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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914861/rapid-human-immunodeficiency-virus-testing-and-risk-prevention-in-residents-of-battered-women-s-shelters
#1
Dawn M Johnson, Nicole L Johnson, Curt G Beckwith, Patrick A Palmieri, Caron Zlotnick
BACKGROUND: Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection and intimate partner violence (IPV) are interconnected public health problems. However, few HIV prevention interventions address the unique needs of IPV survivors in shelter and none of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's best-evidence risk reduction interventions adequately explore the complex relationship between IPV and HIV risk. Although battered women's shelters provide a safe and supportive environment for women in crisis, most do not offer HIV risk reduction services or sexual safety planning...
November 30, 2016: Women's Health Issues: Official Publication of the Jacobs Institute of Women's Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909943/simulating-different-dosing-scenarios-for-a-child-appropriate-valproate-er-formulation-in-a-new-pediatric-two-stage-dissolution-model
#2
Frank Karkossa, Antonia Krueger, Jana Urbaniak, Sandra Klein
Predictive in vitro test methods addressing the parameters relevant to drug release in the pediatric gastrointestinal tract could be an appropriate means for reducing the number of in vivo studies in children. However, dissolution models addressing the particular features of pediatric gastrointestinal physiology and typical pediatric dosing scenarios have not yet been described. The objective of the present study was to combine the knowledge on common vehicle types and properties and current information on pediatric gastrointestinal physiology to design a dissolution model that enables a biorelevant simulation of the gastrointestinal conditions in young children...
December 1, 2016: AAPS PharmSciTech
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27902502/zika-virus-and-patient-blood-management
#3
Lawrence T Goodnough, Marisa B Marques
Sporadic Zika virus infections had only occurred in Africa and Asia until an outbreak in Micronesia (Oceania) in 2007. In 2013 to 2014, several outer Pacific Islands reported local outbreaks. Soon thereafter, the virus was likely introduced in Brazil from competing athletes from French Polynesia and other countries that participated in a competition there. Transmission is thought to have occurred through mosquito bites and spread to the immunologically naive population. Being also a flavivirus, the Zika virus is transmitted by the Aedes mosquito that is endemic in South and Central America that is also the vector of West Nile virus, dengue, and chikungunya...
November 29, 2016: Anesthesia and Analgesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27890729/maturation-of-human-embryonic-stem-cell-derived-cardiomyocytes-hesc-cms-in-3d-collagen-matrix-effects-of-niche-cell-supplementation-and-mechanical-stimulation
#4
W Zhang, C W Kong, M H Tong, W H Chooi, N Huang, R A Li, B P Chan
: Cardiomyocytes derived from human embryonic stem cells (hESC-CMs) are regarded as a promising source for regenerative medicine, drug testing and disease modeling. Nevertheless, cardiomyocytes are immature in terms of their contractile structure, metabolism and electrophysiological properties. Here, we fabricate cardiac muscle strips by encapsulating hESC-CMs in collagen-based biomaterials. Supplementation of niche cells at 3% to the number of hESC-CMs enhance the maturation of the hESC-CMs in 3D tissue matrix...
November 24, 2016: Acta Biomaterialia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27886657/receipt-of-addiction-treatment-as-a-consequence-of-a-brief-intervention-for-drug-use-in-primary-care-a-randomized-trial
#5
Theresa W Kim, Judith Bernstein, Debbie M Cheng, Christine Lloyd-Travaglini, Jeffrey H Samet, Tibor P Palfai, Richard Saitz
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Screening, brief intervention and 'referral to treatment' programs have been widely promoted as US federal policy. Little is known about the efficacy of the RT component (referral to treatment) of brief intervention for motivating patients with unhealthy drug use identified by screening to use addiction treatment. This study aimed to compare receipt of addiction treatment following two types of brief intervention for drug use vs a no-intervention control group among primary care patients screening positive for drug use...
November 25, 2016: Addiction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27882088/study-on-the-resistance-mechanism-via-outer-membrane-protein-oprd2-and-metal-%C3%AE-lactamase-expression-in-the-cell-wall-of-pseudomonas-aeruginosa
#6
Shuangqi Cai, Yiqiang Chen, Dezhi Song, Jinliang Kong, Yanbin Wu, Huasong Lu
The aim of the present study was to evaluate the imipenem-resistant mechanism via the outer membrane protein (OMP) OprD2 and metal β-lactamase expression in the cell wall of Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The Pseudomonas aeruginosa was clinically separated and validated by VITEK-2 full-automatic bacteria analyzer. Drug resistance, sensitive antibiotics and minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) were tested using the drug sensitivity analysis system. The phenotype positive strains of MBL genes were screened using the Kirby-Bauer diffusion method by adding metal ion-chelating agent EDTA on the imipenem susceptibility paper...
November 2016: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27872816/evidence-of-triple-mutant-pfdhps-isgnga-haplotype-in-plasmodium-falciparum-isolates-from-north-east-india-an-analysis-of-sulfadoxine-resistant-haplotype-selection
#7
Manuj K Das, Sumi Chetry, Mohan C Kalita, Prafulla Dutta
BACKGROUND: North-east region of India has consistent role in the spread of multi drug resistant Plasmodium (P.) falciparum to other parts of Southeast Asia. After rapid clinical treatment failure of Artemisinin based combination therapy-Sulphadoxine/Pyrimethamine (ACT-SP) chemoprophylaxis, Artemether-Lumefantrine (ACT-AL) combination therapy was introduced in the year 2012 in this region for the treatment of uncomplicated P. falciparum malaria. In a DNA sequencing based polymorphism analysis, seven codons of P...
December 2016: Genomics Data
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27871929/past-present-and-future-of-chemodenervation-with-botulinum-toxin-in-the-treatment-of-oab
#8
Pradeep Tyagi, Mahendra Kashyap, Naoki Yoshimura, Michael Chancellor, Christopher J Chermansky
PURPOSE: We systematically reviewed both pre-clinical and clinical studies on bladder chemodenervation with onabotulinumtoxin A to highlight current limitations and future drug delivery approaches. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We identified peer-reviewed basic and clinical research studies of onabotulinumtoxin A (onaBoNT-A) in the treatment of neurogenic bladder and refractory idiopathic overactive bladder (OAB) published between March 2000 and March 2016. Paired investigators independently screened 125 English language articles to identify controlled studies on onaBoNT-A administration in MEDLINE® database and abstracts presented at annual American Urological Association meetings...
November 18, 2016: Journal of Urology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27859429/tigecycline-reduces-ethanol-intake-in-dependent-and-nondependent-male-and-female-c57bl-6j-mice
#9
Susan E Bergeson, Michelle A Nipper, Jeremiah Jensen, Melinda L Helms, Deborah A Finn
BACKGROUND: The chronic intermittent ethanol (CIE) paradigm is valuable for screening compounds for efficacy to reduce drinking traits related to alcohol use disorder (AUD), as it measures alcohol consumption and preference under physical dependence conditions. Air control-treated animals allow simultaneous testing of similarly treated, nondependent animals. As a consequence, we used CIE to test the hypothesis that tigecycline, a semisynthetic tetracycline similar to minocycline and doxycycline, would reduce alcohol consumption regardless of dependence status...
December 2016: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27852766/compartmentalized-microfluidic-platforms-the-unrivaled-breakthrough-of-in-vitro-tools-for-neurobiological-research
#10
Estrela Neto, Luís Leitão, Daniela M Sousa, Cecília J Alves, Inês S Alencastre, Paulo Aguiar, Meriem Lamghari
Microfluidic technology has become a valuable tool to the scientific community, allowing researchers to study fine cellular mechanisms with higher variable control compared with conventional systems. It has evolved tremendously, and its applicability and flexibility made its usage grow exponentially and transversely to several research fields. This has been particularly noticeable in neuroscience research, where microfluidic platforms made it possible to address specific questions extending from axonal guidance, synapse formation, or axonal transport to the development of 3D models of the CNS to allow pharmacological testing and drug screening...
November 16, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27851714/preexposure-prophylaxis-for-hiv-prevention-in-a-large-integrated-health-care-system-adherence-renal-safety-and-discontinuation
#11
Julia L Marcus, Leo B Hurley, Charles Bradley Hare, Dong Phuong Nguyen, Tony Phengrasamy, Michael J Silverberg, Juliet E Stoltey, Jonathan E Volk
BACKGROUND: Placebo-controlled and open-label studies have demonstrated the safety and efficacy of daily oral preexposure prophylaxis (PrEP) in preventing HIV infection, but data are limited on real-world PrEP use. METHODS: We conducted a cohort study from July 2012 through June 2015 of Kaiser Permanente Northern California members initiating PrEP. We assessed pharmacy refill adherence and discontinuation, decreases in estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR), and sexually transmitted infection (STI)/HIV incidence...
December 15, 2016: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27849333/fibrates-for-primary-prevention-of-cardiovascular-disease-events
#12
REVIEW
Tobias Jakob, Alain J Nordmann, Stefan Schandelmaier, Ignacio Ferreira-González, Matthias Briel
BACKGROUND: Fibrates are effective for modifying atherogenic dyslipidaemia, and particularly for lowering serum triglycerides. However, evidence that fibrates reduce mortality and morbidity associated with cardiovascular disease (CVD), or overall mortality and morbidity, in the primary prevention of CVD is lacking. OBJECTIVES: This Cochrane Review and meta-analysis aimed to evaluate the clinical benefits and harms of fibrates versus placebo or usual care or fibrates plus other lipid-modifying drugs versus other lipid-modifying drugs alone for the primary prevention of cardiovascular disease (CVD) morbidity and mortality...
November 16, 2016: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27842543/design-of-the-indian-nca-study-indian-national-collaboration-on-aids-a-cluster-randomized-trial-to-evaluate-the-effectiveness-of-integrated-care-centers-to-improve-hiv-outcomes-among-men-who-have-sex-with-men-and-persons-who-inject-drugs-in-india
#13
Sunil S Solomon, Gregory M Lucas, David D Celentano, Allison M McFall, Elizabeth Ogburn, Lawrence H Moulton, Aylur K Srikrishnan, M Suresh Kumar, Santhanam Anand, Suniti Solomon, Shruti H Mehta
BACKGROUND: Globally, men who have sex with men and people who inject drugs remain disproportionately affected by HIV, but they have not been the focus of prevention and treatment interventions in many resource-limited settings. METHODS/DESIGN: This cluster-randomized trial (conducted from June 2012 to June 2017), evaluates whether single-venue, integrated delivery of core HIV services to vulnerable high-risk populations improves service utilization and consequently, HIV testing and other outcomes along the HIV care continuum...
November 14, 2016: BMC Health Services Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27836953/correlates-of-tuberculosis-risk-predictive-biomarkers-for-progression-to-active-tuberculosis
#14
REVIEW
Elisa Petruccioli, Thomas J Scriba, Linda Petrone, Mark Hatherill, Daniela M Cirillo, Simone A Joosten, Tom H Ottenhoff, Claudia M Denkinger, Delia Goletti
New approaches to control the spread of tuberculosis (TB) are needed, including tools to predict development of active TB from latent TB infection (LTBI). Recent studies have described potential correlates of risk, in order to inform the development of prognostic tests for TB disease progression. These efforts have included unbiased approaches employing "omics" technologies, as well as more directed, hypothesis-driven approaches assessing a small set or even individual selected markers as candidate correlates of TB risk...
December 2016: European Respiratory Journal: Official Journal of the European Society for Clinical Respiratory Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27825889/carcinoembryonic-antigen-detection-with-handing-controlled-fluorescence-spectroscopy-using-a-color-matrix-for-point-of-care-applications
#15
Weijian Qin, Kan Wang, Kun Xiao, Yafei Hou, Wenting Lu, Hao Xu, Yan Wo, Shaoqing Feng, Daxiang Cui
In this study, we developed a power-free, accurate, and portable diagnostic platform called Handing based on embedded technology, which can rapidly detect fluorescent signals from quantum dots (QDs) on lateral flow test strips (LFTSs). The Handing system has three components: a hand-held test terminal, LFTS cartridge, and data server. The hand-held test terminal is the primary system component and it is integrated with tiny components using printed circuit board packaging for image acquisition, processing, and data handling by a specific program...
October 21, 2016: Biosensors & Bioelectronics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27821603/preclinical-models-for-obesity-research
#16
REVIEW
Perry Barrett, Julian G Mercer, Peter J Morgan
A multi-dimensional strategy to tackle the global obesity epidemic requires an in-depth understanding of the mechanisms that underlie this complex condition. Much of the current mechanistic knowledge has arisen from preclinical research performed mostly, but not exclusively, in laboratory mouse and rat strains. These experimental models mimic certain aspects of the human condition and its root causes, particularly the over-consumption of calories and unbalanced diets. As with human obesity, obesity in rodents is the result of complex gene-environment interactions...
November 1, 2016: Disease Models & Mechanisms
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27814737/effects-of-zinc-supplementation-on-obesity-study-protocol-for-a-randomized-controlled-clinical-trial
#17
Kumari M Rathnayake, Kdrr Silva, Ranil Jayawardena
BACKGROUND: The prevalence of obesity is escalating alarmingly worldwide, and it is now becoming a rapidly growing epidemic in developing countries. Recent studies have reported that zinc has been implicated in altered lipid markers, insulin resistance and some obesity markers. There is a lack of evidence on zinc as a potential therapeutic agent to reduce weight and improve metabolic parameters in obese adults. The present study is designed to evaluate the effects of zinc supplementation on obese adults in Sri Lanka...
November 4, 2016: Trials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27809831/tailoring-a-brief-intervention-for-illicit-drug-use-and-alcohol-use-in-irish-methadone-maintained-opiate-dependent-patients-a-qualitative-process
#18
Catherine Darker, Brion Sweeney, Eamon Keenan, Lucy Whiston, Rolande Anderson, Joe Barry
BACKGROUND: The World Health Organization (WHO) recommend the tailoring of a brief intervention (BI) programme of research to ensure that it is both culturally and contextually appropriate for the country and the environment in which it is being tested. The majority of BI research has been conducted with non-opioid dependent participants. The current study developed a tailored BI for illicit drug use and alcohol use to a methadone maintained opioid dependent polydrug using cohort of patients...
November 3, 2016: BMC Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27808542/chronic-cannabis-use-is-associated-with-impaired-fear-extinction-in-humans
#19
Santiago Papini, Lesia M Ruglass, Teresa Lopez-Castro, Mark B Powers, Jasper A J Smits, Denise A Hien
The use of fear conditioning and extinction paradigms to examine intermediate phenotypes of anxiety and stress-related disorders has facilitated the identification of neurobiological mechanisms that underlie specific components of abnormal psychological functioning. Across species, acute pharmacologic manipulation of the endogenous cannabinoid system has provided evidence of its critical role in fear extinction, but the effects of chronic cannabis on extinction are relatively understudied. In rats, chronic cannabinoid administration impairs fear extinction in a drug-free state...
November 3, 2016: Journal of Abnormal Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27801287/designing-synthesis-and-antimicrobial-action-of-oxazoline-and-thiazoline-derivatives-of-fatty-acid-esters
#20
Anis Ahmad, Aiman Ahmad, Raja Sudhakar, Himani Varshney, Naidu Subbarao, Saba Ansari, Abdul Rauf, Asad U Khan
In this study, a novel series of oxazoline and thiazoline were designed as inhibitors of cytochrome P450 14 alpha-sterol demethylase (CYP51) from Candida albicans and peptide deformylase of Escherichia coli. The long chain dibromo derivative of fatty acid esters on reaction with urea and thiourea gave their corresponding oxazolines and thiazolines respectively. All the compounds were characterized by their spectral data (IR, (1)H NMR, (13)C NMR and MS) and tested for antibacterial and antifungal activity by disk diffusion assay and minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) by the broth microdilution method against Gram-positive and Gram-negative strains of bacteria as well as fungus strains...
November 1, 2016: Journal of Biomolecular Structure & Dynamics
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