. In pregnant women with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM), maternal glucose correlates with neither neonatal glycemia, neonatal birth weight nor fat mass, but maternal triacylglycerols (TAG), non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA) and glycerol do correlate with birth weight and neonatal adiposity...
February 5, 2018: Current Diabetes Reports
Xiaoting Li, Lu Yu, Jing Gao, Xukun Bi, Juhong Zhang, Shiming Xu, Meihui Wang, Mengmeng Chen, Fuyu Qiu, Guosheng Fu
Diabetes Mellitus is a common disorder, with increasing risk of cardiac arrhythmias. Studies have shown that altered connexin expression and gap junction remodeling under hyperglycemia contribute to the high prevalence of cardiac arrhythmias and even sudden death. Connexin 43 (Cx43), a major protein that assembles to form cardiac gap junctions, has been found to be downregulated under high glucose conditions, along with inhibition of gap junctional intercellular communication (GJIC). While, apelin, a beneficial adipokine, increases Cx43 protein expression in mouse and human embryonic stem cells during cardiac differentiation...
February 2018: Aging and Disease
Hülya Özdemir, Aslı Memişoğlu, Zeynep Alp-Unkar, Baran Arcagök, Hülya Bilgen, Serap Turan, Eren Özek
Özdemir H, Memişoğlu A, Alp-Unkar Z, Arcagök B, Bilgen H, Turan S, Özek E. Persistent hyperglycemia in a neonate: Is it a complication of therapeutic hypothermia? Turk J Pediatr 2017; 59: 193-196. The aim of this report is to present a newborn with persistent hyperglycemia requiring insulin therapy as a possible complication of therapeutic hypothermia. A term appropriate for gestational age (AGA) female infant, was born by emergency cesarean section due to abruption of placenta and was resuscitated and intubated in the delivery room...
2017: Turkish Journal of Pediatrics
Andrea Pereira Rosa, Caroline Paula Mescka, Felipe Maciel Catarino, Alexandre Luz de Castro, Rayane Brinck Teixeira, Cristina Campos, Guilherme Baldo, Débora Dalmas Graf, Angela de Mattos-Dutra, Carlos Severo Dutra-Filho, Alex Sander da Rosa Araujo
Several studies have examined neonatal diabetes, a rare disease characterized by hyperglycemia and low insulin levels that is usually diagnosed in the first 6 month of life. Recently, the effects of diabetes on the brain have received considerable attention. In addition, hyperglycemia may perturb brain function and might be associated with neuronal death in adult rats. However, few studies have investigated the damaging effects of neonatal hyperglycemia on the rat brain during central nervous system (CNS) development, particularly the mechanisms involved in the disease...
December 19, 2017: Metabolic Brain Disease
Y N Paudel, M R Ali, S Bawa, S Shah, M Adil, A Siddiqui, A S Basheer, M Q Hassan, M Sharma
4-Methyl-2-[(2-methylbenzyl) amino]-1,3-thiazole-5-carboxylic acid (bioactive compound (BAC)), a novel thiazole derivative, is a xanthine oxidase inhibitor and free radical scavenging agent. Effects of BAC on hyperglycemia, insulin sensitivity, oxidative stress, and inflammatory mediators were evaluated in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced neonatal models of non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM) rats where NIDDM was induced in neonatal pups with single intraperitoneal injection of STZ (100 mg/kg). The effect of BAC (10 and 20 mg/kg, p...
January 1, 2017: Human & Experimental Toxicology
Aslihan Kara, Metin Kaya Gurgoze, Mustafa Aydin, Erdal Taskin, Unal Bakal, Aysen Orman
BACKGROUND: The aim of present study was to evaluate the indications, complications and outcomes of acute peritoneal dialysis (APD) in neonates at a referral university hospital during the previous 8 years. METHODS: This retrospective analysis included a total of 52 newborn infants who underwent APD in a neonatal intensive care unit between January 2008 and March 2016. Demographic, clinical, laboratory and microbiological data were extracted from patients' medical files...
November 16, 2017: Pediatrics and Neonatology
Anna Catherine Tottman, Jane Marie Alsweiler, Frank Harry Bloomfield, Greg Gamble, Yannan Jiang, Myra Leung, Tanya Poppe, Benjamin Thompson, Trecia Ann Wouldes, Jane Elizabeth Harding
OBJECTIVE: To determine whether tight glycemic control of neonatal hyperglycemia changes neurodevelopment, growth, and metabolism at school age. STUDY DESIGN: Children born very low birth weight and randomized as hyperglycemic neonates to a trial of tight vs standard glycemic control were assessed at 7 years corrected age, including Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children Fourth Edition, Movement Assessment Battery for Children 2, visual and neurologic examinations, growth measures, dual X-ray absorptiometry, and frequently sampled intravenous glucose tolerance test...
February 2018: Journal of Pediatrics
Zhongjie Fu, Chatarina A Löfqvist, Raffael Liegl, Zhongxiao Wang, Ye Sun, Yan Gong, Chi-Hsiu Liu, Steven S Meng, Samuel B Burnim, Ivana Arellano, My T Chouinard, Rubi Duran, Alexander Poblete, Steve S Cho, James D Akula, Michael Kinter, David Ley, Ingrid Hansen Pupp, Saswata Talukdar, Ann Hellström, Lois Eh Smith
The neural cells and factors determining normal vascular growth are not well defined even though vision-threatening neovessel growth, a major cause of blindness in retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) (and diabetic retinopathy), is driven by delayed normal vascular growth. We here examined whether hyperglycemia and low adiponectin (APN) levels delayed normal retinal vascularization, driven primarily by dysregulated photoreceptor metabolism. In premature infants, low APN levels correlated with hyperglycemia and delayed retinal vascular formation...
January 2018: EMBO Molecular Medicine
Leticia Bequer, Tahiry Gómez, José L Molina, Alain Álvarez, Claudia Chaviano, Sonia Clapés
The aim of this study was to determine the effect of mild hyperglycemia on metabolism during pregnancy, the maternal reproductive performance, and the characteristics of the offspring in neonatal mild diabetic-induced Wistar rats. The experimental diabetes model was generated by neonatal streptozotocin administration (100 mg of streptozotocin/Kg bw/sc) in female Wistar rats. At adulthood, the control and diabetic group were mated. At the 20th day of gestation, a maternal and fetal blood sample were collected for biochemical measurement...
November 20, 2017: Systems Biology in Reproductive Medicine
Priyanka Khandelwal, Aditi Sinha, Vandana Jain, Jayne Houghton, Pankaj Hari, Arvind Bagga
Fanconi-Bickel syndrome, caused by mutations in SLC2A2 encoding the glucose transporter 2 (GLUT2), is characterized by generalized proximal renal tubular dysfunction manifesting in late infancy. We describe phenotypic heterogeneity of Fanconi-Bickel syndrome in three siblings, including early and atypical presentation with transient neonatal diabetes mellitus in one. The second-born of a non-consanguineous couple, evaluated for polyuria and growth retardation, had rickets, hepatomegaly and proximal tubular dysfunction from 4 to 6  months of age...
November 8, 2017: CEN Case Reports
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