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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28350961/remediation-of-a-eutrophic-bay-in-the-baltic-sea
#1
Emil Rydin, Linda Kumblad, Fredrik Wulff, Per Larsson
Eutrophication of coastal ecosystems is a global problem that often results in bottom water oxygen deficiency and in turn promotes sediment phosphorus (P) release (A). In order to increase sediment P retention, we injected dissolved aluminum into the anoxic sediment of a eutrophic semi-enclosed bay in the Baltic Sea, thereby inhibiting P recycling and further eutrophication (B). The P concentration in the bay remained at half, as did phytoplankton biomass (C), compared to pre-treatment conditions and compared to the reference bay...
March 28, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28350438/an-acyl-linked-dimer-of-daptomycin-is-strongly-inhibited-by-the-bacterial-cell-wall
#2
Robert M Taylor, Bradley Scott, Scott Taylor, Michael Palmer
The lipopeptide antibiotic daptomycin is active against Gram-positive pathogens. It permeabilizes bacterial cell membranes, which involves the formation of membrane-associated oligomers. We here studied a dimer of daptomycin whose two subunits were linked through a bivalent aliphatic acyl chain. Unexpectedly, the dimer had very low activity on vegetative Staphylococcus aureus and Bacillus subtilis cells. However, activity resembled that of monomeric daptomycin on liposomes and on B. subtilis L-forms. These findings underscore the importance of the bacterial cell wall in daptomycin resistance...
March 28, 2017: ACS Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346913/selected-food-consumption-mediates-the-association-between-education-level-and-metabolic-syndrome-in-korean-adults
#3
Oh Yoen Kim, So-Young Kwak, Boeun Kim, Young-Sun Kim, Hye Young Kim, Min-Jeong Shin
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Low socioeconomic status (SES) is linked to higher incidence/mortality of cardiovascular disease, but emerging evidence inconsistently reported that education level, a proxy for SES, is related to cardiovascular risk and metabolic syndrome (MetS) in Koreans. Furthermore, limited information is available on whether dietary components would mediate the relationship between education level and cardiovascular risk. We hypothesized that selected food consumption mediates the association between education level and MetS prevalence...
March 28, 2017: Annals of Nutrition & Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346909/bioaugmentaton-in-technosols-created-in-abandoned-pyritic-tailings-can-contribute-to-enhance-soil-c-sequestration-and-plant-colonization
#4
Raúl Zornoza, Melisa Gómez-Garrido, Silvia Martínez-Martínez, María Dolores Gómez-López, Ángel Faz
Creation of Technosols in combination with phytostabilization may be a sustainable strategy to minimize the environmental and human health hazards derived from mine tailings. Bioaugmentation can facilitate plant establishment and growth for efficient phytostabilization. In order to assess if bioaugmentation can increase soil quality and fertility, decrease metal(loid) mobility and accelerate plant colonization, a one-year field experiment was designed with creation of Technosols in two tailings ponds with different pH (acidic (AT) and neutral (NT)), with addition of marble waste (MaW) and two organic materials (pig manure (PM) and sewage sludge (SS), without or with inoculation of effective microorganisms (EM) at three rates...
March 24, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346839/characterization-of-vancomycin-resistant-enterococcus-faecalis-and-enterococcus-faecium-isolated-from-fresh-produces-and-human-fecal-samples
#5
Min-Chan Kim, Min-Hyeok Cha, Jae-Gee Ryu, Gun-Jo Woo
Increased enterococcal infections in hospitals and multidrug-resistant and vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE) isolated from humans, animals, and food sources raised public health concern on the presence of VRE in multiple sources. We performed a comparative analysis of the antimicrobial resistance and genetics of VRE isolates derived from fresh produce and human fecal samples. Of 389 Enterococcus isolates, 8 fecal and 3 produce isolates were resistant to vancomycin and teicoplanin; all harbored vanA gene...
March 27, 2017: Foodborne Pathogens and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346727/sulforaphene-enhances-radiosensitivity-of-hepatocellular-carcinoma-through-suppression-of-the-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-pathway
#6
Kewei Ren, Zhen Li, Yahua Li, Wenzhe Zhang, Xinwei Han
Sulforaphene (SFE), a naturally occurring isothiocyanate found in cruciferous vegetables, has attracted increasing attention for its anti-cancer effect in many cancers, including hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). However, the precise role of SFE in the radiosensitivity of HCC is still unclear. Here, cell proliferation and apoptosis were detected by MTT and flow cytometry assay, respectively. The activity of NF-κB was further evaluated by ELISA. We also observed the effect of SFE and/or radiation on tumor growth...
March 27, 2017: Journal of Biochemical and Molecular Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346511/is-manure-an-alternative-to-topsoil-in-road-embankment-restoration
#7
Begoña Peco, Desirée Rivera, Pablo García-Palacios, Berta M Jauregui
One of the main steps in road and railway embankment restoration is the spreading of previously removed topsoil, which provides an input of seeds, organic matter and microorganisms and encourages the establishment of a vegetation cover, essential to stabilise the embankment and blend it with the landscape. However, topsoil is a scarce resource, prompting the search for economic alternatives with similar results. The present study compares the results of spreading topsoil with an organic amendment (manure) for the soil's physico-chemical properties, erosion resistance and microbial activity, floristic richness and composition, and bare soil cover...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346463/changes-in-soil-bacterial-community-structure-as-a-result-of-incorporation-of-brassica-plants-compared-with-continuous-planting-eggplant-and-chemical-disinfection-in-greenhouses
#8
Tianzhu Li, Tongtong Liu, Chengyu Zheng, Chunsheng Kang, Zichao Yang, Xiaotong Yao, Fengbin Song, Runzhi Zhang, Xuerong Wang, Ning Xu, Chunyi Zhang, Wei Li, Shumin Li
Greenhouse eggplant monocropping in China has contributed to the aggravation of soil-borne diseases, reductions in crop quality and yield, and the degradation of physical and chemical soil properties. Crop rotation is one effective way of alleviating the problems of continuous cropping worldwide; however, few studies have reported changes in soil bacterial community structures and physical and chemical soil properties after Brassica vegetables had been rotated with eggplant in greenhouses. In this experiment, mustard-eggplant (BFN) and oilseed rape-eggplant (BFC) rotations were studied to identify changes in the physicochemical properties and bacterial community structure in soil that was previously subject to monocropping...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346448/a-footprint-of-desiccation-tolerance-in-the-genome-of-xerophyta-viscosa
#9
Maria-Cecília D Costa, Mariana A S Artur, Julio Maia, Eef Jonkheer, Martijn F L Derks, Harm Nijveen, Brett Williams, Sagadevan G Mundree, José M Jiménez-Gómez, Thamara Hesselink, Elio G W M Schijlen, Wilco Ligterink, Melvin J Oliver, Jill M Farrant, Henk W M Hilhorst
Desiccation tolerance is common in seeds and various other organisms, but only a few angiosperm species possess vegetative desiccation tolerance. These 'resurrection species' may serve as ideal models for the ultimate design of crops with enhanced drought tolerance. To understand the molecular and genetic mechanisms enabling vegetative desiccation tolerance, we produced a high-quality whole-genome sequence for the resurrection plant Xerophyta viscosa and assessed transcriptome changes during its dehydration...
March 27, 2017: Nature Plants
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346447/synthetic-control-of-flowering-in-rice-independent-of-the-cultivation-environment
#10
Ryo Okada, Yasue Nemoto, Naokuni Endo-Higashi, Takeshi Izawa
For genetically homogeneous crops, the timing of flowering is determined largely by the cultivation environment and is strongly associated with the yield and quality of the harvest(1). Flowering time and other agronomical traits are often tightly correlated, which can lead to difficulty excluding the effects of flowering time when evaluating the characteristics of different genetic varieties(2). Here, we describe the development of transgenic rice plants whose flowering time can be controlled by specific agrochemicals...
March 27, 2017: Nature Plants
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346437/friction-forces-position-the-neural-anlage
#11
Michael Smutny, Zsuzsa Ákos, Silvia Grigolon, Shayan Shamipour, Verena Ruprecht, Daniel Čapek, Martin Behrndt, Ekaterina Papusheva, Masazumi Tada, Björn Hof, Tamás Vicsek, Guillaume Salbreux, Carl-Philipp Heisenberg
During embryonic development, mechanical forces are essential for cellular rearrangements driving tissue morphogenesis. Here, we show that in the early zebrafish embryo, friction forces are generated at the interface between anterior axial mesoderm (prechordal plate, ppl) progenitors migrating towards the animal pole and neurectoderm progenitors moving in the opposite direction towards the vegetal pole of the embryo. These friction forces lead to global rearrangement of cells within the neurectoderm and determine the position of the neural anlage...
March 27, 2017: Nature Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346353/intake-and-dietary-food-sources-of-fibre-in-spain-differences-with-regard-to-the-prevalence-of-excess-body-weight-and-abdominal-obesity-in-adults-of-the-anibes-study
#12
Liliana G González-Rodríguez, José Miguel Perea Sánchez, Javier Aranceta-Bartrina, Ángel Gil, Marcela González-Gross, Lluis Serra-Majem, Gregorio Varela-Moreiras, Rosa M Ortega
The aim was to study the intake and food sources of fibre in a representative sample of Spanish adults and to analyse its association with excess body weight and abdominal obesity. A sample of 1655 adults (18-64 years) from the ANIBES ("Anthropometric data, macronutrients and micronutrients intake, practice of physical activity, socioeconomic data and lifestyles") cross-sectional study was analysed. Fibre intake and dietary food sources were determined by using a three-day dietary record. Misreporters were identified using the protocol of the European Food Safety Authority...
March 25, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28345756/the-dawn-of-dentistry-in-the-late-upper-paleolithic-an-early-case-of-pathological-intervention-at-riparo-fredian
#13
Gregorio Oxilia, Flavia Fiorillo, Francesco Boschin, Elisabetta Boaretto, Salvatore A Apicella, Chiara Matteucci, Daniele Panetta, Rossella Pistocchi, Franca Guerrini, Cristiana Margherita, Massimo Andretta, Rita Sorrentino, Giovanni Boschian, Simona Arrighi, Irene Dori, Giuseppe Mancuso, Jacopo Crezzini, Alessandro Riga, Maria C Serrangeli, Antonino Vazzana, Piero A Salvadori, Mariangela Vandini, Carlo Tozzi, Adriana Moroni, Robin N M Feeney, John C Willman, Jacopo Moggi-Cecchi, Stefano Benazzi
OBJECTIVES: Early evidence for the treatment of dental pathology is found primarily among food-producing societies associated with high levels of oral pathology. However, some Late Pleistocene hunter-gatherers show extensive oral pathology, suggesting that experimentation with therapeutic dental interventions may have greater antiquity. Here, we report the second earliest probable evidence for dentistry in a Late Upper Paleolithic hunter-gatherer recovered from Riparo Fredian (Tuscany, Italy)...
March 27, 2017: American Journal of Physical Anthropology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28345675/a-myb-transcription-factor-dcmyb6-is-involved-in-regulating-anthocyanin-biosynthesis-in-purple-carrot-taproots
#14
Zhi-Sheng Xu, Kai Feng, Feng Que, Feng Wang, Ai-Sheng Xiong
Carrots are widely grown and enjoyed around the world. Purple carrots accumulate rich anthocyanins in the taproots, while orange, yellow, and red carrots accumulate rich carotenoids in the taproots. Our previous studies indicated that variation in the activity of regulatory genes may be responsible for variations in anthocyanin production among various carrot cultivars. In this study, an R2R3-type MYB gene, designated as DcMYB6, was isolated from a purple carrot cultivar. In a phylogenetic analysis, DcMYB6 was grouped into an anthocyanin biosynthesis-related MYB clade...
March 27, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28345046/canopy-near-infrared-reflectance-and-terrestrial-photosynthesis
#15
Grayson Badgley, Christopher B Field, Joseph A Berry
Global estimates of terrestrial gross primary production (GPP) remain highly uncertain, despite decades of satellite measurements and intensive in situ monitoring. We report a new approach for quantifying the near-infrared reflectance of terrestrial vegetation (NIRV). NIRV provides a foundation for a new approach to estimate GPP that consistently untangles the confounding effects of background brightness, leaf area, and the distribution of photosynthetic capacity with depth in canopies using existing moderate spatial and spectral resolution satellite sensors...
March 2017: Science Advances
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28344634/an-image-analysis-pipeline-for-automated-classification-of-imaging-light-conditions-and-for-quantification-of-wheat-canopy-cover-time-series-in-field-phenotyping
#16
Kang Yu, Norbert Kirchgessner, Christoph Grieder, Achim Walter, Andreas Hund
BACKGROUND: Robust segmentation of canopy cover (CC) from large amounts of images taken under different illumination/light conditions in the field is essential for high throughput field phenotyping (HTFP). We attempted to address this challenge by evaluating different vegetation indices and segmentation methods for analyzing images taken at varying illuminations throughout the early growth phase of wheat in the field. 40,000 images taken on 350 wheat genotypes in two consecutive years were assessed for this purpose...
2017: Plant Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28344585/ectopic-expression-of-ossta2-enhances-salt-stress-tolerance-in-rice
#17
Manu Kumar, Juyoung Choi, Gynheung An, Seong-Ryong Kim
Salt stress can severely reduce crop yields. To understand how rice (Oryza sativa) plants respond to this environmental challenge, we investigated the genes involved in conferring salt tolerance by screening T-DNA tagging lines and identified OsSta2-D (Oryza sativa Salt tolerance activation 2-Dominant). In that line, expression of OsSta2 was enhanced by approximately eightfold when compared with the non-transformed wild type (WT). This gene was highly expressed in the callus, roots, and panicles. To confirm its role in stress tolerance, we generated transgenic rice that over-expresses OsSta2 under a maize ubiquitin promoter...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28344392/seasonal-population-dynamics-of-sargassum-fusiforme-fucales-phaeophyta-suo-oshima-is-seto-inland-sea-japan-development-processes-of-a-stand-characterized-by-high-density-and-productivity
#18
Goro Yoshida, Hiromori Shimabukuro
Seasonal population dynamics of Sargassum fusiforme, one of the most important edible macroalgae in Japan, were studied. Recruits were mainly generated by vegetative reproduction at the margins of filamentous holdfasts. They first appeared in late spring and peaked in summer as upright thalli of the previous generation withered. After producing recruits, holdfasts withered indicating that holdfasts were also annual, the same as upright thalli. All recruits produced main branches and became new upright thalli in early autumn...
2017: Journal of Applied Phycology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28344355/increased-soil-nutrition-and-decreased-light-intensity-drive-species-loss-after-eight-years-grassland-enclosures
#19
Jingpeng Li, Zhirong Zheng, Hongtao Xie, Nianxi Zhao, Yubao Gao
Enclosures (fenced, grazing or clipping) within a certain period of years are the most common tools for restoration of degraded grasslands in temperate regions. Short-term enclosures can improve biodiversity and productivity by effectively relieving grazing pressure, while long-term enclosures can reduce species diversity. We therefore carried out a field experiment to investigate the specific causes of the reduced species diversity in Hulunbeier grassland of northern China. After eight years of enclosure, the significantly increased soil available nitrogen (AN) and available phosphorus (AvP) in enclosure community reduced nitrogen (N) limitation but most vegetation was still N limited...
March 27, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28343400/lifestyles-and-mortality-in-taiwan
#20
Yen-Huai Lin, Po-Wen Ku, Pesus Chou
The associations of modifiable lifestyle-related factors with cardiovascular and all-cause mortality were examined in a population-based sample of older Taiwanese people. A total of 4176 individuals aged 50 years and older, with 11 years of follow-up, were analyzed. Current and former smokers had a higher risk of all-cause mortality compared with never smokers ([HR = 1.33; 95% CI = 1.12, 1.58], [HR = 1.39; 95% CI = 1.16, 1.68]). Low intake of vegetables and fruits was associated with a significantly higher risk of 1...
March 1, 2017: Asia-Pacific Journal of Public Health
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