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Jing Zhang, Xiaofei Chen, Wen Li, Bao Li, Lixin Wu
Ionic complexes comprising of single/double chain cationic surfactant and Lindqvist-type polyoxomolybdate anionic cluster were used for controlled self-assembly in organic solutions. In the solvent with low dielectric constant the complexes self-assembled into flat ribbon like lamellar aggregations with an inverse bilayer substructure where the cluster located at the middle. Under the condition of increased dielectric constant, the solvent triggered the formation of helical self-assemblies, which finally transformed from helical ribbons to the flower-like assemblies due to the bilayer becoming excessive twisting...
October 19, 2017: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
D Posledovich, T Toftegaard, C Wiklund, J Ehrlén, K Gotthard
1.Climate-driven changes in the relative phenologies of interacting species may potentially alter the outcome of species interactions. 2.Phenotypic plasticity is expected to be important for short-term response to new climate conditions, and differences between species in plasticity are likely to influence their temporal overlap and interaction patterns. As reaction norms of interacting species may be locally adapted, any such climate-induced change in interaction patterns may vary among localities. However, consequences of spatial variation in plastic responses for species interactions are understudied...
October 19, 2017: Journal of Animal Ecology
Yong-Biao Liu
In this article, the efficacy of nitric oxide (NO) fumigation to control bulb mites in the genus Rhizoglyphus and its effects on germination and growth of flower bulbs were studied. Bulb mites on infested peanuts were fumigated with NO at different concentrations under ultralow oxygen conditions in 1.9-liter jars for 4-48 h at various temperatures ranging from 2 to 20 °C. Bulb mites were susceptible to NO fumigation treatment. Efficacy of fumigation treatment increased with increased concentration, treatment time, and temperature within the ranges tested...
October 1, 2017: Journal of Economic Entomology
Takeshi Kurokura, Samia Samad, Elli Koskela, Katriina Mouhu, Timo Hytönen, Zoe Wilson
According to the external coincidence model, photoperiodic flowering occurs when CONSTANS (CO) mRNA expression coincides with light in the afternoon of long days (LDs), leading to the activation of FLOWERING LOCUS T (FT). CO has evolved in Brassicaceae from other Group Ia CO-like (COL) proteins which do not control photoperiodic flowering in Arabidopsis. COLs in other species have evolved different functions as floral activators or even as repressors. To understand photoperiodic development in the perennial rosaceous model species woodland strawberry, we functionally characterized FvCO, the only Group Ia COL in its genome...
October 13, 2017: Journal of Experimental Botany
Yong Xiao, Pengwei Xu, Haikuo Fan, Luc Baudouin, Wei Xia, Stéphanie Bocs, Junyang Xu, Qiong Li, Anping Guo, Lixia Zhou, Jing Li, Yi Wu, Zilong Ma, Alix Armero, Auguste Emmanuel Issali, Na Liu, Ming Peng, Yaodong Yang
Background: Coconut palm (Cocos nucifera, 2n = 32), a member of genus Cocos and family Arecaceae (Palmaceae), is an important tropical fruit and oil crop. Currently, coconut palm is cultivated in 93 countries, including Central and South America, East and West Africa, Southeast Asia and the Pacific island, with a total growth area of more than 12 million hectares ( Coconut palm is generally classified into two main categories: "Tall" (flowering 8-10 years after planting) and "Dwarf" (flowering 4-6 years after planting), based on morphological characteristics and breeding habits...
October 5, 2017: GigaScience
Sushanta Kumar Pal, Ruchi, P Senthilkumaran
Inhomogeneous polarization distributions can host polarization singularities such as lemons, monstars, stars, flowers, spider webs, and higher-order C-points in optical beams. Singularities in ellipse fields are characterized by a C-point index and singularities in vector fields by the Poincare-Hopf index. These singularities can be generated by diffractive or interference methods. In this paper, we show that a half-wave plate (HWP) can be used for polarization singularity index sign inversion. The result presented here is powerful, and it shows the importance of a HWP in the study of polarization singularities...
August 1, 2017: Applied Optics
Emmanuel V Pontual, Divar F Pires-Neto, Karina Fraige, Taciana M M Higino, Belany E A Carvalho, Neyla M P Alves, Thâmarah A Lima, Russolina B Zingali, Luana C B B Coelho, Vanderlan S Bolzani, Regina C B Q Figueiredo, Thiago H Napoleão, Patrícia M G Paiva
In this study, Moringa oleifera flower extract and a trypsin inhibitor (MoFTI) isolated from it were evaluated for anti-protozoal activity against Trypanosoma cruzi and cytotoxicity to mammalian cells. The presence of flavonoids was remarkable in the HPLC fingerprints of the extract at 254 and 360 nm. Amino acid sequences of peptides derived from in-gel digestion of MoFTI were determined. Both the extract and MoFTI caused lysis of T. cruzi trypomastigotes with LC50/24 h of 54.18 ± 6.62 and 41.20 ± 4...
October 19, 2017: Natural Product Research
Ainhoa Magrach, Juan P González-Varo, Mathieu Boiffier, Montserrat Vilà, Ignasi Bartomeus
During the past decades, managed honeybee stocks have increased globally. Managed honeybees are particularly used within mass-flowering crops and often spill over to adjacent natural habitats after crop blooming. Here, we uniquely show the simultaneous impact that honeybee spillover has on wild plant and animal communities in flower-rich woodlands via changes in plant-pollinator network structure that translate into a direct negative effect on the reproductive success of a dominant wild plant. Honeybee spillover leads to a re-assembly of plant-pollinator interactions through increased competition with other pollinator species...
September 2017: Nature ecology & evolution
Kristin M Lee, Graham Coop
Geographically separated populations can convergently adapt to the same selection pressure. Convergent evolution at the level of a gene may arise via three distinct modes. The selected alleles can (1) have multiple independent mutational origins, (2) be shared due to shared ancestral standing variation, or (3) spread throughout subpopulations via gene ow. We present a model-based, statistical approach that utilizes genomic data to detect cases of convergent adaptation at the genetic level, identify the loci involved and distinguish among these modes...
October 18, 2017: Genetics
Chao-Chao Liu, Golam Jalal Ahammed, Guo-Ting Wang, Chang-Jie Xu, Kun-Song Chen, Yan-Hong Zhou, Jing-Quan Yu
Blue light photoreceptors, cryptochromes (CRYs), regulate multiple aspects of plant growth and development. However, our knowledge of CRYs is predominantly based on model plant Arabidopsis at early growth stage. In this study, we elucidated functions of CRY1a gene in mature tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) plants by using cry1a mutants and CRY1a overexpressing lines (OE-CRY1a-1 and OE-CRY1a-2). In comparison with wild-type plants, cry1a mutants are relatively tall, accumulate low biomass and bear more fruits, whereas OE-CRY1a plants are short stature, and they not only flower lately but also bear less fruits...
October 18, 2017: Plant, Cell & Environment
Emily L Dittmar, Douglas W Schemske
Flowering time is an important life history trait in plants that often affects fitness. The optimal time to flower may be influenced by trade-offs between flowering time and growth-related traits, and is thus likely to differ among habitats. Because flowering-time differences between populations can also reduce gene flow, understanding the factors that contribute to variation in flowering time among closely adjacent populations that experience gene flow is of particular interest. Plant adaptation to different edaphic environments provides some of the best examples of adaptive divergence at small spatial scales, and often coincides with flowering-time shifts...
October 17, 2017: Journal of Heredity
Noriko Nakamura, Hideki Hirakawa, Shusei Sato, Shungo Otagaki, Shogo Matsumoto, Satoshi Tabata, Yoshikazu Tanaka
The draft genome sequence of a wild rose (Rosa multiflora Thunb.) was determined using Illumina MiSeq and HiSeq platforms. The total length of the scaffolds was 739,637,845 bp, consisting of 83,189 scaffolds, which was close to the 711 Mbp length estimated by k-mer analysis. N50 length of the scaffolds was 90,830 bp, and extent of the longest was 1,133,259 bp. The average GC content of the scaffolds was 38.9%. After gene prediction, 67,380 candidates exhibiting sequence homology to known genes and domains were extracted, which included complete and partial gene structures...
October 16, 2017: DNA Research: An International Journal for Rapid Publication of Reports on Genes and Genomes
Boon Huat Cheah, Sudhir Jadhao, Madavan Vasudevan, Ratnam Wickneswari, Kalaivani Nadarajah
A cross between IR64 (high-yielding but drought-susceptible) and Aday Sel (drought-tolerant) rice cultivars yielded a stable line with enhanced grain yield under drought screening field trials at International Rice Research Institute. The major effect qDTY4.1 drought tolerance and yield QTL was detected in the IR77298-14-1-2-10 Backcrossed Inbred Line (BIL) and its IR87705-7-15-B Near Isogenic Line (NIL) with 93.9% genetic similarity to IR64. Although rice yield is extremely susceptible to water stress at reproductive stage, currently, there is only one report on the detection of drought-responsive microRNAs in inflorescence tissue of a Japonica rice line...
2017: PloS One
Dimitri D Deheyn
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 18, 2017: Nature
Edwige Moyroud, Tobias Wenzel, Rox Middleton, Paula J Rudall, Hannah Banks, Alison Reed, Greg Mellers, Patrick Killoran, M Murphy Westwood, Ullrich Steiner, Silvia Vignolini, Beverley J Glover
Diverse forms of nanoscale architecture generate structural colour and perform signalling functions within and between species. Structural colour is the result of the interference of light from approximately regular periodic structures; some structural disorder is, however, inevitable in biological organisms. Is this disorder functional and subject to evolutionary selection, or is it simply an unavoidable outcome of biological developmental processes? Here we show that disordered nanostructures enable flowers to produce visual signals that are salient to bees...
October 18, 2017: Nature
Chao Li, Yuhao Liu, Wen-Hui Sun, Yu Yu, Aiwu Dong
The phytohormone gibberellin (GA) plays essential roles in plant growth and development. Here, we report that OsINO80, a conserved ATP-dependent chromatin-remodeling factor in rice (Oryza sativa), functions in diverse biological processes and GA biosynthesis. OsINO80-knockdown mutants, derived from either T-DNA insertion or RNA interference, display typical GA-deficient phenotypes, including dwarfism, reduced cell length, late flowering, retarded seed germination and impaired reproductive development. Consistently, transcriptome analyses reveal that OsINO80 knockdown results in down-regulation by more than two-fold of over 1000 genes, including the GA biosynthesis genes CPS1 and GA3ox2, and the dwarf phenotype of OsINO80-knockdown mutants can be rescued by the application of exogenous GA3...
October 17, 2017: Journal of Integrative Plant Biology
Wenting Peng, Weiwei Wu, Junchu Peng, Jiaojiao Li, Yan Lin, Yanan Wang, Jiang Tian, Lili Sun, Cuiyue Liang, Hong Liao
A potential mechanism to enhance utilization of sparingly soluble forms of phosphorus (P) is the root secretion of malate, which is mainly mediated by the ALMT gene family in plants. In this study, a total of 34 GmALMT genes were identified in the soybean genome. Expression patterns diverged considerably among GmALMTs in response to phosphate (Pi) starvation in leaves, roots and flowers, with expression altered by P availability in 26 of the 34 GmALMTs. One root-specific GmALMT whose expression was significantly enhanced by Pi-starvation, GmALMT5, was studied in more detail to determine its possible role in soybean P nutrition...
October 17, 2017: Journal of Integrative Plant Biology
Nicky Lustenhouwer, Rutger A Wilschut, Jennifer L Williams, Wim H van der Putten, Jonathan M Levine
Although climate warming is expected to make habitat beyond species' current cold range edge suitable for future colonization, this new habitat may present an array of biotic or abiotic conditions not experienced within the current range. Species' ability to shift their range with climate change may therefore depend on how populations evolve in response to such novel environmental conditions. However, due to the recent nature of thus far observed range expansions, the role of rapid adaptation during climate change migration is only beginning to be understood...
October 16, 2017: Global Change Biology
Thomas Nakel, Dawit G Tekleyohans, Yanbo Mao, Golo Fuchert, Dieu Vo, Rita Groß-Hardt
It is considered an inviolable principle that sexually reproducing organisms have no more than two parents and fertilization of an egg by multiple sperm (polyspermy) is lethal in many eukaryotes. In flowering plants polyspermy has remained a hypothetical concept, due to the lack of tools to unambiguously identify and trace this event. We established a high-throughput polyspermy detection assay, which uncovered that supernumerary sperm fusion does occur in planta and can generate viable polyploid offspring. Moreover, polyspermy can give rise to seedlings with one mother and two fathers, challenging the bi-organismal concept of parentage...
October 18, 2017: Nature Communications
Andrew Lucas, James C Bull, Natasha de Vere, Penelope J Neyland, Dan W Forman
Pollination is a key ecosystem service, and appropriate management, particularly in agricultural systems, is essential to maintain a diversity of pollinator guilds. However, management recommendations frequently focus on maintaining plant communities, with the assumption that associated invertebrate populations will be sustained. We tested whether plant community, flower resources, and soil moisture would influence hoverfly (Syrphidae) abundance and species richness in floristically-rich seminatural and floristically impoverished agricultural grassland communities in Wales (U...
October 2017: Ecology and Evolution
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