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Sex assault

C Andrew Basham, Carolyn Snider
OBJECTIVES: To estimate and compare Canadian homicide mortality rates (HMRs) and trends in HMRs across age groups, with a focus on trends for youth. METHODS: Data for the period of 2000 to 2009 were collected from Statistics Canada's CANSIM (Canadian Statistical Information Management) Table 102-0540 with the following ICD-10-CA coded external causes of death: X85 to Y09 (assault) and Y87.1 (sequelae of assault). Annual population counts from 2000 to 2009 were obtained from Statistics Canada's CANSIM Table 051-0001...
October 20, 2016: Canadian Journal of Public Health. Revue Canadienne de Santé Publique
Kacie Seil, Jennifer Marcum, Ramona Lall, Catherine Stayton
BACKGROUND: The New York City emergency department (ED) syndromic surveillance (SS) system provides near real-time data on the majority of ED visits. The utility of ED SS for injury surveillance has not been thoroughly evaluated. We created injury syndromes based on ED chief complaint information and evaluated their utility compared to administrative billing data. METHODS: Six injury syndromes were developed: traffic-related injuries to pedal cyclists, pedestrians, and motor vehicle occupants; fall-related injuries; firearm-related injuries; and assault-related stabbings...
December 2015: Injury Epidemiology
Steven A Sumner, Matthew J Maenner, Christina M Socias, James A Mercy, Paul Silverman, Sandra P Medinilla, Steven S Martin, Likang Xu, Susan D Hillis
INTRODUCTION: Accurately identifying youth at highest risk of firearm violence involvement could permit delivery of focused, comprehensive prevention services. This study explored whether readily available city and state administrative data covering life events before youth firearm violence could elucidate patterns preceding such violence. METHODS: Four hundred twenty-one individuals arrested for homicide, attempted homicide, aggravated assault, or robbery with a firearm committed in Wilmington, Delaware, from January 1, 2009 to May 21, 2014, were matched 1:3 to 1,259 Wilmington resident controls on birth year and sex...
September 8, 2016: American Journal of Preventive Medicine
Louise Morgan, Sophie Khadr, Susan Bewley
OBJECTIVE: To describe demographic and assault-related characteristics of children attending an acute sexual assault referral centre in London within a week of alleged sexual assault. DESIGN: Retrospective case note review of all children aged 12 years and under who reported between 1 January 2008 and 31 December 2013. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Age, sex, ethnicity, drugs and alcohol around the time of assault, nature of offence, relationship with perpetrator, additional violence, verbal threats, presence of injury...
October 13, 2016: Archives of Disease in Childhood
Ryan Schacht, Douglas Tharp, Ken R Smith
The negative social outcomes in populations with male-biased sex ratios are a growing concern. In general, the expectation is of heightened violence as a result of excess men engaging in antisocial behavior and crime, thereby threatening societal stability. While intuitive, these claims are largely unsupported in the literature. Using mating market theory as our guide, we examine indicators of male mating effort, including (1) violent competition between men (homicide, aggravated assault) and (2) indicators of uncommitted sexual behavior (rape, sex offenses, and prostitution)...
September 28, 2016: Human Nature: An Interdisciplinary Biosocial Perspective
Mitchell Kirwan, Michele R Parkhill, Blake A Schuetz, Ashley Cox
Previous research has determined that alcohol use is frequently associated with sexual aggression perpetration. However, little research has examined the differences between alcohol-involved and nonalcohol-involved assaults among men who are repeat perpetrators of sexual aggression. Eighty men from the community who had self-reported perpetration of two or more sexual assaults, including at least one assault in which the participant was drinking and one assault in which they were sober, were recruited for a within-subjects survey...
September 22, 2016: Journal of Interpersonal Violence
A J Gardner, R Zafonte
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a significant public-health concern. TBI is defined as an acute brain injury resulting from mechanical energy to the head from external physical forces. Some of the leading causes of TBI include falls, assaults, motor vehicle or traffic accidents, and sport-related concussion. Two of the most common identified risk factors are sex (males are nearly three times more likely to suffer a TBI than females); and a bimodal age pattern (persons 65 years and older, and children under 14 years old)...
2016: Handbook of Clinical Neurology
Yelena Bird, Mark Lemstra, Marla Rogers, John Moraros
The transmission and prevalence of Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) among those employed as sex trade workers (STW) is a major public health concern. The present study describes the self-reported responses of 340 STW, at-risk for contracting HIV. The participants were recruited by selective targeting between 2009 and 2010 from within the Saskatoon Health Region (SHR), Saskatchewan, Canada. As of 2012, the SHR has the highest incidence rate of positive test reports for HIV in Canada, at more than three times the national average (17...
December 2016: SAHARA J: Journal of Social Aspects of HIV/AIDS Research Alliance
Michele R Decker, Lorie Benning, Kathleen M Weber, Susan G Sherman, Adebola Adedimeji, Tracey E Wilson, Jennifer Cohen, Michael W Plankey, Mardge H Cohen, Elizabeth T Golub
INTRODUCTION: Gender-based violence (GBV) threatens women's health and safety. Few prospective studies examine physical and sexual violence predictors. Baseline/index GBV history and polyvictimization (intimate partner violence, non-partner sexual assault, and childhood sexual abuse) were characterized. Predictors of physical and sexual violence were evaluated over follow-up. METHODS: HIV-infected and uninfected participants (n=2,838) in the Women's Interagency HIV Study provided GBV history; 2,669 participants contributed 26,363 person years of follow-up from 1994 to 2014...
November 2016: American Journal of Preventive Medicine
Jennifer M Staples, Danielle Eakins, Elizabeth C Neilson, William H George, Kelly Cue Davis, Jeanette Norris
INTRODUCTION: Previous research has demonstrated that a history of adult sexual assault (ASA) is associated with negative outcomes, including trauma symptomatology and fear of sexual intimacy. Disclosing sexual assault might be protective against such negative outcomes. AIM: To examine the indirect effect of trauma symptomatology on the association between disclosing ASA and current sexual functioning. METHODS: Participants included 652 women 21 to 30 years old with a history of ASA recruited from the community...
October 2016: Journal of Sexual Medicine
Michele R Parkhill, Jeanette Norris, Amanda K Gilmore, Danielle M Hessler, William H George, Kelly Cue Davis, Tina Zawacki
Assertive resistance to sexual assault can decrease the likelihood of completed rape and its subsequent aftermath; however, this relationship may be influenced by situational characteristics. This study examined how 2 manipulated variables, level of consensual sex during an encounter and acute alcohol intoxication, along with sexual victimization history, affected women's responses to a hypothetical sexual assault scenario. Female participants were assigned to a drink condition (alcohol/control) and to a consent history condition (low/high)...
2016: Violence and Victims
Yves Lafort, Faustino Lessitala, Balthazar Candrinho, Letitia Greener, Ross Greener, Mags Beksinska, Jenni A Smit, Matthew Chersich, Wim Delva
BACKGROUND: In the context of an operational research project in Tete, Mozambique, use of, and barriers to, HIV and sexual and reproductive health (HIV/SRH) commodities and services for female sex workers (FSWs) were assessed as part of a baseline situational analysis. METHODS: In a cross-sectional survey 311 FSWs were recruited using respondent driven sampling and interviewed face-to-face, and three focus group discussions were held with respectively 6 full-time Mozambican, 7 occasional Mozambican and 9 full-time Zimbabwean FSWs, to investigate use of, and barriers to, HIV/SRH care...
2016: BMC Public Health
Ofer Amram, Blake Byron Walker, Nadine Schuurman, Ian Pike, Natalie Yanchar
Injury is the leading cause of death among children and youth in Canada. Significant disparities in injury mortality rates have been observed between Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal populations, but little is known about the age-, sex-, and mechanism-specific patterns of injury causing death. This study examines paediatric mortality in British Columbia from 2001 to 2009 using comprehensive vital statistics registry data. We highlight important disparities in Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal mortality rates, and use the Preventable Years of Life Lost (PrYLL) metric to identify differences between age groups and the mechanisms of injury causing death...
2016: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Kristin M Anders, Spencer B Olmstead, Elizabeth I Johnson
The purpose of this study was to expand research on emerging adult sexuality by examining first-semester college students' (N = 282) possible selves and strategies related to sex, and by considering whether these varied by demographic characteristics. Students were first asked to describe what they expected and feared regarding sex and sexuality in the coming year and were then asked to articulate strategies for achieving goals and avoiding fears. Content analysis of participants' responses to open-ended questions revealed that expected possible selves commonly discussed included abstinence, interpersonal relationships, physical/sexual health, and exploration...
June 29, 2016: Journal of Sex Research
Tatyana Mollayeva, Shirin Mollayeva, John Lewko, Angela Colantonio
OBJECTIVES: To examine the etiology, prevalence and severity of assault-precipitated work-related traumatic brain injury (wrTBI) in Ontario, Canada through a sex lens. METHODS: Cross-sectional study using data abstracted from the Ontario Workplace Safety and Insurance Board (WSIB) claims files in 2004. Descriptive analyses were conducted to determine the distribution of worker/employment/incident characteristics. RESULTS: Workplace physical violence that resulted in a TBI accounted for 6...
June 16, 2016: Work: a Journal of Prevention, Assessment, and Rehabilitation
(no author information available yet)
On July 31, 2012, HUD published an interim rule entitled "Homeless Emergency Assistance and Rapid Transition to Housing: Continuum of Care Program." The Continuum of Care (CoC) program is designed to address the critical problem of homelessness through a coordinated community-based process of identifying needs and building a system of housing and services to address those needs. This rule amends the CoC program regulations to allow individuals and families to choose housing outside of a CoC's geographic area, subject to certain conditions, and to retain the tenant-based rental assistance under the CoC program...
June 14, 2016: Federal Register
Cynthia J Mollen, Monika Goyal, Jane Lavelle, Philip Scribano
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 2015: Adolescent Medicine: State of the Art Reviews
Sébastien Sicard, Aurélie Mayet, Sandrine Duron, Jean-Baptiste Richard, François Beck, Jean-Baptiste Meynard, Xavier Deparis, Catherine Marimoutou
BACKGROUND: Despite prevention programs, a rising incidence of sexually transmitted infections is currently reported in France. AIMS: Research factors associated with risky sexual behaviors (RSBs) among the French population. METHODS: Subjects aged 15-54 years from the French national survey 'Baromètre santé 2010' were included (n = 16 598). RSB was defined as having multiple partners or failure to use condom at first intercourse with a new partner over past 12 months...
May 24, 2016: Journal of Public Health
Glenn D Walters
The purpose of this study was to determine the direction of the general offending-sexual assault relationship in young males transitioning from late adolescence to early adulthood. It was predicted that the path leading from general offending to sexual assault would be significant and the path leading from sexual assault to general offending would be non-significant. This hypothesis was tested in a convenience sample of 851 male college students using three waves of data. Four cross-lagged correlations were compared after controlling for race, relationship status, blame attributions, and precursors for each predicted variable...
May 22, 2016: Journal of Interpersonal Violence
N Yiannakoulias, D Sanchez-Ramirez, L W Svenson, D C Voaklander
OBJECTIVES: We study the association between changing residence and risks of attempted suicide and violent assault injury in Alberta, Canada. Our primary objective is to understand whether a change in residence between urban, rural and semiurban areas is associated with increased risk of intentional injury. METHODS: Study subjects are a cohort of residents linked to data on emergency department and inpatient hospital admissions between 1999 and 2010. We used generalised estimating equations to model the effects of changing residence on risk of intentional injury while controlling for the influence of age, sex, socio-economic status, Aboriginal status and history of intentional injury...
May 9, 2016: Injury Prevention: Journal of the International Society for Child and Adolescent Injury Prevention
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