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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821787/analysis-of-spatial-genetic-variation-reveals-genetic-divergence-among-populations-of-primula-veris-associated-to-contrasting-habitats
#1
Pablo Deschepper, Rein Brys, Miguel A Fortuna, Hans Jacquemyn
Genetic divergence by environment is a process whereby selection causes the formation of gene flow barriers between populations adapting to contrasting environments and is often considered to be the onset of speciation. Nevertheless, the extent to which genetic differentiation by environment on small spatial scales can be detected by means of neutral markers is still subject to debate. Previous research on the perennial herb Primula veris has shown that plants from grassland and forest habitats showed pronounced differences in phenology and flower morphology, suggesting limited gene flow between habitats...
August 18, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821734/transcriptional-transitions-in-alphonso-mango-mangifera-indica-l-during-fruit-development-and-ripening-explain-its-distinct-aroma-and-shelf-life-characteristics
#2
Ashish B Deshpande, Krishanpal Anamika, Vineet Jha, Hemangi G Chidley, Pranjali S Oak, Narendra Y Kadoo, Keshav H Pujari, Ashok P Giri, Vidya S Gupta
Alphonso is known as the "King of mangos" due to its unique flavor, attractive color, low fiber pulp and long shelf life. We analyzed the transcriptome of Alphonso mango through Illumina sequencing from seven stages of fruit development and ripening as well as flower. Total transcriptome data from these stages ranged between 65 and 143 Mb. Importantly, 20,755 unique transcripts were annotated and 4,611 were assigned enzyme commission numbers, which encoded 142 biological pathways. These included ethylene and flavor related secondary metabolite biosynthesis pathways, as well as those involved in metabolism of starch, sucrose, amino acids and fatty acids...
August 18, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821152/the-common-lavender-lavandula-angustifolia-mill-pectic-polysaccharides-modulate-phagocytic-leukocytes-and-intestinal-peyer-s-patch-cells
#3
Yordan N Georgiev, Berit S Paulsen, Hiroaki Kiyohara, Milan Ciz, Manol H Ognyanov, Ondrej Vasicek, Frode Rise, Petko N Denev, Haruki Yamada, Antonin Lojek, Vesselin Kussovski, Hilde Barsett, Albert I Krastanov, Irina Z Yanakieva, Maria G Kratchanova
Two pectic (chPS-L1, chPS-L2) and one polyphenolic (chPP-L) fractions were obtained from lavender flowers after boiling water extraction, exhaustive removing of alcohol-soluble molecules and SEC. chPS-L1 (52.4kDa) contains mainly low-acetylated and high-methoxylated homogalacturonans (HG), and smaller rhamnogalacturonan (RG) I backbone fragments rich in 1,3,5-branched arabinan and arabinogalactan (AG) II side chains. chPS-L2 (21.8kDa) contains predominantly similarly esterified HG, followed by RGI with AGII structures and RGII...
October 15, 2017: Carbohydrate Polymers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28819320/genome-wide-identification-and-expression-analysis-of-e2-ubiquitin-conjugating-enzymes-in-tomato
#4
Bhaskar Sharma, Tarun Kumar Bhatt
The ubiquitin-proteasomal degradation mechanism has gained the attention over the past decade. The E2 ubiquitin conjugating enzymes are the crucial part of ubiquitination mechanism and they are believed to hold imperative association for plant development. It accepts ubiquitin from the E1 enzyme and interacts with the E3 ligase to transfer ubiquitin or directly transfers ubiquitin to the substrate. The functional aspects of E2 ubiquitin enzymes in plant systems are unclear. Tomato is being used as a model plant and rarely explored to study E2 ubiquitin enzyme...
August 17, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28819197/mortierella-alpina-cs10e4-an-oleaginous-fungal-endophyte-of-crocus-sativus-l-enhances-apocarotenoid-biosynthesis-and-stress-tolerance-in-the-host-plant
#5
Zahoor Ahmed Wani, Amit Kumar, Phalisteen Sultan, Kushal Bindu, Syed Riyaz-Ul-Hassan, Nasheeman Ashraf
Crocus sativus is the only plant species which produces apocarotenoids like crocin, picrocrocin and safranal in significant amounts. These compounds impart organoleptic properties to saffron (dried stigmas of Crocus flower) making it world's costliest spice. Crocus apocarotenoids have tremendous medicinal properties as well. Effect of endophytes on Crocus apocarotenoid production and the molecular mechanism involved has not been reported so far. Here we studied the effect of an oleaginous fungal endophyte, Mortierella alpina CS10E4 on Crocus growth, apocarotenoid metabolism and tolerance to corm rot disease...
August 17, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28819191/increasing-spring-temperatures-favor-oak-seed-production-in-temperate-areas
#6
Thomas Caignard, Antoine Kremer, Cyril Firmat, Manuel Nicolas, Samuel Venner, Sylvain Delzon
The changes in reproductive phenology (i.e. timing of flowering and fruiting) observed in recent decades demonstrate that tree reproduction has already been altered by climate change. However, understanding the impact of these changes in reproductive success and fitness remains a major challenge for ecologists. We describe here a previously unreported phenomenon: a significant increase in the reproductive effort (seed production) of temperate oaks with increasing spring temperature, observed over the last decade...
August 17, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28818970/dna-replication-coupled-histone-modification-maintains-polycomb-gene-silencing-in-plants
#7
Danhua Jiang, Frédéric Berger
Propagation of patterns of gene expression through the cell cycle requires prompt restoration of epigenetic marks after the twofold dilution caused by DNA replication. Here, we show that the transcriptional repressive mark histone H3 lysine 27 trimethylation (H3K27me3) is restored in replicating plant cells through DNA replication-coupled modification of histone variant H3.1. Plants evolved a mechanism for efficient K27 trimethylation on H3.1, which is essential for inheritance of the silencing memory from mother to daughter cells...
August 17, 2017: Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28818969/distinct-phases-of-polycomb-silencing-to-hold-epigenetic-memory-of-cold-in-arabidopsis
#8
Hongchun Yang, Scott Berry, Tjelvar S G Olsson, Matthew Hartley, Martin Howard, Caroline Dean
Gene silencing by Polycomb complexes is central to eukaryotic development. Cold-induced epigenetic repression of FLOWERING LOCUS C (FLC) in the plant Arabidopsis provides an opportunity to study initiation and maintenance of Polycomb silencing. Here, we show that a subset of Polycomb Repressive Complex 2 factors nucleate silencing in a small region within FLC, locally increasing H3K27me3 levels. This nucleation confers a silenced state that is metastably inherited, with memory held in the local chromatin. Metastable memory is then converted to stable epigenetic silencing through separate Polycomb factors, which spread across the locus after cold to enlarge the domain containing H3K27me3...
August 17, 2017: Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28818860/the-chickpea-early-flowering-1-efl1-locus-is-an-ortholog-of-arabidopsis-elf3
#9
Stephen Ridge, Amit Deokar, Robyn Lee, Ketema Daba, Richard C Macknight, James L Weller, Bunyamin Tar'an
In climates that experience short growing seasons due to drought, heat or end-of-season frost, early flowering is a highly desirable trait for chickpeas. In this study, we mapped, sequenced and characterized Efl1, an ortholog of Arabidopsis ELF3 that confers early flowering in chickpea. In a RIL population derived from a cross between CDC Frontier and ICCV 96029, this gene was mapped to the site of a QTL on Ca5 that explained 59% of flowering time variation under SD. Sequencing of ELF3 in ICCV 96029 revealed an 11-bp deletion in the first exon that was predicted to result in a premature stop codon...
August 17, 2017: Plant Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28818380/molecular-cloning-and-expression-analysis-of-duplicated-polyphenol-oxidase-genes-reveal-their-functional-differentiations-in-sorghum
#10
Song Yan, Sujuan Li, Guowei Zhai, Ping Lu, Hui Deng, Shan Zhu, Renliang Huang, Jianfeng Shao, Yuezhi Tao, Guihua Zou
Polyphenol oxidase (PPO) is believed to play a role in plant growth, reproduction, and resistance to pathogens and pests. PPO causes browning of grains in cereals. In this study, genetic mapping of sorghum grain for phenol color reaction (PHR) was performed using a recombinant inbred line population. Only one locus was detected between SSR markers SM06072 and Xtxp176 on chromosome 6. Two linked orthologous genes (Sb06PPO1 and Sb06PPO2) within the mapped region were discovered and cloned. Transformation experiments using Nipponbare (a PHR negative rice cultivar) showed that Sb06PPO1 from LTR108 and two Sb06PPO2 alleles from both varieties could complement Nipponbare, whereas Sb06PPO1 from 654 could not...
October 2017: Plant Science: An International Journal of Experimental Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28818369/brassinosteroid-and-gibberellin-control-of-seedling-traits-in-maize-zea-mays-l
#11
Songlin Hu, Darlene L Sanchez, Cuiling Wang, Alexander E Lipka, Yanhai Yin, Candice A C Gardner, Thomas Lübberstedt
In this study, we established two doubled haploid (DH) libraries with a total of 207 DH lines. We applied BR and GA inhibitors to all DH lines at seedling stage and measured seedling BR and GA inhibitor responses. Moreover, we evaluated field traits for each DH line (untreated). We conducted genome-wide association studies (GWAS) with 62,049 genome wide SNPs to explore the genetic control of seedling traits by BR and GA. In addition, we correlate seedling stage hormone inhibitor response with field traits. Large variation for BR and GA inhibitor response and field traits was observed across these DH lines...
October 2017: Plant Science: An International Journal of Experimental Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28818038/role-of-the-type-vi-secretion-systems-during-disease-interactions-of-erwinia-amylovora-with-its-plant-host
#12
Tim Kamber, Joël F Pothier, Cosima Pelludat, Fabio Rezzonico, Brion Duffy, Theo H M Smits
BACKGROUND: Type VI secretion systems (T6SS) are widespread among Gram-negative bacteria and have a potential role as essential virulence factors or to maintain symbiotic interactions. Three T6SS gene clusters were identified in the genome of E. amylovora CFBP 1430, of which T6SS-1 and T6SS-3 represent complete T6SS machineries, while T6SS-2 is reduced in its gene content. RESULTS: To assess the contribution of T6SSs to virulence and potential transcriptomic changes of E...
August 17, 2017: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28817728/evaluation-of-reference-genes-for-reverse-transcription-quantitative-real-time-pcr-rt-qpcr-studies-in-silene-vulgaris-considering-the-method-of-cdna-preparation
#13
Pavla Koloušková, James D Stone, Helena Štorchová
Accurate gene expression measurements are essential in studies of both crop and wild plants. Reverse transcription quantitative real-time PCR (RT-qPCR) has become a preferred tool for gene expression estimation. A selection of suitable reference genes for the normalization of transcript levels is an essential prerequisite of accurate RT-qPCR results. We evaluated the expression stability of eight candidate reference genes across roots, leaves, flower buds and pollen of Silene vulgaris (bladder campion), a model plant for the study of gynodioecy...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28817567/accounting-for-biotic-spatial-variability-in-fields-case-of-resistance-screening-against-sunflower-verticillium-wilt
#14
Hélène Missonnier, Alban Jacques, JiSu Bang, Jean Daydé, Virginie Mirleau-Thebaud
In breeding for disease resistance, the magnitude of the genetic response is difficult to appreciate because of environmental stresses that interact with the plant genotype. We discuss herein the fundamental problems in breeding for disease resistance with the aim being to better understand the interactions between plant, pathogen, and spatial patterns. The goal of this study is to fine tune breeding decisions by incorporating spatial patterns of such biotic factors into the definition of disease-occurrence probability...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28816596/expression-profiling-of-development-related-genes-in-rice-plants-ectopically-expressing-attor
#15
Achala Bakshi, Mazahar Moin, Raju Datla, P B Kirti
Expression analysis of genes associated with development at different growth stages such as shoot apical meristem (SAM), root apical meristem (RAM), shoot and root tissues 10 DAG, flowers and grains of two high expression transgenic lines of rice ectopically expressing AtTOR revealed the involvement of AtTOR in transcriptional regulation of these genes. We have observed that in the SAM of these two selected lines, TR-2.24 and TR-15.1, OsFON1 and OsFON4 (orthologs of AtCLV1 and AtCLV3, respectively), OsKNOX2, OsKNOX3 and OsWOX3 became up-regulated...
August 17, 2017: Plant Signaling & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28816593/elucidating-the-role-of-wrky27-in-male-sterility-in-arabidopsis
#16
M Shahid Mukhtar, Xiaoyu Liu, Imre E Somssich
The WRKY proteins belong to a superfamily of TFs that play pivotal roles in responses to a wide range of biotic, abiotic, developmental and physiological cues. Here, we assayed the accumulation of basal WRKY27 transcripts in diverse tissue including root, shoot, leaf and flowers. We demonstrated that plants over-expressing WRKY27 transcript levels exhibit growth aberrations and fertility defects. Scanning electron microscopic data suggest that WRKY27 overexpressor plants exhibit pollen dehiscence defects. Our fluorescein diacetate hydrolysis assay showed that flowers of plants overexpressing WRKY27 display significantly decreased pollen viability...
August 17, 2017: Plant Signaling & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28816359/chrysin-attenuates-progression-of-ovarian-cancer-cells-by-regulating-signaling-cascades-and-mitochondrial-dysfunction
#17
Whasun Lim, Soomin Ryu, Fuller W Bazer, Sung-Man Kim, Gwonhwa Song
Chrysin is mainly found in passion flowers, honey, and propolis acts as a potential therapeutic and preventive agent to inhibit proliferation and invasion of various human cancer cells. Although chrysin has anti-carcinogenic effects in several cancers, little is known about its functional roles in ovarian cancer which shows poor prognosis and chemoresistance to traditional therapeutic agents. In the present study, we investigated functional roles of chrysin in progression of ovarian cancer cells using ES2 and OV90 (clear cell and serous carcinoma, respectively) cell lines...
August 17, 2017: Journal of Cellular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28815698/altered-regulation-of-terminal-flower-1-causes-the-unique-vernalisation-response-in-an-arctic-woodland-strawberry-accession
#18
Elli A Koskela, Takeshi Kurokura, Tuomas Toivainen, Anita Sønsteby, Ola M Heide, Daniel J Sargent, Sachiko Isobe, Laura Jaakola, Hrannar Hilmarsson, Paula Elomaa, Timo Hytönen
Vernalisation requirement is an agriculturally important trait that postpones the development of cold-sensitive floral organs until the spring. The family Rosaceae includes many agriculturally important fruit and berry crops that suffer from crop losses caused by frost injury to overwintering flower buds. Recently, a vernalisation-requiring accession of the Rosaceae model woodland strawberry (Fragaria vesca) has been identified in northern Norway. Understanding the molecular basis of the vernalisation requirement in this accession would advance the development of strawberry cultivars better adapted to temperate climate...
August 16, 2017: New Phytologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28815539/long-noncoding-rnas-in-plants
#19
Hsiao-Lin V Wang, Julia A Chekanova
The eukaryotic genomes are pervasively transcribed. In addition to protein-coding RNAs, thousands of long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) modulate key molecular and biological processes. Most lncRNAs are found in the nucleus and associate with chromatin, but lncRNAs can function in both nuclear and cytoplasmic compartments. Emerging work has found that many lncRNAs regulate gene expression and can affect genome stability and nuclear domain organization both in plant and in the animal kingdom. Here, we describe the major plant lncRNAs and how they act, with a focus on research in Arabidopsis thaliana and our emerging understanding of lncRNA functions in serving as molecular sponges and decoys, functioning in regulation of transcription and silencing, particularly in RNA-directed DNA methylation, and in epigenetic regulation of flowering time...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28814925/morphological-characteristics-and-genetic-evidence-reveals-a-new-species-of-manihot-euphorbiaceae-crotonoideae-from-goi%C3%A3-s-brazil
#20
Marcos José da Silva, Thannya Nascimento Soares, Patrícia Rasteiro Ordiale Oliveira
During botanical expeditions between 2010 and 2015, as part of a taxonomic study of Manihot in the Midwest region of Brazil, approximately 500 specimens of the genus were collected. Some of these specimens presented similarities to Manihot irwinii. However, after careful morphological analyses, associated with genetic evidence, we propose here Manihot pulchrifolius as a new species. The new species is described, illustrated, and compared to Manihot irwinii, its most similar species. Furthermore, geographic distribution, conservation status, and period of flowering and fruiting of the novel species are also provided...
2017: PhytoKeys
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