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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29130446/the-role-of-mucin-educated-platelet-activation-in-tumor-invasiveness-an-unfolding-concern-in-the-realm-of-cancer-biology
#1
EDITORIAL
Akbar Shoukat Ali, Arzoo Ajaz
Metastasis is a complex and well-coordinated phenotypic transformation of cancer cells governed by aberrant genetic and molecular pathways. It has been approved as the most consistent cause of cancer death. With emerging insight into the genomics, transcriptomics and proteomics, progress has been made and reasonably large number of molecular pathways of metastasis has been forwarded, but our understanding of precise underlying molecular mechanisms remains largely scarce. It has been well-known for around a decade and more that platelets are intriguingly contributing to the cancer metastasis...
December 2017: BioMedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29115417/wnt-%C3%AE-%C3%A2-catenin-pathway-activation-and-silencing-of-the-apc-gene-in-hpv%C3%A2-positive-human-cervical-cancer%C3%A2-derived-cells
#2
Erick Ayala-Calvillo, Luis Humberto Mojica-Vázquez, Alejandro García-Carrancá, Leticia González-Maya
Although persistent infections with high‑risk human papilloma virus (HPV) constitute the most significant cofactor for the development of cervical cancer, they are insufficient on their own. Mutations or epigenetic inactivation of the tumor suppressor adenomatous polyposis coli (APC), the two acting as prominent oncogenic mechanisms in a number of types of cancer, are frequently associated with aberrant activation of the Wnt/β‑catenin pathway. According to these observations, it was hypothesized that APC alteration may lead to β‑catenin deregulation and the abnormal expression of direct targets of the Wnt pathway in HPV‑infected cervical cancer cells...
October 20, 2017: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29115082/genetic-contributions-to-childhood-obesity-association-of-candidate-gene-polymorphisms-and-overweight-obesity-in-korean-preschool-children
#3
Kee Hwan Yoo, Hyung Eun Yim, Eun Soo Bae, Young Sook Hong
This study was aimed to investigate the association of candidate gene polymorphisms and obesity or overweight in young Korean children. A total of 190 Korean preschool children (96 control, 48 overweight, and 46 obese children) were genotyped for the angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) insertion (I)/deletion (D), angiotensin II type 2 receptor (AT2) C3123A, transforming growth factor (TGF)-β1 T869C, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) T460C, and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α G308A polymorphisms. No differences were found among the groups with respect to age, sex, birth weight, blood pressure levels, and serum concentrations of glucose and total cholesterol...
December 2017: Journal of Korean Medical Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29110840/immunohistochemical-and-genetic-characteristics-of-lung-cancer-mimicking-organizing-pneumonia
#4
Tomohiro Ichikawa, Koichi Saruwatari, Sachiyo Mimaki, Masato Sugano, Keiju Aokage, Motohiro Kojima, Tomoyuki Hishida, Satoshi Fujii, Junji Yoshida, Takeshi Kuwata, Atsushi Ochiai, Kenji Suzuki, Masahiro Tsuboi, Koichi Goto, Katsuya Tsuchihara, Genichiro Ishii
INTRODUCTION: Lung cancer mimicking organizing pneumonia (LCOP) is a novel radiological entity of lung adenocarcinoma that could be misdiagnosed as inflammatory lesions. However, the characteristic biological and genetic features of LCOP are not fully clarified. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We used thin-section CT images to select cases of (LCOP) among surgically resected lung adenocarcinoma patients. We compared the clinicopathological characteristics and the immunophenotypes of LCOP (n=44) and other lepidic-predominant adenocarcinomas (non-LCOP, n=56)...
November 2017: Lung Cancer: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Lung Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29100402/stk33-participates-to-hsp90-supported-angiogenic-program-in-hypoxic-tumors-by-regulating-hif-1%C3%AE-vegf-signaling-pathway
#5
Yang Liu, Konrad Steinestel, Arefeh Rouhi, Milena Armacki, Kristina Diepold, Gabriela Chiosis, Thomas Simmet, Thomas Seufferlein, Ninel Azoitei
Lately, the HSP90 client serine/threonine kinase STK33 emerged to be required by cancer cells for their viability and proliferation. However, its mechanistic contribution to carcinogenesis is not clearly understood. Here we report that elevated STK33 expression correlates with advanced stages of human pancreatic and colorectal carcinomas. Impaired proliferation and augmented apoptosis associated with genetic abrogation of STK33 were paralleled by decreased vascularization in tumor xenografts. In line with this, ectopic STK33 not only promoted tumor growth after pharmacologic inhibition of HSP90 using structurally divergent small molecules currently in clinical development, but also restored blood vessel formation in vivo...
September 29, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29082084/vascular-patterning-of-subcutaneous-mouse-fibrosarcomas-expressing-individual-vegf-isoforms-can-be-differentiated-using-angiographic-optical-coherence-tomography
#6
Robert A Byers, Matthew Fisher, Nicola J Brown, Gillian M Tozer, Stephen J Matcher
Subcutaneously implanted experimental tumors in mice are commonly used in cancer research. Despite their superficial location, they remain a challenge to image non-invasively at sufficient spatial resolution for microvascular studies. Here we evaluate the capabilities of optical coherence tomography (OCT) angiography for imaging such tumors directly through the murine skin in-vivo. Data sets were collected from mouse tumors derived from fibrosarcoma cells genetically engineered to express only single splice variant isoforms of vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGF); either VEGF120 or VEGF188 (fs120 and fs188 tumors respectively)...
October 1, 2017: Biomedical Optics Express
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29049091/tumor-microenvironment-and-models-of-ovarian-cancer-the-11th-biennial-rivkin-center-ovarian-cancer-research-symposium
#7
Karen McLean, Geeta Mehta
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to review the latest research advances on the topics of the ovarian cancer tumor microenvironment and models of ovarian cancer. METHODS: In September 2016, a symposium of the leaders in the field of ovarian cancer research was convened to present and discuss current advances and future directions in ovarian cancer research. RESULTS: One session was dedicated to Tumor Microenvironment and Models of Ovarian Cancer, and included a keynote presentation from Anil Sood, MD, and an invited oral presentation from David Huntsman, MD...
October 18, 2017: International Journal of Gynecological Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28982669/targeting-cx40-connexin40-expression-or-function-reduces-angiogenesis-in-the-developing-mouse-retina
#8
Jacques-Antoine Haefliger, Florent Allagnat, Lauriane Hamard, Loïc Le Gal, Paolo Meda, Denise Nardelli-Haefliger, Elisabeth Génot, Florian Alonso
OBJECTIVE: Cx40 (Connexin40) forms intercellular channels that coordinate the electric conduction in the heart and the vasomotor tone in large vessels. The protein was shown to regulate tumoral angiogenesis; however, whether Cx40 also contributes to physiological angiogenesis is still unknown. APPROACH AND RESULTS: Here, we show that Cx40 contributes to physiological angiogenesis. Genetic deletion of Cx40 leads to a reduction in vascular growth and capillary density in the neovascularization model of the mouse neonatal retina...
November 2017: Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28969913/genetic-predisposition-to-bevacizumab-induced-hypertension
#9
Melissa K Frey, Fanny Dao, Narciso Olvera, Jason A Konner, Maura N Dickler, Douglas A Levine
OBJECTIVE: Bevacizumab, a monoclonal antibody to VEGF, has shown efficacy in ovarian, cervical and endometrial cancer in addition to several other solid tumors. Serious side effects include hypertension, proteinuria, bowel perforation, and thrombosis. We tested the hypothesis that genetic variation in hypertension-associated genes is associated with bevacizumab-induced hypertension (BIH). METHODS: Patients with solid tumors treated with bevacizumab in combination with other therapy were identified from six clinical trials...
September 29, 2017: Gynecologic Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28969016/a-validated-transitional-and-translational-porcine-model-of-hepatocellular-carcinoma
#10
Kyle M Schachtschneider, Regina M Schwind, Kwame A Darfour-Oduro, Arun K De, Lauretta A Rund, Kuldeep Singh, Daniel R Principe, Grace Guzman, Charles E Ray, Howard Ozer, Ron C Gaba, Lawrence B Schook
Difficult questions are confronting clinicians attempting to improve hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) outcomes. A large animal model with genetic, anatomical, and physiological similarities to humans is required to transition from mouse models to human clinical trials to address unmet clinical needs. To validate our previously reported inducible porcine cancer model (Oncopig) as a transitional HCC model, Oncopig hepatocyte cultures were transformed using Cre recombinase. The resulting porcine HCC cells (pHCC) expressed oncogenic TP53(R167H) and KRAS(G12D), and displayed nuclear pleomorphisms with pale to granular cytoplasm arranged in expanded plates similar to human HCC histopathology...
September 8, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28966935/brain-derived-neutrophic-factor-bdnf-coordinates-lympho-vascular-metastasis-through-a-fibroblast-governed-paracrine-axis-in-the-tumor-microenvironment
#11
Tilahun Jiffar, Turker Yilmaz, Junegoo Lee, Yair Miller, Lei Feng, Adel El-Naggar, Michael E Kupferman
It has long been known that the tumor microenvironment contributes to the proliferation and survival of neoplasms through the constant interaction with the stromal and immune compartments. In this investigation, we explored the role of cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAFs) in the regulation of the tumor microenvironment in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) though a complex intercellular BDNF-TrkB signaling system. Our studies show that conditioned media derived from patient-derived CAFs promoted HNSCC cell proliferation, in vitro cell migration, cell invasion and chemotherapy resistance, compared to normal fibroblasts...
2017: Cancer Cell & Microenvironment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28966917/advances-on-immunotherapy-in-genitourinary-and-renal-cell-carcinoma
#12
Gregory P Botta, Eric Granowicz, Carrie Costantini
Genitourinary (GU) cancers are a group of epithelial malignancies associated with the organs involved in the excretion of urine. Renal cell, urothelial, and prostatic carcinoma are the overwhelming subtypes diagnosed by oncologists. Each of these was traditionally treated surgically when local and non-invasive. When these carcinomas spread, invade, or metastasize, surgical control lacks in efficacy. Chemotherapeutic regimens have been implemented for decades and have increased overall survival but many patients progress...
February 2017: Translational Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28960623/multimodal-molecular-analysis-of-astroblastoma-enables-reclassification-of-most-cases-into-more-specific-molecular-entities
#13
Matthew D Wood, Tarik Tihan, Arie Perry, Geeta Chacko, Clinton Turner, Cunfeng Pu, Christopher Payne, Alexander Yu, Serguei I Bannykh, David A Solomon
Astroblastoma is a rare and controversial glioma with variable clinical behavior. The diagnosis currently rests on histologic findings of a circumscribed glioma with astroblastomatous pseudorosettes and vascular hyalinization. Immunohistochemical studies have suggested different oncogenic drivers, such as BRAF p.V600E, but very few cases have been studied using genome-wide methodologies. Recent genomic profiling identified a subset of CNS embryonal tumors with astroblastoma-like morphology that harbored MN1 gene fusions, termed "CNS high-grade neuroepithelial tumors with MN1 alteration" (CNS-HGNET-MN1)...
September 28, 2017: Brain Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28948065/genetic-alterations-of-idh1-and-vegf-in-brain-tumors
#14
Silvia Veganzones, Virginia de la Orden, Lucía Requejo, Beatriz Mediero, María Luisa González, Náyade Del Prado, Carmen Rodríguez García, Raquel Gutiérrez-González, Alvaro Pérez-Zamarrón, Armando Martínez, Marisa L Maestro, Horacio Mario Zimman, Anna González-Neira, Jesús Vaquero, Gregorio Rodríguez-Boto
BACKGROUND: This study evaluates the presence of R132H mutation in isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDH1) gene and the vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) +936 C/T polymorphism in brain tumors. The impact of these genetic alterations on overall survival (OS) and progression free survival (PFS) was evaluated. METHODS: A cohort of 80 patients surgically treated at Hospital Clínico San Carlos, Madrid, between March 2004 and November 2012, was analyzed. Tumors were distributed in 73 primary brain tumors (gliomas, meningiomas, hemangiopericytomas and hemangioblastomas) and seven secondary tumors evolved from a low grade glioma, thus providing a mixed sample...
September 2017: Brain and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28940583/molecular-genotyping-of-noninvasive-encapsulated-follicular-variant-of-papillary-thyroid-carcinoma
#15
Tae Hyuk Kim, Minju Lee, Ah-Young Kwon, Jun-Ho Choe, Jung-Han Kim, Jee Soo Kim, Soo Yeon Hahn, Jung Hee Shin, Man Ki Chung, Young Ik Son, Chang-Seok Ki, Hyun Sook Yim, Yoo-Li Kim, Jae Hoon Chung, Sun Wook Kim, Young Lyun Oh
AIM: Noninvasive encapsulated follicular variant of papillary thyroid carcinoma (FVPTC) has been managed as low-risk malignancy. Recently, a proposal was made to reclassify this tumor type as a premalignant lesion and rename it noninvasive follicular thyroid neoplasm with papillary-like nuclear features (NIFTP). However, a comprehensive study on molecular genotype-phenotype correlations of encapsulated FVPTC is lacking. METHODS AND RESULTS: This study consisted of 177 consecutive FVPTCs from January 2014 to April 2016...
September 20, 2017: Histopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28932632/local-endothelial-complement-activation-reverses-endothelial-quiescence-enabling-t-cell-homing-and-tumor-control-during-t-cell-immunotherapy
#16
Andrea Facciabene, Francesco De Sanctis, Stefano Pierini, Edimara S Reis, Klara Balint, John Facciponte, Jens Rueter, Masahiro Kagabu, Paola Magotti, Evripidis Lanitis, Robert A DeAngelis, Ronald J Buckanovich, Wenchao C Song, John D Lambris, George Coukos
Cancer immunotherapy relies upon the ability of T cells to infiltrate tumors. The endothelium constitutes a barrier between the tumor and effector T cells, and the ability to manipulate local vascular permeability could be translated into effective immunotherapy. Here, we show that in the context of adoptive T cell therapy, antitumor T cells, delivered at high enough doses, can overcome the endothelial barrier and infiltrate tumors, a process that requires local production of C3, complement activation on tumor endothelium and release of C5a...
2017: Oncoimmunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28929822/genetic-and-ethnic-modulation-of-cardiovascular-toxicity-of-vascular-endothelial-growth-factor-inhibitors
#17
Yen-Chou Chen, Cheng-Chih Chung, Yung-Kuo Lin, Yi-Jen Chen
Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) inhibitors, including monoclonal antibodies and tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs), are important as anticancer treatments through curbing tumour angiogenesis and growth. VEGF inhibitors have significant cardiovascular effects. By blocking VEGF receptors, ligands, or signal pathways, VEGF inhibitors disturb the balance between vasodilation and vasoconstriction, undermine endothelial cell integrity, and activate cardiomyocyte apoptosis. VEGF inhibitors increase risks of hypertension, heart failure, thromboembolism and arrhythmia...
September 27, 2017: Annals of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28925392/atypical-e2fs-inhibit-tumor-angiogenesis
#18
B G M W Weijts, B Westendorp, B T Hien, L M Martínez-López, M Zijp, I Thurlings, R E Thomas, S Schulte-Merker, W J Bakker, A de Bruin
Atypical E2F transcription factors (E2F7 and E2F8) function as key regulators of cell cycle progression and their inactivation leads to spontaneous cancer formation in mice. However, the mechanism of the tumor suppressor functions of E2F7/8 remain obscure. In this study we discovered that atypical E2Fs control tumor angiogenesis, one of the hallmarks of cancer. We genetically inactivated atypical E2Fs in epithelial and mesenchymal neoplasm and analyzed blood vessel formation in three different animal models of cancer...
September 18, 2017: Oncogene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28924212/chst9-rs1436904-genetic-variant-contributes-to-prognosis-of-triple-negative-breast-cancer
#19
Jupeng Yuan, Nasha Zhang, Hui Zhu, Jibing Liu, Huaixin Xing, Fei Ma, Ming Yang
Triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) refers to one aggressive histological subtype of breast cancer with high heterogeneity and poor prognosis after standard therapy. Lack of clearly established molecular mechanism driving TNBC progression makes personalized therapy more difficult. Thus, identification of genetic variants associated with TNBC prognosis will show clinic significance for individualized treatments. Our study is aimed to evaluate the prognostic value of the genome wide association study (GWAS)-identified CHST9 rs1436904 and AQP4 rs527616 genetic variants in our established early-stage TNBC sample database...
September 18, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28920957/klf4-dependent-perivascular-cell-plasticity-mediates-pre-metastatic-niche-formation-and-metastasis
#20
Meera Murgai, Wei Ju, Matthew Eason, Jessica Kline, Daniel W Beury, Sabina Kaczanowska, Markku M Miettinen, Michael Kruhlak, Haiyan Lei, Jack F Shern, Olga A Cherepanova, Gary K Owens, Rosandra N Kaplan
A deeper understanding of the metastatic process is required for the development of new therapies that improve patient survival. Metastatic tumor cell growth and survival in distant organs is facilitated by the formation of a pre-metastatic niche that is composed of hematopoietic cells, stromal cells and extracellular matrix (ECM). Perivascular cells, including vascular smooth muscle cells (vSMCs) and pericytes, are involved in new vessel formation and in promoting stem cell maintenance and proliferation. Given the well-described plasticity of perivascular cells, we hypothesized that perivascular cells similarly regulate tumor cell fate at metastatic sites...
October 2017: Nature Medicine
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