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YingHui Zhang, Bing Wang, Feng Guo, ZhiZhen Li, GuiJun Qin
Diabetic nephropathy is one of the manifestations of systemic microangiopathy in diabetes. Hesperetin, a natural flavanone glycoside compound in citrus fruits, has been demonstrated to exert hypoglycemic effects and protect kidney in experimental diabetic animals. The current study was aimed to investigate the mechanisms underlying the hypoglycemic effects of hesperetin in high-fat/streptozocin (STZ)-induced diabetic nephropathy. The results showed that mice in whom hesperetin was administered for 4 weeks attenuated the increased fasting blood glucose and impaired glucose tolerance ability that was observed in high-fat/STZ mice...
June 14, 2018: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
Nabil El Jaouhari, Aziz Abouabdillah, Rachid Bouabid, Mohamed Bourioug, Lotfi Aleya, Mohamed Chaoui
This study was conducted over three consecutive years, 2015, 2016 and 2017, in the Imouzzer Kander region located in northwestern Morocco. The main objective is to evaluate apple tree responses to two sustainable deficit irrigation strategies with 75% (T2) and 50% (T3) of calculated crop evapotranspiration (ETc), compared to a control irrigated with 100% ETc (T1). During the three experiment years, estimated reference evapotranspiration (ET0 ) was 630, 684 and 728 mm, respectively, in 2015, 2016 and 2017...
June 14, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Zhixia Li, Jiyun Nie, Zhen Yan, Yang Cheng, Feng Lan, Yunan Huang, Qiusheng Chen, Xubo Zhao, An Li
The presence of pesticide residues in fruit has been of extensive concern worldwide. In this paper, pesticide residues in peach samples in China and their dietary exposure risks for the Chinese general population and children were evaluated. Thirty-nine different pesticides were detected, and 92.3% of samples contained one or more pesticide residues. The most frequently detected pesticide was carbendazim with a detection rate of 60.6%. Residues for eight pesticides in 3.2% of the samples exceeded their MRLs with the highest exceedance of 345%...
June 14, 2018: Regulatory Toxicology and Pharmacology: RTP
Yao Qu, Ki-Hyun Kim, Jan E Szulejko
The effect of flavors on carbonyl compound (CC) emission factors (EF) from electronic cigarettes (ECs) vaping was investigated at the default vaping (voltage) setting in all experiments using a total of 21 lab-made e-liquid samples (five different types of retail flavorant bases: beverage/dessert/fruit/mint/tobacco). Each flavorant base was added to a separate unflavored base composed of a 1:1 mixture of propylene glycol/vegetable glycerol (PG/VG) at four levels (5/10/30/50% (v/v)). The e-liquid CC levels increased linearly with flavorant base content, 1...
June 14, 2018: Environmental Research
Eric J Brunner, Martin J Shipley, Sara Ahmadi-Abhari, Carlos Valencia Hernandez, Jessica G Abell, Archana Singh-Manoux, Ichiro Kawachi, Mika Kivimaki
BACKGROUND: Health inequalities persist into old age. We aimed to investigate risk factors for socioeconomic differences in frailty that could potentially be modified through policy measures. METHODS: In this multi-wave longitudinal cohort study (Whitehall II study), we assessed participants' socioeconomic status, behavioural and biomedical risk factors, and disease status at age 45-55 years, and frailty (defined according to the Fried phenotype) at baseline and at one or more of three clinic visits about 18 years later (mean age 69 years [SD 5·9])...
June 13, 2018: Lancet. Public Health
Arash Asfaram, Mehrorang Ghaedi, Hamedreza Javadian, Alireza Goudarzi
A simple, rapid, and efficient method of dispersive micro solid phase extraction (D-μ-SPE) combined with UV-Vis spectrophotometry via ultrasound-assisted (UA) was applied for the determination and preconcentration of quercetin in extract of watercress (Nasturtium officinale), fruit juice and water samples. The sorbent in this method was synthesized by doping copper and sulfide into the tetragonal structure of SnO2 -nanoparticles (Cu- and S- @SnO2 -NPs) and subsequently loading it on activated carbon (AC). The D-μ-SPE parameters with direct effect on the extraction efficiency of the targeted analyte, such as sample pH, volume of eluent, sorbent mass and ultrasound time were optimized using central composite design method...
October 2018: Ultrasonics Sonochemistry
Ruyu Yao, Michael Heinrich, Zigui Wang, Caroline S Weckerle
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Goji (fruits of Lycium barbarum L. and L. chinense Mill., Solanaceae) have been used as a traditional food and medicine for hundreds of years in Asian countries and are now consumed globally. Quality of herbal medicines is critical for safe use and has been shown to be affected by value chains. AIM OF THE STUDY: Using a value chain (VC) framework, we aim at understanding the influence of different VC types on goji quality and revenue of stakeholders...
June 13, 2018: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
Ronald F van Vollenhoven
The autoimmune rheumatological diseases rheumatoid arthritis (RA), spondyloarthritis (SpA) and systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) are treated with conventional immunosuppressive agents and with modern biological immunomodulators. The latter group of medications have brought about a major change in our ability to control RA and SpA, with more modest results for SLE. The biologicals are very specific in their mechanisms of action, targeting one specific cytokine or one particular cellular marker. Because of this, their efficacy can readily be linked to a single immunomodulatory mechanism...
June 16, 2018: Journal of Internal Medicine
Misa Otoguro, Shunji Suzuki
Grapevine is one of the most widely grown fruit crops in the world. At present, however, there is much concern regarding chemical pollution in viticulture due to the application of chemical fungicides and fertilizers. One viticultural practice to resolve this issue is the application of microorganisms to grapevine as a substitute for chemicals. Some microorganisms act as an enhancer of grape berry quality as well as a suppresser of disease in grapevine through their antagonistic ability and/or systemic resistance inducing ability...
June 16, 2018: Letters in Applied Microbiology
Fedia Souilem, Asma El Ayeb, Brahim Djlassi, Olfa Ayari, Wiem Chiboub, Faten Arbi, Roberta Ascrizzi, Guido Flamini, Fethia Harzallah-Skhiri
This is the first study investigating the chemical composition of essential oils (EOs) isolated from different tissues of Carissa macrocarpa (Eckl.)A.DC, their antimicrobial activity and the anatomical characters of the aerial organs and the fruits. The main EO components were pentadecanal and tetradecan-1-ol (31.9 and 16.5% in fresh leaf EO, resp.), (E)-nerolidol and caryophyllene oxide (27.3 and 15.0% in fruit EO, resp.), linalool and hexahydrofarnesyl acetone (30.9 and 24.9% in stem EO, resp.), benzyl benzoate (24...
June 15, 2018: Chemistry & Biodiversity
Nisha Govender, Siju Senan, Zeti-Azura Mohamed-Hussein, Ratnam Wickneswari
The plant shoot system consists of reproductive organs such as inflorescences, buds and fruits, and the vegetative leaves and stems. In this study, the reproductive part of the Jatropha curcas shoot system, which includes the aerial shoots, shoots bearing the inflorescence and inflorescence were investigated in regard to gene-to-gene interactions underpinning yield-related biological processes. An RNA-seq based sequencing of shoot tissues performed on an Illumina HiSeq. 2500 platform generated 18 transcriptomes...
June 15, 2018: Scientific Reports
Arren Bar-Even
Increasing agricultural productivity is one of the major challenges our society faces. While multiple strategies to enhance plant carbon fixation have been suggested, and partially implemented, most of them are restricted to relatively simple modifications of endogenous metabolism, i.e., "low hanging fruit". Here, I portray the next generation of metabolic solutions to increase carbon fixation rate and yield. These strategies involve major rewiring of central metabolism, including dividing Rubisco's catalysis between several enzymes, replacing Rubisco with a different carboxylation reaction, substituting the Calvin Cycle with alternative carbon fixation pathways, and engineering photorespiration bypass routes that do not release carbon...
August 2018: Plant Science: An International Journal of Experimental Plant Biology
Krzysztof Kamil Wojtanowski, Tomasz Mroczek
The high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) coupled to electrospray ionization (ESI) octopole orthogonal acceleration time-of-flight (TOF) mass spectrometry (MS) was developed to separate secondary metabolites belonging to different groups of compounds with a wide range of polarity, i.e. phenolic acids, flavonoids, sesquiterpenes and others present in minute amounts, in a single run. Moreover, application of ESI-TOF-MS with a simple in source type of fragmentation and high mass accuracy measurements (around 2 ppm) in both positive and negative ionization modes with different and optimized fragmentor voltages, enabled the identification of each single compound based on proposed fragmentation patterns...
October 31, 2018: Analytica Chimica Acta
Worrapan Poomanee, Wantida Chaiyana, Monika Mueller, Helmut Viernstein, Watcharee Khunkitti, Pimporn Leelapornpisid
Propionibacterium acnes has been recognized as a main target for medical treatment of acne since this bacterium promotes acne inflammation by inducing upregulation of pro-inflammatory cytokines production, resulting in an accumulation of neutrophils and oxygen-free radicals produced by neutrophils within acne lesion. The aims of this study were to evaluate the biological activities of Mangifera indica kernel extracts grown in Northern Thailand (Kaew-Moragot cultivar), related to anti-acne properties including antimicrobial effect against acne-inducing bacteria together with the first elucidation of the mechanism of action against Propionibacterium acnes, anti-oxidation, and anti-inflammation...
May 17, 2018: Anaerobe
Veysel Turan, Shahbaz Ali Khan, Mahmood-Ur-Rahman, Muhammad Iqbal, Pia Muhammad Adnan Ramzani, Maryam Fatima
Depleting aquifers, lack of planning and low socioeconomic status of Pakistani farmers have led them to use wastewater (WW) for irrigating their crops causing food contamination with heavy metals and ultimately negative effects on human health. This study evaluates the effects of chitosan (CH) and biochar (BC) on growth and nutritional quality of brinjal plant together with in situ immobilization of heavy metals in a soil polluted with heavy metals due to irrigation with wastewater (SPHIW) and further irrigated with the same WW...
June 12, 2018: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
Aisha Al-Asfar, Zoya Zaheer, Elham Shafik Aazam
Silver-iron bimetallic nanoparticles (BMNPs) were synthesized by using AgNO3 and Fe(NO3 )3 as an Ag/Fe source in presence of Palm dates fruit. Upon addition of extract to a solution of Ag+ and Fe3+ , a prefect transparent stable dark brown color appears with in a few minuets at room temperature. In order to conform the nature of resulting color, UV-visible spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX) techniques were used. The absence of surface plasmon resonance (SPR) peaks in the entire UV-visible region suggests the formation of silvercore -ironshell BMNPs...
June 6, 2018: Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology. B, Biology
Mohsen Falahati-Anbaran, Mitra Mohammadi Bazargani, Jens Rohloff
Conspecific populations of plants in their native range are expected to show considerable variation due to long-term ecological and evolutionary factors. We investigated the levels of secondary metabolites in Heracleum including H. persicum a valuable medicinal plant to depict the magnitude of cryptic variation and the potential significance of novel chemical traits. The essential oil volatiles from fruits of 34 populations from different species of Heracleum in Iranian distribution range and a native and invasive population of H...
June 15, 2018: Chemistry & Biodiversity
Jiadi Sun, Pei Zhu, Xiumei Wang, Jian Ji, Jean de Dieu Habimana, Jingdong Shao, Hongtao Lei, Yinzhi Zhang, Xiulan Sun
Lipopolysaccharide (LPS), a characteristic component of the outer membrane of Gram-negative bacteria, can be used as an effective biomarker to detect bacterial contamination. Here, we reported a 293/hTLR4A-MD2-CD14 cell-based fluorescent biosensor to detect and identify LPS, which is carried out in a 96-well microplate with nondestructive, user-friendly and high efficiency. The promoter sequence of the critical signaling pathway gene ZC3H12A (encoding MCPIP1 protein) and Enhanced Green Fluorescence Protein (EGFP) were combined to construct a recombinant plasmid, which was transferred into 293/hTLR4A-MD2-CD14 cells through lipid-mediated, DNA-transfection way...
June 15, 2018: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
Zala Zorenc, Robert Veberic, Maja Mikulic-Petkovsek
Bilberries are processed into different food products and beverages. Therefore, we studied how various bilberry items (puree, infusion, liqueur, and fresh and pasteurized juices) differ in secondary metabolites as compared to the fresh fruit. For this purpose, we identified phenolics with a liquid chromatography-mass spectrophotometry (LC-MS) system and compared phenolic profiles and phenolic contents in various bilberry products prepared from the same raw material. Our results show that processing significantly affected the biochemical pattern and levels of phenolics...
June 15, 2018: Journal of Food Science
Lissa Davis, Jooyeoun Jung, Ann Colonna, Aimee Hasenbeck, Virginia Gouw, Yanyun Zhao
Blueberry pomace (BP) and cranberry pomace (CP) are good sources of dietary fiber and phenolics. This study aimed to develop berry fruit pomace (FP)-fortified specialty mustard with elevated bioactive compounds and ascertain consumer acceptance of a new product. Wet BP and CP were ground and incorporated into Dijon-style mustard at concentrations of 15%, 20%, and 25% (w/w). Total dietary fiber (TDF), total phenolic content (TPC), and radical scavenging activity (RSA) were evaluated for samples obtained from both chemical extraction (CE) and simulated gastrointestinal digestion (SGD)...
June 15, 2018: Journal of Food Science
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