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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29223127/be-my-baby-patterning-toward-plant-germ-cells
#1
REVIEW
Keiji Nakajima
In flowering plants, germ cells are formed via tightly coordinated patterning processes that facilitate specification of spore mother cells and meiosis during sporogenesis, as well as functional differentiation of germ cells in gametogenesis. Studies using the conventional Arabidopsis system and the newly emerged bryophyte system have revealed novel interactions between regulatory factors that restrict the number of spore mother cells, and evolutionarily conserved factors that promote germ cell differentiation...
December 6, 2017: Current Opinion in Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222720/reproductive-ecology-of-a-parasitic-plant-differs-by-host-species-vector-interactions-and-the-maintenance-of-host-races
#2
Kelsey M Yule, Judith L Bronstein
Parasitic plants often attack multiple host species with unique defenses, physiology, and ecology. Reproductive phenology and vectors of parasitic plant genes (pollinators and dispersers) can contribute to or erode reproductive isolation of populations infecting different host species. We asked whether desert mistletoe, Phoradendron californicum (Santalaceae tribe Visceae syn. Viscaceae), differs ecologically across its dominant leguminous hosts in ways affecting reproductive isolation. Parasite flowering phenology on one host species (velvet mesquite, Prosopis velutina) differed significantly from that on four others, and phenology was not predicted by host species phenology or host individual...
December 8, 2017: Oecologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222401/genetics-of-floral-development-by-christine-fleet
#3
(no author information available yet)
Summaryplantcell;29/11/tpc.117.tt1117/FIG1F1fig1A basic model for floral organ identity has been developed using model systems such as Arabidopsis thaliana, snapdragon (Antirrhinum majus), and petunia (Petunia hybrida). In this model, different combinations of proteins known as ABCDE proteins, mostly MADS-domain transcription factors, activate the transcription of target genes to specify the identity of each whorl of floral organs. Changes in the regulation or activation of these target genes contribute to the wide variety of floral forms that we see within and across species...
November 2017: Plant Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222091/waste-management-informal-recycling-environmental-pollution-and-public-health
#4
Hong Yang, Mingguo Ma, Julian R Thompson, Roger J Flower
With rapid population growth, especially in low-income and middle-income countries, the generation of waste is increasing at an unprecedented rate. For example, annual global waste arising from waste electrical and electronic equipment alone will have increased from 33.8 to 49.8 million tonnes between 2010 and 2018. Despite incineration and other waste treatment techniques, landfill still dominates waste disposal in low-income and middle-income countries. There is usually insufficient funding for adequate waste management in these countries and uptake of more advanced waste treatment technologies is poor...
December 8, 2017: Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29221437/evolutionary-characterization-and-transcript-profiling-of-%C3%AE-tubulin-genes-in-flax-linum-usitatissimum-l-during-plant-development
#5
Floriana Gavazzi, Gaia Pigna, Luca Braglia, Silvia Gianì, Diego Breviario, Laura Morello
BACKGROUND: Microtubules, polymerized from alpha and beta-tubulin monomers, play a fundamental role in plant morphogenesis, determining the cell division plane, the direction of cell expansion and the deposition of cell wall material. During polarized pollen tube elongation, microtubules serve as tracks for vesicular transport and deposition of proteins/lipids at the tip membrane. Such functions are controlled by cortical microtubule arrays. Aim of this study was to first characterize the flax β-tubulin family by sequence and phylogenetic analysis and to investigate differential expression of β-tubulin genes possibly related to fibre elongation and to flower development...
December 8, 2017: BMC Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29220768/analysis-of-airborne-olea-pollen-in-cartagena-spain
#6
M D Galera, B Elvira-Rendueles, J M Moreno, L Negral, M C Ruiz-Abellón, A García-Sánchez, S Moreno-Grau
Olive cultivation is of great importance in Southern Europe but olive pollen is the leading cause of allergy in many regions where it is grown. The best preventive measure for allergic patients is to avoid exposure. Thus, aerobiological monitoring networks must supply realistic pollen classes for the different types of allergic pollen. Even though those pollen classes are defined, they do not necessarily fit local data. Altogether, they should use predictive models to assess flowering intensity in advance. In this study, the Olea pollen degree of exposure classes (OPDEC) are defined based on percentiles and a predictive model is suggested for Cartagena, Spain...
December 5, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29220485/funricegenes-dataset-for-comprehensive-understanding-and-application-of-rice-functional-genes
#7
Wen Yao, Guangwei Li, Yiming Yu, Yidan Ouyang
Background: As a main staple food, rice is also a model plant for functional genomic studies of monocots. Decoding of every DNA element of the rice genome is essential for genetic improvement to address increasing food demands. The past 15 years have witnessed extraordinary advances in rice functional genomics. Systematic characterization and proper deposition of every rice gene are vital for both functional studies and crop genetic improvement. Findings: We built a comprehensive and accurate dataset of ∼2,800 functionally characterized rice genes and ∼5,000 members of different gene families, by integrating data from available databases and reviewing of every publication on rice functional genomic studies...
December 4, 2017: GigaScience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29220383/characterization-of-the-cct-family-and-analysis-of-gene-expression-in-aegilops-tauschii
#8
Xingwei Zheng, Xiaohua Li, Chuan Ge, Jianzhong Chang, Mengmeng Shi, Jianli Chen, Linyi Qiao, Zhijian Chang, Jun Zheng, Jiancheng Zhang
Flowering is crucial for reproductive success in flowering plant. The CCT domain-containing genes widely participate in the regulation of flowering process in various plant species. So far, the CCT family in common wheat is largely unknown. Here, we characterized the structure, organization, molecular evolution and expression of the CCT genes in Aegilops tauschii, which is the D genome donor of hexaploid wheat. Twenty-six CCT genes (AetCCT) were identified from the full genome of A. tauschii and these genes were distributed on all 7 chromosomes...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29218850/characterization-of-auxin-transporter-pin6-plasma-membrane-targeting-reveals-a-function-for-pin6-in-plant-bolting
#9
Franck Anicet Ditengou, Dulceneia Gomes, Hugues Nziengui, Philip Kochersperger, Hanna Lasok, Violante Medeiros, Ivan A Paponov, Szilvia Krisztina Nagy, Tímea Virág Nádai, Tamás Mészáros, Beáta Barnabás, Beata Izabela Ditengou, Katja Rapp, Linlin Qi, Xugang Li, Claude Becker, Chuanyou Li, Róbert Dóczi, Klaus Palme
Auxin gradients are sustained by series of influx and efflux carriers whose subcellular localization is sensitive to both exogenous and endogenous factors. Recently the localization of the Arabidopsis thaliana auxin efflux carrier PIN-FORMED (PIN) 6 was reported to be tissue-specific and regulated through unknown mechanisms. Here, we used genetic, molecular and pharmacological approaches to characterize the molecular mechanism(s) controlling the subcellular localization of PIN6. PIN6 localizes to endomembrane domains in tissues with low PIN6 expression levels such as roots, but localizes at the plasma membrane (PM) in tissues with increased PIN6 expression such as the inflorescence stem and nectary glands...
December 8, 2017: New Phytologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29218596/regulation-of-floral-meristem-activity-through-the-interaction-of-agamous-superman-and-clavata3-in-arabidopsis
#10
Akira Uemura, Nobutoshi Yamaguchi, Yifeng Xu, WanYi Wee, Yasunori Ichihashi, Takamasa Suzuki, Arisa Shibata, Ken Shirasu, Toshiro Ito
Floral meristem size is redundantly controlled by CLAVATA3, AGAMOUS , and SUPERMAN in Arabidopsis. The proper regulation of floral meristem activity is key to the formation of optimally sized flowers with a fixed number of organs. In Arabidopsis thaliana, multiple regulators determine this activity. A small secreted peptide, CLAVATA3 (CLV3), functions as an important negative regulator of stem cell activity. Two transcription factors, AGAMOUS (AG) and SUPERMAN (SUP), act in different pathways to regulate the termination of floral meristem activity...
December 7, 2017: Plant Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29218578/biomimetic-synthesis-of-silver-nanoparticles-using-flower-extract-of-bauhinia-purpurea-and-its-antibacterial-activity-against-clinical-pathogens
#11
Sudhakar Chinnappan, Selvam Kandasamy, Sengottaiyan Arumugam, Kamala-Kannan Seralathan, Selvankumar Thangaswamy, Govarthanan Muthusamy
In the present study, we have reported an eco-friendly, rapid, and simple method for the synthesis of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) using Bauhinia purpurea flower extract as non-toxic bioreducing agent. The formation of AgNPs was confirmed by UV-visible spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), scanning electron microscopy and energy-dispersive spectroscopy (SEM-EDS), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The synthesized AgNPs were spherical in shape with an average size of 20 nm...
December 7, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29218537/cumulative-herbivory-outpaces-compensation-for-early-floral-damage-on-a-monocarpic-perennial-thistle
#12
Natalie M West, Svata M Louda
Floral herbivory represents a major threat to plant reproductive success, driving the importance of plant tolerance mechanisms that minimize fitness costs. However, the cumulative insect herbivory plants experience under natural conditions complicates predictions about tolerance contributions to net fitness. Apical damage can lead to compensatory seed production from late season flowering that ameliorates early season fitness losses. Yet, the compensation realized depends on successful development and herbivore escape by later season flowers...
December 7, 2017: Oecologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29217755/pollen-differentiation-as-well-as-pollen-tube-guidance-and-discharge-are-independent-of-the-presence-of-gametes
#13
Barbara Glöckle, Wojciech J Urban, Shiori Nagahara, Ellen D Andersen, Tetsuya Higashiyama, Paul E Grini, Arp Schnittger
After meiosis, an unequal cell division generates the male gamete lineage in flowering plants. The generative cell will undergo a second division, giving rise to the two gametes, i.e. the sperm cells. The other cell will develop into the vegetative cell that plays a crucial role in pollen tube formation and sperm delivery. Recently, the vegetative cell has been implicated to be important for programming of the chromatin state in sperm cells and/or the resulting fertilization products. Blocking the initial unequal division genetically, we first highlight that the default differentiation state after male meiosis is a vegetative fate consistent with earlier work...
December 7, 2017: Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29217674/pollen-pistil-interaction-in-pawpaw-asimina-triloba-the-northernmost-species-of-the-mainly-tropical-family-annonaceae
#14
Juan M Losada, Jose I Hormaza, Jorge Lora
PREMISE OF THE STUDY: The pawpaw, Asimina triloba, is an underutilized fruit crop native to North America that belongs to the mainly tropical, early-divergent family Annonaceae. Asimina is the only genus within the Annonaceae with species adapted to cold climates. A thorough analysis of its reproductive biology, specifically pollen-pistil interaction during the progamic phase, is essential to understand both its adaptation to cold climates and how to optimize its fertilization and fruit set...
December 7, 2017: American Journal of Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29217543/response-to-comment-on-cognition-mediated-evolution-of-low-quality-floral-nectars
#15
Vladislav Nachev, York Winter
Pyke and Waser claim that our virtual pollination ecology model makes unrealistic assumptions and fails to predict observed nectar concentrations of bat flowers and negative correlations between pollinator body size and sugar concentration. In their comment, crucial model features are misrepresented, misunderstood, or ignored. Sensitivity to the supply/demand ratio explains both the equilibrium concentrations and the selection for lower concentrations by larger pollinators.
December 8, 2017: Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29217542/comment-on-cognition-mediated-evolution-of-low-quality-floral-nectars
#16
Graham H Pyke, Nickolas M Waser
Nachev et al (Reports, 6 January 2017, p. 75) present dilute nectar in bat-pollinated plants as "paradoxical" because bats prefer concentrated nectar, but paradox disappears with realistic assumptions about nectar evolution. We argue that they make unrealistic assumptions about the cognitive abilities of bat pollinators, invoke Weber's law inappropriately, and cannot predict observed nectar concentrations of bat flowers or negative correlations between pollinator body size and average concentration.
December 8, 2017: Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29216378/melonet-db-a-grand-rna-seq-gene-expression-atlas-in-melon-cucumis-melo-l
#17
Ryoichi Yano, Satoko Nonaka, Hiroshi Ezura
Melon (Cucumis melo L.) is an important Cucurbitaceae crop produced world-wide, exhibiting wide genetic variations and comprising both climacteric and non-climacteric fruit types. The muskmelon cultivar "Earl's favorite Harukei-3 (Harukei-3)" known for its sweetness and rich aroma is used for breeding of high-grade muskmelon in Japan. We conducted RNA-seq transcriptome studies in 30 different tissues of the 'Harukei-3' melon. These included root, stems, leaves, flowers, regenerating callus, and ovaries, in addition to the flesh and peel sampled at 7 stages of fruit development...
December 4, 2017: Plant & Cell Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29215802/does-stigma-curvature-promote-delayed-selfing-an-experimental-investigation-in-triodanis-perfoliata-campanulaceae
#18
Carol Goodwillie, Hetal R Patel, DeAnna M Dvorak
Self-fertilization that is delayed until after opportunities for outcrossing have ceased has been argued to provide both the reproductive assurance benefits of selfing and the genetic advantages of outcrossing. In the Campanulaceae, presentation of pollen on stylar hairs and progressive stigma curvature have been hypothesized to facilitate delayed selfing, but experimental tests are lacking. Stigma curvature is common in Campanula, a genus largely characterized by self-incompatibility, and therefore is unlikely to have initially evolved to promote self-fertilization...
December 7, 2017: Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29215068/integrated-dna-methylome-and-transcriptome-analysis-reveals-the-ethylene-induced-flowering-pathway-genes-in-pineapple
#19
Jiabin Wang, Zhiying Li, Ming Lei, Yunliu Fu, Jiaju Zhao, Mengfei Ao, Li Xu
Ethylene has long been used to promote flowering in pineapple production. Ethylene-induced flowering is dose dependent, with a critical threshold level of ethylene response factors needed to trigger flowering. The mechanism of ethylene-induced flowering is still unclear. Here, we integrated isoform sequencing (iso-seq), Illumina short-reads sequencing and whole-genome bisulfite sequencing (WGBS) to explore the early changes of transcriptomic and DNA methylation in pineapple following high-concentration ethylene (HE) and low-concentration ethylene (LE) treatment...
December 7, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29214630/a-del-phenotype-attributed-to-rhd-exon-9-sequence-deletion-slipped-strand-mispairing-and-blood-group-polymorphisms
#20
Genghis H Lopez, Robyn M Turner, Eunike C McGowan, Elizna M Schoeman, Stacy A Scott, Helen O'Brien, Glenda M Millard, Eileen V Roulis, Amanda J Allen, Yew-Wah Liew, Robert L Flower, Catherine A Hyland
BACKGROUND: The RhD blood group antigen is extremely polymorphic and the DEL phenotype represents one such class of polymorphisms. The DEL phenotype prevalent in East Asian populations arises from a synonymous substitution defined as RHD*1227A. However, initially, based on genomic and cDNA studies, the genetic basis for a DEL phenotype in Taiwan was attributed to a deletion of RHD Exon 9 that was never verified at the genomic level by any other independent group. Here we investigate the genetic basis for a Caucasian donor with a DEL partial D phenotype and compare the genomic findings to those initial molecular studies...
December 6, 2017: Transfusion
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