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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28533124/the-novel-gene-mtb192-is-a-candidate-marker-for-the-detection-of-multidrug-resistant-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-strains
#1
Junhua Chen, Li Jiang, Wei Su, Gaihuan Zheng, Xu Hongmei
BACKGROUND: Multi-drug resistant tuberculosis (TB) is one of the most main threats to the global TB control work at present. And it's very difficult to detect. From a screen of differentially expressed genes in multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) strains, we identified a new gene, mtb192. In the present study, we verified the association of mtb192 with TB drug resistance by detecting its expression in clinical isolates from paediatric TB patients. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The homology of mtb192 was analysed by gene blasting in GenBank...
May 19, 2017: Gene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527817/lymphatic-filariasis-elimination-efforts-in-rufiji-south-eastern-tanzania-decline-in-circulating-filarial-antigen-prevalence-in-young-school-children-after-twelve-rounds-of-mass-drug-administration-and-utilization-of-long-lasting-insecticide-treated-nets
#2
Clarer Jones, Billy Ngasalla, Yahya A Derua, Donath Tarimo, Mwelecele N Malecela
BACKGROUND: Lymphatic filariasis (LF) is a parasitic infection transmitted by mosquito vectors and in sub Saharan Africa it is caused by nematode Wuchereria bancrofti. The disease has been targeted for global elimination by using annual mass drug administration (MDA) strategy. On the other hand, vector control is known to play important complementary role to the MDAs in reducing LF transmission. We report the findings of the effect of MDA and ITNs intervention implemented in endemic area of south-eastern Tanzania METHODS: A cross-sectional study for W...
May 17, 2017: International Journal of Infectious Diseases: IJID
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28525356/synthesis-biological-activity-and-molecular-modeling-study-of-new-schiff-bases-incorporated-with-indole-moiety
#3
Ahmed H Halawa, Shimaa Mohamed Abd El-Gilil, Ahmed H Bedair, Mohamed Shaaban, Marcel Frese, Norbert Sewald, Essam M Eliwa, Ahmed M El-Agrody
A new series of heterocyclic Schiff bases 2-9 containing indole moiety were synthesized by facile and efficient condensation of indole-3/2/5-carboxaldehyde (1a/1b/1c) with different aromatic and heterocyclic primary amines using conventional and/or microwave irradiation methods. The structures of the obtained compounds were assigned by sophisticated spectroscopic and spectrometric techniques (1D-NMR, 2D-NMR and MS). The synthesized compounds were screened for their cytotoxicity and antibacterial activities...
May 18, 2017: Zeitschrift Für Naturforschung. C, A Journal of Biosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28522589/identification-of-cancer-targeted-tropomyosin-inhibitors-and-their-synergy-with-microtubule-drugs
#4
Mark A Currier, Justine R Stehn, Ashleigh Swain, Duo Chen, Jeff Hook, Eleanor Eiffe, Andrew Heaton, David Brown, Brooke Nartker, David W Eaves, Nina Kloss, Herbert Treutlein, Jun Zeng, Irina B Alieva, Vera B Dugina, Edna C Hardeman, Peter W Gunning, Timothy P Cripe
Actin filaments, with their associated tropomyosin polymers, and microtubules are dynamic cytoskeletal systems regulating numerous cell functions. While anti-microtubule drugs are well-established, anti-actin drugs have been more elusive. We previously targeted actin in cancer cells by inhibiting the function of a tropomyosin isoform enriched in cancer cells, Tpm3.1, using a first-in-class compound, TR100. Here, we screened over 200 other anti-tropomyosin analogues for anti-cancer and on-target activity using a series of in vitro cell-based and biochemical assays...
May 18, 2017: Molecular Cancer Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28521811/the-malaria-testing-and-treatment-landscape-in-mainland-tanzania-2016
#5
Daniel Michael, Sigsbert Patila Mkunde
BACKGROUND: Understanding the key characteristics of malaria testing and treatment is essential to the control of a disease that continues to pose a major risk of morbidity and mortality in mainland Tanzania, with evidence of a resurgence of the disease in recent years. The introduction of artemisinin combination therapy (ACT) as the first-line treatment for malaria, alongside policies to promote rational case management following testing, highlights the need for evidence of anti-malarial and testing markets in the country...
April 24, 2017: Malaria Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28520533/a-fully-automated-high-throughput-zebrafish-behavioral-ototoxicity-assay
#6
Douglas W Todd, Rohit C Philip, Maki Niihori, Ryan A Ringle, Kelsey R Coyle, Sobia F Zehri, Jordan A Mudery, Ross H Francis, Jeffrey J Rodriguez, Abraham Jacob
Zebrafish animal models lend themselves to behavioral assays that can facilitate rapid screening of ototoxic, otoprotective, and otoregenerative drugs. Structurally similar to human inner ear hair cells, the mechanosensory hair cells on their lateral line allow the zebrafish to sense water flow and orient head-to-current in a behavior called rheotaxis. This rheotaxis behavior deteriorates in a dose-dependent manner with increased exposure to the ototoxin cisplatin, thereby establishing itself as an excellent biomarker for anatomic damage to lateral line hair cells...
May 18, 2017: Zebrafish
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28514963/patient-centered-primary-care-for-adults-at-high-risk-for-auds-the-choosing-healthier-drinking-options-in-primary-care-choice-trial
#7
Katharine A Bradley, Evette Joy Ludman, Laura J Chavez, Jennifer F Bobb, Susan J Ruedebusch, Carol E Achtmeyer, Joseph O Merrill, Andrew J Saxon, Ryan M Caldeiro, Diane M Greenberg, Amy K Lee, Julie E Richards, Rachel M Thomas, Theresa E Matson, Emily C Williams, Eric Hawkins, Gwen Lapham, Daniel R Kivlahan
BACKGROUND: Most patients with alcohol use disorders (AUDs) never receive alcohol treatment, and experts have recommended management of AUDs in primary care. The Choosing Healthier Drinking Options In primary CarE (CHOICE) trial was a randomized controlled effectiveness trial of a novel intervention for primary care patients at high risk for AUDs. This report describes the conceptual and scientific foundation of the CHOICE model of care, critical elements of the CHOICE trial design consistent with the Template for Intervention Description and Replication (TIDieR), results of recruitment, and baseline characteristics of the enrolled sample...
May 17, 2017: Addiction Science & Clinical Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28511381/prevalence-of-carbapenem-resistant-non-fermenting-gram-negative-bacterial-infection-and-identification-of-carbapenemase-producing-nfgnb-isolates-by-simple-phenotypic-tests
#8
Jane Esther, Diego Edwin, Uma
INTRODUCTION: Non-Fermenting Gram negative bacilli (NFGNB) are emerging multi-drug resistant pathogens causing nosocomial infections. In recent years, carbapenem resistance in NFGNB has increased due to a variety of drug resistance mechanisms, the most common being production of carbapenemases. AIM: To detect carbapenemase and metallo-β-lactamase (MBL) production in NFGNBs by four phenotypic tests and to compare the various phenotypic methods for detection of carbapenemase and MBL production in nosocomial NFGNB isolates...
March 2017: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28492929/hepatitis-c-virus-infection-among-reproductive-aged-women-and-children-in-the-united-states-2006-to-2014
#9
Kathleen N Ly, Ruth B Jiles, Eyasu H Teshale, Monique A Foster, Rick L Pesano, Scott D Holmberg
Background: In the United States, hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection has increased among young persons who inject drugs, but the extent of this epidemic among reproductive-aged women and their children is unknown. Objective: To estimate numbers and describe characteristics of reproductive-aged women with HCV infection and of their offspring. Design: Analysis of the National Notifiable Diseases Surveillance System (NNDSS) from 2006 to 2014 and the Quest Diagnostics Health Trends national database from 2011 to 2014...
May 9, 2017: Annals of Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28490970/antibacterial-activities-of-the-methanol-extracts-of-albizia-adianthifolia-alchornea-laxiflora-laportea-ovalifolia-and-three-other-cameroonian-plants-against-multi-drug-resistant-gram-negative-bacteria
#10
Cedric F Tchinda, Igor K Voukeng, Veronique P Beng, Victor Kuete
In the last 10 years, resistance in Gram-negative bacteria has been increasing. The present study was designed to evaluate the in vitro antibacterial activities of the methanol extracts of six Cameroonian medicinal plants Albizia adianthifolia, Alchornea laxiflora, Boerhavia diffusa, Combretum hispidum, Laportea ovalifolia and Scoparia dulcis against a panel of 15 multidrug resistant Gram-negative bacterial strains. The broth microdilution was used to determine the minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimal bactericidal concentration (MBC) of the extracts...
May 2017: Saudi Journal of Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28483691/3d-tumor-microtissues-as-an-in-vitro-testing-platform-for-microenvironmentally-triggered-drug-delivery-systems
#11
Virginia Brancato, Filomena Gioiella, Martina Profeta, Giorgia Imparato, Daniela Guarnieri, Francesco Urciuolo, Pietro Melone, Paolo A Netti
Therapeutic approaches based on nanomedicine have garnered great attention in cancer research. In vitro biological models that better mimic in vivo conditions are crucial tools to more accurately predict their therapeutic efficacy in vivo. In this work, a new 3D breast cancer microtissue has been developed to recapitulate the complexity of the tumor microenvironment and to test its efficacy as screening platform for drug delivery systems. The proposed 3D cancer model presents human breast adenocarcinoma cells and cancer-associated fibroblasts embedded in their own ECM, thus showing several features of an in vivo tumor, such as overexpression of metallo-proteinases (MMPs)...
May 5, 2017: Acta Biomaterialia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28482405/-efficacy-and-safety-of-pegylated-interferon-%C3%AE-2b-injection-y-shape-40-kd-in-treatment-of-patients-with-genotype-1-6-chronic-hepatitis-c
#12
B Feng, J Shang, S H Wu, H Chen, Y Han, Y Q Li, D Z Zhang, L F Zhao, S F Wei, Q Mao, C B Yin, T Han, M R Wang, S J Chen, J Li, Q Xie, Z Zhen, Z L Gao, Y X Zhang, G Z Gong, D L Yang, C Pan, J F Sheng, H Tang, Q Ning, G F Shi, J Q Niu, G H Luo, Y T Sun, H You, G Q Wang, L L Zhang, J Peng, Q Zhang, J J Liu, C W Chen, X Y Chen, W Zhao, R H Wang, L Sun, L Wei
Objective: To investigate the efficacy and safety of the new investigational drug pegylated interferon α-2b (Peg-IFN-α-2b) (Y shape, 40 kD) injection (180 µg/week) combined with ribavirin in the treatment of patients with genotype 1/6 chronic hepatitis C (CHC), with standard-dose Peg-IFN-α-2a combined with ribavirin as a positive control. Methods: A multicenter, randomized, open-label, and positive-controlled phase III clinical trial was performed. Eligible patients with genotype 1/6 CHC were screened out and randomly divided into Peg-IFN-α-2b(Y shape, 40kD) group and Peg-IFN-α-2a group at a ratio of 2:1...
March 20, 2017: Zhonghua Gan Zang Bing za Zhi, Zhonghua Ganzangbing Zazhi, Chinese Journal of Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28480417/evaluation-of-anticancer-potential-of-eight-vegetal-species-from-the-state-of-oaxaca
#13
Karla Isabel Lira-De León, Mayra Herrera-Martínez, Marco Vinicio Ramirez-Mares, Beatriz Hernández-Carlos
BACKGROUND: Eight plant species from Oaxaca, some of them used in traditional medicine, were subjected to screening of several biological activities to provide data regarding their anticancer potential, although no scientific information is available about their pharmacological effects. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Methanol extracts from stems or roots of the eight plants were tested for antioxidant activity by the DPPH- method. Antimicrobial activity was determined using the agar diffusion method and the minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) was obtained by broth dilution method...
2017: African Journal of Traditional, Complementary, and Alternative Medicines: AJTCAM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28477266/combination-of-multiple-neural-crest-migration-assays-to-identify-environmental-toxicants-from-a-proof-of-concept-chemical-library
#14
Johanna Nyffeler, Xenia Dolde, Alice Krebs, Kevin Pinto-Gil, Manuel Pastor, Mamta Behl, Tanja Waldmann, Marcel Leist
Many in vitro tests have been developed to screen for potential neurotoxicity. However, only few cell function-based tests have been used for comparative screening, and thus experience is scarce on how to confirm and evaluate screening hits. We addressed these questions for the neural crest cell migration test (cMINC). After an initial screen, a hit follow-up strategy was devised. A library of 75 compounds plus internal controls (NTP80-list), assembled by the National Toxicology Program of the USA (NTP) was used...
May 5, 2017: Archives of Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28473245/the-development-and-use-of-a-drug-induced-immunosuppressed-rat-model-to-screen-phela-for-mechanism-of-immune-stimulation
#15
Makhotso Rose Lekhooa, Andrew Walubo, Jan B du Plessis, Motlalepula Gilbert Matsabisa
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGY RELEVANCY: Phela, is code name for a medicinal product made from four South African traditional medicinal plants (Clerodendrum glabrum E. Mey, Polianthes tuberosa (Linn.), Rotheca myricoides (Hochst.) Steane & Mabb. and Senna occidentalis (L.) Link). All these plants have established traditional use in a wide spectrum of diseases. It is under development for use as an immune booster in immunocompromised patients, which includes patients with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)...
May 1, 2017: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28472982/comparative-safety-of-anti-epileptic-drugs-during-pregnancy-a-systematic-review-and-network-meta-analysis-of-congenital-malformations-and-prenatal-outcomes
#16
Areti Angeliki Veroniki, Elise Cogo, Patricia Rios, Sharon E Straus, Yaron Finkelstein, Ryan Kealey, Emily Reynen, Charlene Soobiah, Kednapa Thavorn, Brian Hutton, Brenda R Hemmelgarn, Fatemeh Yazdi, Jennifer D'Souza, Heather MacDonald, Andrea C Tricco
BACKGROUND: Pregnant women with epilepsy frequently experience seizures related to pregnancy complications and are often prescribed anti-epileptic drugs (AEDs) to manage their symptoms. However, less is known about the comparative safety of AED exposure in utero. We aimed to compare the risk of congenital malformations (CMs) and prenatal outcomes of AEDs in infants/children who were exposed to AEDs in utero through a systematic review and Bayesian random-effects network meta-analysis...
May 5, 2017: BMC Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28448781/assessment-of-clinical-pharmacy-interventions-to-reduce-outpatient-use-of-high-risk-medications-in-the-elderly
#17
Sarah C Weddle, A Shaun Rowe, Julie W Jeter, Rachel C Renwick, Shaunta' M Chamberlin, Andrea S Franks
BACKGROUND: Use of high-risk medications in the elderly (HRME) and drug-disease (Rx-DIS) interactions in the elderly, as defined by the Healthcare Effectiveness Data and Information Set (HEDIS) Measures, are significantly associated with mortality, hospital admission, and need for emergency care. No published studies to date evaluate interventions to reduce the use of HEDIS-defined HRME, although many studies have postulated a beneficial effect of such interventions. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effect of pharmacist interventions on use of HRME and Rx-DIS interactions in the outpatient elderly population...
May 2017: Journal of Managed Care & Specialty Pharmacy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28438197/anti-malarial-landscape-in-myanmar-results-from-a-nationally-representative-survey-among-community-health-workers-and-the-private-sector-outlets-in-2015-2016
#18
Si Thu Thein, Hnin Su Su Khin, Aung Thi
BACKGROUND: In 2015/2016, an ACTwatch outlet survey was implemented to assess the anti-malarial and malaria testing landscape in Myanmar across four domains (Eastern, Central, Coastal, Western regions). Indicators provide an important benchmark to guide Myanmar's new National Strategic Plan to eliminate malaria by 2030. METHODS: This was a cross-sectional survey, which employed stratified cluster-random sampling across four regions in Myanmar. A census of community health workers (CHWs) and private outlets with potential to distribute malaria testing and/or treatment was conducted...
April 25, 2017: Malaria Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28438145/insights-into-the-availability-and-distribution-of-oral-artemisinin-monotherapy-in-myanmar-evidence-from-a-nationally-representative-outlet-survey
#19
Si Thu Thein, Hnin Su Su Khin, Aung Thi
BACKGROUND: The containment of artemisinin resistance in Myanmar, historically an important probable origin and route of anti-malarial resistance to the India sub-continent and beyond, is crucial to global malaria control and elimination. This paper describes what is currently known about the sale and distribution of oral artemisinin monotherapy (AMT) across Myanmar, where this medicine is commonly found. METHODS: A nationally representative 2015 outlet survey was conducted in the private sector, and among community health workers across four geographical domains...
April 25, 2017: Malaria Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28434203/topiramate-monotherapy-for-juvenile-myoclonic-epilepsy
#20
REVIEW
Jia Liu, Lu-Ning Wang, Yu-Ping Wang
BACKGROUND: Topiramate is a newer broad-spectrum antiepileptic drug (AED). Some studies have shown the benefits of topiramate monotherapy in the treatment of juvenile myoclonic epilepsy (JME). However, there are no current systematic reviews to determine the efficacy and tolerability of topiramate monotherapy in people with JME. This is an updated version of the original Cochrane Review published in Issue 12, 2015. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the efficacy and tolerability of topiramate monotherapy in the treatment of JME...
April 23, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
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