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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428737/reducing-sexual-risk-behaviors-secondary-analyses-from-a-randomized-controlled-trial-of-a-brief-web-based-alcohol-intervention-for-underage-heavy-episodic-drinking-college-women
#1
Kaitlin E Bountress, Isha W Metzger, Jessica L Maples-Keller, Amanda K Gilmore
BACKGROUND: Alcohol use and sexual risk behaviors (SRBs) are significant problems on college campuses. College women are at particularly high risk for negative consequences associated with sexually transmitted infections (STIs) and unwanted pregnancy. METHODS: The current study (n = 160) examined the effect of a brief, web-based alcohol intervention (n = 53) for college women on reducing SRBs compared to an assessment only control (n = 107) with a randomized controlled trial...
2017: Addiction Research & Theory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28427727/implementation-of-human-trafficking-education-and-treatment-algorithm-in-the-emergency-department
#2
Amber Egyud, Kimberly Stephens, Brenda Swanson-Bierman, Marge DiCuccio, Kimberly Whiteman
PROBLEM: Health care professionals have not been successful in recognizing or rescuing victims of human trafficking. The purpose of this project was to implement a screening system and treatment algorithm in the emergency department to improve the identification and rescue of victims of human trafficking. The lack of recognition by health care professionals is related to inadequate education and training tools and confusion with other forms of violence such as trauma and sexual assault...
April 17, 2017: Journal of Emergency Nursing: JEN: Official Publication of the Emergency Department Nurses Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28411424/drug-use-among-transgender-people-in-ontario-canada-disparities-and-associations-with-social-exclusion
#3
Ayden I Scheim, Greta R Bauer, Mostafa Shokoohi
INTRODUCTION: We identified the prevalence and correlates of past-year illicit drug use among transgender people in Ontario, Canada, and disparities with the age-standardized non-transgender population. METHODS: Data on transgender persons aged 16+ (n=406) were obtained from Trans PULSE, a respondent-driven sampling (RDS) survey (2009-2010). Overall and sex-specific estimates of past-year drug use (cocaine and amphetamines, based on data availability) in the reference population were obtained from Ontario residents aged 16+ (n=39, 980) in the Canadian Community Health Survey (2009-2010), and standardized to the overall and gender-specific transgender age distributions...
March 31, 2017: Addictive Behaviors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28410860/comprehensive-screening-for-suicide-risk-in-primary-care
#4
Guy S Diamond, Joanna L Herres, E Stephanie Krauthamer Ewing, Tita O Atte, Syreeta W Scott, Matt B Wintersteen, Robert J Gallop
INTRODUCTION: Suicide is a major public health problem and a complex clinical challenge. Assessment and early identification could be enhanced with screening tools that look beyond depression. The purpose of this study was to identify profiles of risk behaviors and social stress associated with suicidal ideation and behavior using the Behavioral Health Screen. METHODS: The study used screening data from 2,513 primary care patients (aged 14-24 years). Data were collected between 2008 and 2012, and were analyzed in 2016...
April 11, 2017: American Journal of Preventive Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28379107/gender-and-sex-trading-among-active-methamphetamine-users-in-cape-town-south-africa
#5
Ryan R Lion, Melissa H Watt, Wendee M Wechsberg, Christina S Meade
BACKGROUND: South Africa has experienced a tremendous rise in methamphetamine use since the year 2000. Sex trading is a global phenomenon that has been observed in active drug users and has been associated with risks for HIV infection and violence. OBJECTIVES: This paper describes and examines the correlates of sex trading among active methamphetamine users in Cape Town, South Africa. METHODS: Through peer referral, 360 (201 male; 159 female) active methamphetamine users were recruited in a peri-urban township...
May 12, 2017: Substance Use & Misuse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28330802/orofacial-trauma-in-rural-india-a-clinical-study
#6
Sunita Malik, Gurdarshan Singh, Gagandeep Kaur, Sunil Yadav, Hitesh C Mittal
PURPOSE: Orofacial trauma is becoming a leading medical problem worldwide. Most of the studies pertaining to orofacial trauma have been done in urban areas but very little scientific literature is available for rural areas. METHODS: A prospective medical institute-based study of orofacial injury patients was carried out from May 2013 to April 2016 (36 Months). Data regarding incidence, age and sex distribution, causes, types and site of injury, treatment modalities and trauma associated complications were collected and analysed...
February 24, 2017: Chinese Journal of Traumatology, Zhonghua Chuang Shang za Zhi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28316396/sexual-alteration-in-antioxidant-response-and-esterase-profile-in-hyalomma-anatolicum-anatolicum-acari-ixodidae-ticks
#7
Mayukh Ghosh, Nirmal Sangwan, Arun K Sangwan, Rajesh Kumar, Ruchi Singh Gaur
The objective of the study was to reveal physiological link between sex specific engorgement pattern and evading mechanism of ticks against oxidative stress as well as acaricides. Quantitative determination of nitric oxide radical scavenging, superoxide dismutase activity and reduced glutathione (GSH) concentrations in salivary gland and gut extracts of male and female Hyalomma anatolicum anatolicum (Acari: Ixodidae) ticks established significant variation in antioxidant responses between two sexes of the ticks...
March 2017: Journal of Parasitic Diseases: Official Organ of the Indian Society for Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28315050/forensic-use-of-y-chromosome-dna-a-general-overview
#8
REVIEW
Manfred Kayser
The male-specific part of the human Y chromosome is widely used in forensic DNA analysis, particularly in cases where standard autosomal DNA profiling is not informative. A Y-chromosomal gene fragment is applied for inferring the biological sex of a crime scene trace donor. Haplotypes composed of Y-chromosomal short tandem repeat polymorphisms (Y-STRs) are used to characterise paternal lineages of unknown male trace donors, especially suitable when males and females have contributed to the same trace, such as in sexual assault cases...
March 17, 2017: Human Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28301451/traumatic-brain-injury-related-emergency-department-visits-hospitalizations-and-deaths-united-states-2007-and-2013
#9
Christopher A Taylor, Jeneita M Bell, Matthew J Breiding, Likang Xu
PROBLEM/CONDITION: Traumatic brain injury (TBI) has short- and long-term adverse clinical outcomes, including death and disability. TBI can be caused by a number of principal mechanisms, including motor-vehicle crashes, falls, and assaults. This report describes the estimated incidence of TBI-related emergency department (ED) visits, hospitalizations, and deaths during 2013 and makes comparisons to similar estimates from 2007. REPORTING PERIOD: 2007 and 2013. DESCRIPTION OF SYSTEM: State-based administrative health care data were used to calculate estimates of TBI-related ED visits and hospitalizations by principal mechanism of injury, age group, sex, and injury intent...
March 17, 2017: MMWR. Surveillance Summaries: Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report. Surveillance Summaries
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28290218/the-association-between-adolescent-risk-behaviours-and-feelings-of-sadness-or-hopelessness-a-cross-sectional-survey-of-south-african-secondary-school-learners
#10
Shamagonam James, Sasiragha Priscilla Reddy, Afzal Ellahebokus, Ronel Sewpaul, Pamela Naidoo
Poor mental health in adolescents has shown associations with engagement in other risk behaviours. However, evidence of this association in Sub-Saharan Africa, particularly South Africa, is lacking. This study examines the associations between pertinent risk behaviours and feelings of sadness or hopelessness amongst a nationally representative sample of South African school going adolescents. Data was analysed from the South African Youth Risk Behaviour Survey 2011 (n=10,997), a cross-sectional national survey among grades 8-11 school learners...
March 14, 2017: Psychology, Health & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28278060/sodomy-s-penumbra
#11
Joseph J Fischel
This article advocates a sodomitical approach to sodomy. Its approach is framed alongside and against three historical glosses on sodomy law: first, that sodomy law instantiates homophobia; second, that sodomy law targets sexual violence against boys; third, that sodomy law reaches assaultive sex against women that did not register as assaultive enough to qualify as "rape" by sexist juries. The first story of sodomy law is mostly wrong. The other two glosses pivot on protection: protection of boys or protection of girls and women...
February 10, 2017: Journal of Homosexuality
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28264630/female-sex-workers-empowerment-strategies-amid-hiv-related-socioeconomic-vulnerabilities-in-cameroon
#12
Charles W Cange, Matthew LeBreton, Karen Saylors, Serge Billong, Ubald Tamoufe, Pamella Fokam, Stefan Baral
Research has consistently demonstrated that female sex workers use a variety of empowerment strategies to protect one another and their families. This study examines the strategies Cameroonian sex workers employ to do so. In-depth interviews and focus-group discussions were conducted with 100 sex workers. Coded texts were analysed for recurring themes. Sex workers reported being concerned with physical violence and sexual assault and demands from authorities for bribes to avoid fines and/or imprisonment. Women described strategies such as 'looking out for' each other when faced with security threats...
March 7, 2017: Culture, Health & Sexuality
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28260245/sexuality-and-hiv-education-in-charter-schools-an-exploratory-study-with-principals-in-san-diego-county-california
#13
Eric R Walsh-Buhi, Brandon Dao, Linda Salgin, James Marshall, Rachel Miller, Doug Fisher, Margaret Walsh-Buhi
BACKGROUND: Schools can address critical sexual and reproductive health (SRH) issues among youth. However, little is known about SRH education being implemented in charter schools. Thus, our purpose was to explore implementation of SRH education in charter schools. METHODS: Using purposive sampling, semistructured telephone interviews were conducted with 20 charter school principals in San Diego County, California. Questions were guided by the Kaiser Family Foundation National Survey of Public Secondary School Principals...
April 2017: Journal of School Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28260239/ten-year-secular-trends-in-youth-violence-results-from-the-philadelphia-youth-risk-behavior-survey-2003-2013
#14
Andrew C Pool, Freda Patterson, Ingrid Y Luna, Bernadette Hohl, Katherine W Bauer
BACKGROUND: Youth violence reduction is a public health priority, yet few studies have examined secular trends in violence among urban youth, who may be particularly vulnerable to numerous forms of violence. This study examines 10-year secular trends in the prevalence of violence-related behaviors among Philadelphia high school students. METHODS: Repeated cross-sectional data were analyzed from 5 waves of the Philadelphia Youth Risk Behavior Survey (YRBS) from 2003 to 2013...
April 2017: Journal of School Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28239507/in-the-moment-dissociation-emotional-numbing-and-sexual-risk-the-influence-of-sexual-trauma-history-trauma-symptoms-and-alcohol-intoxication
#15
Cynthia A Stappenbeck, William H George, Jennifer Staples, Hong Nguyen, Kelly Cue Davis, Debra Kaysen, Julia R Heiman, N Tatiana Masters, Jeanette Norris, Cinnamon L Danube, Amanda K Gilmore, Kelly F Kajumulo
OBJECTIVE: Prior research on the effects of sexual trauma has examined dissociation but not emotional numbing during sex and has relied exclusively on retrospective surveys. The present experiment examined associations among distal factors of childhood sexual abuse (CSA), adolescent/adult sexual assault (ASA), and trauma symptoms and the proximal factor of acute alcohol intoxication on in-the-moment dissociation, emotional numbing, and sexual risk intentions. METHOD: Young adult female drinkers (N = 436) at elevated sexual risk were randomized to receive alcohol (target peak breath alcohol concentration = ...
October 2016: Psychology of Violence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28219802/marijuana-use-trajectories-among-drug-using-youth-presenting-to-an-urban-emergency-department-violence-and-social-influences
#16
Maureen A Walton, Quyen Epstein-Ngo, Patrick M Carter, Marc A Zimmerman, Frederic C Blow, Anne Buu, Jason Goldstick, Rebecca M Cunningham
AIMS: This paper examined longitudinal marijuana use trajectories among drug-using youth presenting to the ED to inform intervention development. METHODS: Given interest in substance use and violence, this study oversampled those presenting with assault injuries. Assault-injured youth (ages 14-24) endorsing past 6-month drug use (n=349), and a sex and age proportionally-sampled comparison group (n=250) endorsing drug use, completed a baseline assessment and follow-ups at 6, 12, 18, and 24 months...
April 1, 2017: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28137977/firearms-alcohol-and-crime-convictions-for-driving-under-the-influence-dui-and-other-alcohol-related-crimes-and-risk-for-future-criminal-activity-among-authorised-purchasers-of-handguns
#17
Garen J Wintemute, Mona A Wright, Alvaro Castillo-Carniglia, Aaron Shev, Magdalena Cerdá
Firearm violence frequently involves alcohol, but there are no studies of misuse of alcohol and risk for future violence among firearm owners. We examined the association between prior convictions for alcohol-related crimes, chiefly driving under the influence (DUI), and risk of subsequent arrest among 4066 individuals who purchased handguns in California in 1977. During follow-up through 1991, 32.8% of those with prior alcohol-related convictions and 5.7% of those with no prior criminal history were arrested for a violent or firearm-related crime; 15...
January 30, 2017: Injury Prevention: Journal of the International Society for Child and Adolescent Injury Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28072668/genital-and-extragenital-gonorrhea-and-chlamydia-in-children-and-adolescents-evaluated-for-sexual-abuse
#18
Nancy D Kellogg, John D Melville, James L Lukefahr, Shalon M Nienow, Edward L Russell
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to describe the use of a nucleic acid amplification test in detecting genital and extragenital Neisseria gonorrhoeae (NG) and Chlamydia trachomatis (CT) in children and adolescents assessed for sexual abuse/assault. METHODS: The charts of children aged 0 to 17 years, consecutively evaluated for sexual victimization, in emergency department and outpatient settings were reviewed. Data extracted included age, sex, type of sexual contact, anogenital findings, previous sexual contact, toxicology results, and sites tested for NG and CT...
January 9, 2017: Pediatric Emergency Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28055070/modeling-contagion-through-social-networks-to-explain-and-predict-gunshot-violence-in-chicago-2006-to-2014
#19
Ben Green, Thibaut Horel, Andrew V Papachristos
Importance: Every day in the United States, more than 200 people are murdered or assaulted with a firearm. Little research has considered the role of interpersonal ties in the pathways through which gun violence spreads. Objective: To evaluate the extent to which the people who will become subjects of gun violence can be predicted by modeling gun violence as an epidemic that is transmitted between individuals through social interactions. Design, Setting, and Participants: This study was an epidemiological analysis of a social network of individuals who were arrested during an 8-year period in Chicago, Illinois, with connections between people who were arrested together for the same offense...
March 1, 2017: JAMA Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28052765/sexual-abuse-and-risky-sexual-behaviors-among-young-female-hawkers-in-burkina-faso-a-mixed-method-study
#20
Saide Yacine Y A Ouédraogo, Ebrima J Sisawo, Song-Lih Huang
BACKGROUND: Young street hawkers in Burkina Faso are increasingly exposed to workplace hazards such as physical and sexual abuse, and also unsafe sexual practices. The objectives of this study were to identify the socio-demographic status and work characteristics of young female hawkers, describe their sexual behavior and their experience with regards to sex-related violence at the workplace. METHODS: The study used a mixed design combining qualitative and quantitative methods...
January 4, 2017: BMC International Health and Human Rights
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