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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29054808/high-amylose-starch-consumption-induces-obesity-in-drosophila-melanogaster-and-metformin-partially-prevents-accumulation-of-storage-lipids-and-shortens-lifespan-of-the-insects
#1
Oleksandra B Abrat, Janet M Storey, Kenneth B Storey, Volodymyr I Lushchak
There are very few studies that have directly analyzed the effects of dietary intake of slowly digestible starches on metabolic parameters of animals. The present study examined the effects of slowly digestible starch with high amylose content (referred also as amylose starch) either alone, or in combination with metformin on the development, lifespan, and levels of glucose and storage lipids in the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster. Consumption of amylose starch in concentrations 0.25-10% did not affect D...
October 17, 2017: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part A, Molecular & Integrative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29054523/glandular-hair-constituents-of-mallotus-philippinensis-muell-fruit-act-as-tyrosinase-inhibitors-insights-from-enzyme-kinetics-and-simulation-study
#2
Hridya Hemachandran, Fagun Jain, Sankari Mohan, Thirumal Kumar D, George Priya Doss C, Siva Ramamoorthy
The glandular hair extracts from the fruit rind of Mallotus philippinensis Muell. is employed to treat various skin infections, however the anti-tyrosinase activity remains unknown. Hence the present study inspected on the anti-melanogenic activity of M. philippinensis constituents. Lineweaver Burk plot revealed mixed inhibition for Rottlerin; non-competitive type of inhibition for mallotophilippen A and B respectively. Thermodynamic studies resulted in static quenching forming ground state complex with higher binding constant temperature dependently...
October 17, 2017: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29054119/pollinator-independent-orchid-attracts-biotic-pollinators-due-the-production-of-lipoidal-substances
#3
E R Pansarin, P J Bergamo, M J Ferreira-Caliman
● Flowering plants often depend on the attraction of biotic pollinators for sexual reproduction. Consequently, the emergence and maintenance of selected floral attributes related to pollinator attraction and rewarding are driven by pollinators pressures. ● In this paper we explore the effect of pollinators, rainfall, and temperature and air humidity on the reproduction of a Brazilian terrestrial orchid, Cranichis candida based on data of phenology, flower resources, olfactory and visual attraction cues, pollinators and breeding system...
October 20, 2017: Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29054061/microbial-characteristics-analysis-and-kinetic-studies-on-substrate-composition-to-methane-after-microbial-and-nutritional-regulation-of-fruit-and-vegetable-wastes-anaerobic-digestion
#4
Chunhui Zhao, Hui Mu, Yuxiao Zhao, Liguo Wang, Bin Zuo
This study firstly evaluated the microbial role when choosing the acclimated anaerobic granular sludge (AGS) and waste activated sludge (WAS) as microbial and nutritional regulators to improve the biomethanation of fruit and vegetable wastes (FVW). Results showed that the enriched hydrogenotrophic methanogens, and Firmicutes and Spirochaeta in the AGS were responsible for the enhanced methane yield. A synthetic waste representing the mixture of WAS and FVW was then used to investigate the influences of different substrate composition on methane generations...
October 10, 2017: Bioresource Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29054058/study-on-improving-anaerobic-co-digestion-of-cow-manure-and-corn-straw-by-fruit-and-vegetable-waste-methane-production-and-microbial-community-in-cstr-process
#5
Xuemei Wang, Zifu Li, Xue Bai, Xiaoqin Zhou, Sikun Cheng, Ruiling Gao, Jiachen Sun
Based on continuous anaerobic co-digestion of cow manure with available carbon slowly released corn straw, the effect of adding available carbon quickly released fruit and vegetable waste (FVW) was explored, meanwhile microbial community variation was studied in this study. When the FVW added was 5% and 1%, the methane production of the cow manure and corn straw was improved, and the start-up process was shortened. With higher proportion of FVW to 5%, the performance was superior with a mean methane yield increase of 22...
October 10, 2017: Bioresource Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29053788/tropical-rainforest-and-human-modified-landscapes-support-unique-butterfly-communities-that-differ-in-abundance-and-diversity
#6
Hemchandranauth Sambhu, Tobin Northfield, Alliea Nankishore, Abdullah Ansari, Stephen Turton, Richard Redak
Tropical forests account for at least 50% of documented diversity, but anthropogenic activities are converting forests to agriculture and urban areas at an alarming rate, with potentially strong effects on insect abundance and diversity. However, the questions remain whether insect populations are uniformly affected by land conversion and if insect conservation can occur in agricultural margins and urban gardens. We compare butterfly populations in tropical secondary forests to those found in sugarcane and urban areas in coastal Guyana and evaluate the potential for particular butterfly communities to inhabit human-modified landscapes...
October 19, 2017: Environmental Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29053757/generation-of-composite-persea-americana-mill-avocado-plants-a-proof-of-concept-study
#7
S Ashok Prabhu, Buyani Ndlovu, Juanita Engelbrecht, Noëlani van den Berg
Avocado (Persea americana (Mill.)), an important commercial fruit, is severely affected by Phytophthora Root Rot in areas where the pathogen is prevalent. However, advances in molecular research are hindered by the lack of a high-throughput transient transformation system in this non-model plant. In this study, a proof-of-concept is demonstrated by the successful application of Agrobacterium rhizogenes-mediated plant transformation to produce composite avocado plants. Two ex vitro strategies were assessed on two avocado genotypes (Itzamna and A0...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29053639/effects-of-silicon-amendment-on-soilborne-and-fruit-diseases-of-avocado
#8
Elizabeth K Dann, Duy P Le
The effects of silicon (Si) amendment have been studied in several plant/pathogen interactions; however, studies in horticultural tree crops are limited. Effects of amendment with soluble potassium silicate (AgSil(®)32, approximately 30% available Si), or milled cement building board by-products (Mineral Mulch (MM) or Mineral Dust (MD), containing 5% available Si) were investigated in field and greenhouse trials with avocado. Orchard soil drench applications with potassium silicate improved yield and quality of fruit, but visual health of trees declining from Phytophthora root rot (PRR) was not affected...
October 20, 2017: Plants (Basel, Switzerland)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29053616/valorization-challenges-to-almond-residues-phytochemical-composition-and-functional-application
#9
REVIEW
Iva Prgomet, Berta Gonçalves, Raúl Domínguez-Perles, Núria Pascual-Seva, Ana I R N A Barros
Almond is characterized by its high nutritional value; although information reported so far mainly concerns edible kernel. Even though the nutritional and commercial relevance of the almond is restricted to almond meat; to date; increasing attention has been paid to other parts of this fruit (skin; shell; and hull); considered by-products that are scarcely characterized and exploited regarding their properties as valuable sources of bioactive compounds (mainly represented by phenolic acids and flavonoids). This lack of proper valorization procedures entails the continuation of the application of traditional procedures to almond residues that nowadays are mainly addressed to livestock feed and energy production...
October 20, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29053615/residue-dynamics-and-risk-assessment-of-prochloraz-and-its-metabolite-2-4-6-trichlorophenol-in-apple
#10
Qingkui Fang, Gengyou Yao, Yanhong Shi, Chenchun Ding, Yi Wang, Xiangwei Wu, Rimao Hua, Haiqun Cao
The residue dynamics and risk assessment of prochloraz and its metabolite 2,4,6-trichlorophenol (2,4,6-TCP) in apple under different treatment concentrations were investigated using a GC-ECD method. The derivatization percent of prochloraz to 2,4,6-TCP was stable and complete. The recoveries of prochloraz and 2,4,6-TCP were 82.9%-114.4%, and the coefficients of variation (CV) were 0.7%-8.6% for the whole fruit, apple pulp, and apple peel samples. Under the application of 2 °C 2.0 g/L, 2 °C 1.0 g/L, 20 °C 2...
October 20, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29053600/detection-and-management-of-mango-dieback-disease-in-the-united-arab-emirates
#11
Esam Eldin Saeed, Arjun Sham, Ayah AbuZarqa, Khawla A Al Shurafa, Tahra S Al Naqbi, Rabah Iratni, Khaled El-Tarabily, Synan F AbuQamar
Mango is affected by different decline disorders causing significant losses to mango growers. In the United Arab Emirates (UAE), the pathogen was isolated from all tissues sampled from diseased trees affected by Lasiodiplodia theobromae. Symptoms at early stages of the disease included general wilting appearance of mango trees, and dieback of twigs. In advanced stages, the disease symptoms were also characterized by the curling and drying of leaves, leading to complete defoliation of the tree and discolouration of vascular regions of the stems and branches...
October 20, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29053575/the-impact-of-a-weight-loss-intervention-on-diet-quality-and-eating-behaviours-in-people-with-obesity-and-copd
#12
Rebecca F McLoughlin, Vanessa M McDonald, Peter G Gibson, Hayley A Scott, Michael J Hensley, Lesley MacDonald-Wicks, Lisa G Wood
There is a paucity of evidence to guide clinicians about appropriate management strategies for people with obesity and Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD). We have recently published results from the first weight loss intervention in adults (>18 years) with obesity (body mass index; BMI ≥ 30 kg/m²) and COPD, using a low-calorie diet coupled with a partial meal replacement plan and resistance exercise training, which resulted in a 6.4% reduction in weight while maintaining skeletal muscle mass and improving health status...
October 20, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29053470/nbn-superconducting-nanonetwork-fabricated-using-porous-silicon-templates-and-high-resolution-electron-beam-lithography
#13
M Salvato, R Baghdadi, C Cirillo, S L Prischepa, A L Dolgiy, V P Bondarenko, F Lombardi, C Attanasio
Superconducting NbN nanonetworks with a very small number of interconnected nanowires, with diameter of the order of 4 nm, are fabricated combining a bottom-up (use of porous silicon nanotemplates) with a top-down technique (high-resolution electron beam lithography). The method is easy to control and allows the fabrication of devices, on a robust support, with electrical properties close to a one-dimensional superconductor that can be used fruitfully for novel applications.
October 20, 2017: Nanotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29053435/temporal-occurrence-and-niche-preferences-of-phytophthora-species-causing-brown-rot-of-citrus-in-the-central-valley-of-california
#14
W Hao, Timothy D Miles, Frank N Martin, Greg Browne, Helga Forster, James E Adaskaveg
Brown rot of citrus fruits is caused by several species of Phytophthora and is currently of serious concern for the California citrus industry. Two species, P. syringae and P. hibernalis, are quarantine pathogens in China, a major export market for California citrus. To maintain trade and estimate the risk of exporting a quarantine pathogen, the distribution and frequency of Phytophthora species causing brown rot of oranges in major growing areas of California was investigated. Symptomatic fruit were collected from navel (winter to late spring) and Valencia (late spring to summer) orange orchards from 2013 to 2015...
October 20, 2017: Phytopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29052965/from-vineyard-to-winery-a-source-map-of-microbial-diversity-driving-wine-fermentation
#15
Peter Morrison-Whittle, Matthew R Goddard
Humans have been making wine for thousands of years and microorganisms play an integral part in this process as they not only drive fermentation, but also significantly influence the flavour, aroma, and quality of finished wines. Since fruits are ephemeral, they cannot comprise a permanent microbial habitat; thus, an age-old unanswered question concerns the origin of fruit and ferment associated microbes. Here we use next-generation sequencing approaches to examine and quantify the roles of native forests, vineyard soil, bark, and fruit habitats as sources of fungal diversity in ferments...
October 20, 2017: Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29052099/the-novel-ethylene-responsive-factor-cserf025-affects-the-development-of-fruit-bending-in-cucumber
#16
Chunhua Wang, Ming Xin, Xiuyan Zhou, Chunhong Liu, Shengnan Li, Dong Liu, Yuan Xu, Zhiwei Qin
Overexpression of CsERF025 induces fruit bending by promoting the production of ethylene. Cucumber fruit bending critically affects cucumber quality, but the mechanism that causes fruit bending remains unclear. To better understand this mechanism, we performed transcriptome analyses on tissues from the convex (C1) and concave (C2) sides of bending and straight (S) fruit at 2 days post anthesis (DPA). We identified a total of 281 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) from both the convex and concave sides of bent fruit that showed significantly different expression profiles relative to straight fruits...
October 19, 2017: Plant Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29052015/stoichiometry-and-kinetics-of-single-and-mixed-substrate-uptake-in-aspergillus-niger
#17
Francisca Lameiras, Cor Ras, Angela Ten Pierick, Joseph J Heijnen, Walter M van Gulik
In its natural environment, the filamentous fungus Aspergillus niger grows on decaying fruits and plant material, thereby enzymatically degrading the lignocellulosic constituents (lignin, cellulose, hemicellulose, and pectin) into a mixture of mono- and oligosaccharides. To investigate the kinetics and stoichiometry of growth of this fungus on lignocellulosic sugars, we carried out batch cultivations on six representative monosaccharides (glucose, xylose, mannose, rhamnose, arabinose, and galacturonic acid) and a mixture of these...
October 19, 2017: Bioprocess and Biosystems Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29051767/combined-effects-of-irrigation-regime-genotype-and-harvest-stage-determine-tomato-fruit-quality-and-aptitude-for-processing-into-puree
#18
Alexandre Arbex de Castro Vilas Boas, David Page, Robert Giovinazzo, Nadia Bertin, Anne-Laure Fanciullino
Industry tomatoes are produced under a range of climatic conditions and practices which significantly impact on main quality traits of harvested fruits. However, the quality of tomato intended for processing is currently addressed on delivery through color and Brix only, whereas other traits are overlooked. Very few works provided an integrated view of the management of tomato puree quality throughout the chain. To gain insights into pre- and post-harvest interactions, four genotypes, two water regimes, three maturity stages, and two processes were investigated...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29051668/culture-broth-of-ganoderma-lucidum-exhibited-antioxidant-antibacterial-and-%C3%AE-amylase-inhibitory-activities
#19
Rakrudee Sarnthima, Saranyu Khammaung, Piyawan Sa-Ard
Culture broth of Ganoderma lucidum was determined for antioxidant, antibacterial and α-amylase inhibitory activities. The culture broth contained protein as determined by Bradford method equaled to 0.2 mg/ml and total phenol content as 0.078 mg GAE/mg protein (0.557 mg GAE/g extract). It exhibited radicals scavenging activities against ABTS(+·) and DPPH(·) radicals with a half maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) less than 1.70 ± 0.02 and 2.28 ± 0.02 µg protein/ml, respectively and reducing power equaled to 4...
October 2017: Journal of Food Science and Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29051650/optimization-of-the-antioxidant-polyphenolic-compounds-extraction-of-yellow-passion-fruit-seeds-passiflora-edulis-sims-by-response-surface-methodology
#20
Fernanda Carvalho de Santana, Lucillia Rabelo de Oliveira Torres, Fernanda Branco Shinagawa, Ana Mara de Oliveira E Silva, Luciana Tedesco Yoshime, Illana Louise Pereira de Melo, Paulo Sergio Marcellini, Jorge Mancini-Filho
The conditions for the solid-liquid extraction of the antioxidant polyphenol compounds from yellow passion fruit seeds were optimized by response surface methodology with the following variables as the extraction parameters: extraction time (12.8-147.2 min), ethanol concentration (13-97%), and temperature (16.4-83.6 °C). The polyphenol content and antioxidant capacity, which were assessed by the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging activity, oxygen radical absorbance capacity, β-carotene bleaching assay, and ferric reducing antioxidant power assay, were considered dependent variables...
October 2017: Journal of Food Science and Technology
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